Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue № 08/2017
Contents of Issue № 08/2017
History of law and state
Smirnova-Seslavinskaya M.V. - Legislation and state policy of the Russian Empire with regards to Romani population pp. 1-21


Abstract: The object of this research is the legislation and state policy of the Russian Empire with regards to Romani population, while the subjects is the body of official acts on the Romani people, data about the norms in the case of Romani people in passport and recruitment decrees and code of punishments, as well as information about certain published and archive sources about the realization of such policy. Special attention is given to the general periodization of policy pertaining to Romani people and development of its national principles throughout the transformation process in 1760’s of the local systems of administration aimed at Romani groups in Little Russia and Sloboda Ukraine. The author carries out a comparative analysis of the codified legislation and separate legislative regulations of the Russian Empire in terms of the body of official acts mentioning Romani people with consideration of the stages of social history of the Russian Empire. The author distinguishes the acts that distribute upon the Romani people the general norms (regulating the positions of various social classes and situations in the Russian Empire) from the special laws in their regard. Scientific novelty of the work consists in determination of the specificity of Russian Empire’s policy pertaining to Romani people, and highlighting of its key stages: from treating them as people with a particular lifestyle to the compulsory sedentarization and converting into the Cossacks, as well as further liberalization of laws with limited migration within the Russian Empire, and (often formal) prohibition on nomadism. The author underlines the correlation of the stages of such policy with the periods of socioeconomic reforms of the Russian Empire. The article reveals the common mistakes in interpretation of the content of acts with regards to the Romani people, which lead to ideologizaiton of policy in their case presented in a number of publications on this matter.   
Shatilov S.P., Zarechnev D.O. - Activity of the Chekists of Altai Krai on ensuring security of transition of manufacturing industry to defense production pp. 22-29


Abstract: The object of this research is the social relations emerging in the work process of the People's Commissariat for State Security (NKGB) on ensuring security of transition of manufacturing industry to defense production during the period of Great Patriotic War. The subject of this research is the key directions of NKGB activity that suggested realization of significantly large amount of the important for wartime events aimed at ensuring security of transition of manufacturing industry to defense production. Relevance of this article is defined by the fact that until present time such historical phenomenon as converting the Soviet manufacturing industry into wartime footing alongside the fairly compressed timeframe of the conducted evacuation, remain to evoke astonishment within the public historical consciousness in Russia and abroad, becoming a special topic of historical cognition. The author for the first time examine the regional aspect of the aforementioned historical processes, namely the Chekist activities in Altai Krai pertaining to ensuring security of transition of manufacturing industry to defense production during the Great Patriotic War.  The scientific novelty lies in the authors’ attempt to comprehensively analyze the key directions of the work of NKGB on this matter, which included: preservation of possessions, fight against embezzlement, object secrecy, counteracting desertion and distribution of provocative rumors. The authors conclude that during the period of Great Patriotic War, the People's Commissariat for State Security were involved in the unusual to them objectives, actively participated in converting the national economy into wartime forint, as well as in conjunction with the corporate management adopted measures for executing the defense order. Separate departments of NKGB exercised control over the actions of chief executives and factories on putting in the evacuated enterprises restructured for the needs of wartime. It is also underlined that transition of manufacturing industry to defense production was a compulsory measure for compensating the inefficiency of work of other departments of the state apparatus under the extreme circumstances. In the course of implementation of transition of manufacturing industry to defense production were often applied the repressive methods, including the threat of holding citizens criminally accountable.
Antropov R.V., Antropova N.A. - Legal education of the Third Reich: “under the gun” of Nazi ideology pp. 30-40


Abstract: The subject of this study is the legal education of the Third Reich: its content, aims and objectives, as well as specific features as an addition to Nazi propaganda machine. The research is based on the detailed examination of the sources of German educational law of the period of German State (1933-1945) that have not been previously translated or published in the Russian science, and include educational standards, decrees of the Ministry of Education along with other departments, as well as scientific material of the German authors on Nazi doctrine, which contain commentaries to the situation established within the system of training of the lawyers throughout the period of dominance of the National Socialism. Russian scientific literature reviews the questions of legal education of the Third Reich era only in conjunction with the education in general or the system of justice. Thus, the authors attempted to eliminate the existing gap and saturate into the “Nazi stage” within the history of German legal education. The law «On the Transfer of the Administration of Justice to the Reich» of February 16, 1934 unified the legal education throughout the entire German land in the context of implementing the National Socialist principle of autocracy «the Fuhrer». Its goal consisted in upbringing of the young “law enforcement officers” as the fanatic adherers of the new regime, which is alien to the human values and preaches the racia superiority of the German nation. Such objective was reflected in the developed by Nazi ideologists new educational standards for training the lawyers in 1934 and 1939, in which nothing reminded of the old-pattern lawyer. Only after the fall of Fascism, the German system of legal education was able to return to the principles established in the era of liberalism and remained relevant to this day.
History of regions of Russia
Ershov M.F. - “Do not laugh at peas, do not be better than beans”: pedagogical conflicts in Tobolsk governorate in the late XIX – early XX centuries pp. 41-51


Abstract: The subject of this article is the conflict in pedagogical environment of Tobolsk governorate in the late XIX – early XX centuries. The author pursues the goal to determine and classify variants of interpersonal conflict within the provincial society with involvement of teachers. The causes could be different: amoral actions, discontent with the social status and financial situation, gender behavior, political and civil position of the teachers, their attitude towards execution of the professional responsibilities. All of the above resulted in a sequence of conflicts within the pedagogical community. The article applies methodologies used in research of the history of daily life and social psychology, as well as analyzes the untypical behavior and deviant actions. The scientific novelty consists in analyzing the deviant behavior of provincial pedagogues at the simple mundane level. The results of examination of historical sources testify to the fact that productivity of educational system drops due to the interpersonal conflicts, deficit in professional pedagogical personnel, conservative environment, lack of means and excessive paternalistic custody from the side of local society and the state.
Sartikova E.V. - Institutional registration of Kalmyk regional party organization (1920-1921) pp. 52-64


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the education of Kalmyk regional organization of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) since 1921, when at the first regional constitutive party conference took place its institutional registration. The author sets a goal to demonstrate the evolution of its emergence and development on the background of various historical and political circumstances. It is noted that the creation of party organization has begun after the cessation of civil war on the territory of Kalmyk region. The article examines the results of the first party conference, the key topics of which became the resolution of economic issues and fight against racketeering. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that the author comprehensively examines the work of the regional organization of Communist Party, its specificity under the particular circumstance by attracting the previously unpublished archive materials. Conclusion is made that the first Kalmyk regional conference of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) did not just institutionalize the creation of regional party organization, but also contributed into improvement of the party work at the local level. A. Chapchaev has been selected as the Executive Secretary of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks); the structure and objectives of the regional committee of the party have been approved. Based on the conducted analysis, it is underlined that the established party organization from the very beginning “obtained the features of not just political organization, but also governmental with the functions common to the state facilities of executive and oversight character”, which was practically standard for all regions during the Soviet period.
History of political and legal doctrines
Dmitriev A. - State legal ideas of the Russian Freemasons of the late XVIII – first quarter of the XIX century: questions of source study and historiography pp. 65-86


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the works of pre-Soviet, Soviet, and modern authors pertaining to the state legal ideas of Russian Freemasons of the late XVIII - first quarter of the XIX century. The study covers extensive research material published within the framework of historical, philosophical, and legal sciences, as well as in the area of culturology, philology, and political science. The article contains a literature review for the period of more than 150 years, as well as provides general description to the works of separate authors aimed at examination of Freemasonry alongside their legal and political teachings. The authorial assumptions are illustrated using the references and examples. The article carries out and chronologically classifies the selection of the main sources on the Russian Freemasonry for further legal research. Conclusion is made about the admissibility of application in the legal research of the results and conclusion made in the context of other sciences that explore the same object – the legacy of Russian Freemasonry of the late XVIII and first quarter of the XIX century.
History and Politics
Zhuravlova L., Honchar Y.B. - Space Policy of the United States in the context of cessation of the arms race pp. 87-100


Abstract: The object of this research is the space policy of the United States as one of the leading factors in the process of cessation of the arms race. The authors turn attention to a special role of the space activity of the Unite State in the process of transition from the large-scale build-up of armaments towards the constructive dialogue between two hyperpowers in the late 1980’s. Based on the guidelines of American presidents, international treaties, and extensive research, the work substantiates positive impact of the space theme in the process of détente as an efficient instrument for cultivating bilateral relations in the conditions of retention and even aggravation of the economic and military-political antagonism. The authors also actualize the role of commercial component of space policy of the United States as a tool for accessing the technical potential of countries – successors of the Soviet space program. The scientific novelty consists primarily in application of the complex approach towards examining space policy of the United States in the period of cessation of the arms race, which yet had not been a subject of study within the modern historical science. The conclusion is made that the process of détente of the late 1980’s approved and consolidated the potential of space as a ideologically and politically neutral sphere of the mutually beneficial intrastate cooperation. Space policy of the United States, not lacking in the destructive impact upon escalation of competition between the two hyperpowers, demonstrated significant potential of the positive effect upon the détente of international relations.
Culture and cultures in historical context
Bleikh N.O. - Educational activity of the Imperial officials aimed at establishment of unitary social space in North Caucasus in the early XIX century pp. 101-111


Abstract: This article examines the questions regarding the educational activity of imperial officials aimed establishment of unitary social space in North Caucasus in the early XIX century leaning on the introduced for the first time archive sources. It is noted that in the course of educational work the Caucasian administration resorted not only to the political and economic reform of the region, but also the ideological effect, which namely consisted in propaganda of the state ideas and values using the missionary organization or national education. Methodology of this research applies the philosophical provisions on correlation of social development and education, historical-social institutionalization of pedagogical thought, as well as dialectics of the general and particular. Conclusion is made that the missionary work  became an actual way for bringing together the North Caucasian peoples with Russia; and the school policy, despite the inaccuracy of Royal culture-carriers and inadaptability to the local circumstanced, led to the positive results: by the mid XIX century, the entire North Caucasus appeared to be integrated into the Russian educational space.
Auxiliary historical disciplines
Nilogov A.S., Bogdanova I.I. - To genealogy of the history of Russian historians of the XVIII-XX centuries (based on the materials of metrical books of St. Petersburg Central State Historical Archive) pp. 112-126


Abstract: This historical-genealogical research attempted to find the authentic metrical records on the birth, baptizing, death, funeral, burial of the prominent Russian historians who live in St. Petersburg in the XVIII – beginning of the XX centuries. It became possible using online access to the recently digitalized metrical books of the churches of Petrograd spiritual chancery, which are stored in the St. Petersburg Central State Historical Archive. Such illustrative biographical information can be valuable for the genealogists and historiographers for the purpose of further examination of the biographies and ancestry of the Russian historians. During the course of this work, the authors detected the records about the birth/baptizing of K. D. Kavelin (1814), L. P. Krasavin (1882), L. N. Gimilyov (1912), death/funeral/burial of M. V. Lomonosov (1765), N. M. Karamzin (1826), K. D. Kavelin (1885). Particularly, the authors were able to discover a metrical record about death of the historiographer N. M. Karamzin, whose 250th anniversary of birth was held in 2016, same as 190th anniversary since death.
Social history
Zaitsev A.V. - Social dialogue in the pre-revolutionary Russian and USSR pp. 127-141


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the institutional history of social dialogue. The author examines the key institutions of the dialogue, beginning with Ancient Rus’ and all the way until the collapse of the Soviet Union. The article indicates the main stages of evolution of the dialogue. Institutional history of the dialogue is viewed as a fight between monologism and dialogism in the field of public discourse, which affects the level of propensity towards conflict or constructivism in the context of interaction between the Russian authorities and society.  Social dialogue manifests as an imperative part of Russia’s social history. The main conclusion consists in the thesis that social dialogue played an exceptionally crucial role throughout the Russian and Soviet history. It included all of the subsequently emerged types and varieties of social dialogue, the genesis and institutionalization of which are associates with the beginning of Perestroika process.  
Beliefs, religions, churches
Pul'kin M.V. - Northern Old Believers and Russian elite of the XVIII century: problems of relationship pp. 142-148


Abstract: This article examines the essential mechanisms of adjustment of the Old Believer communities to the new situation established in Russian State of the XVIII century. It implies the refusal from the most severe forms of persecution of the Old Believers and rendering them a special legal status. The faced by society complicated economic tasks required the mobilization of efforts of the maximal number of lieges. Since now on the government considered the less radical Old Believer communities as the potential allies in resolving the administrative and economic tasks. At the same time, the reciprocal substantial changes took place within the Old Believer environment, which were aimed at justification of the need for closing with the Russian society and refusal from the most radical forms of protest against the Nikonian reforms. Hence appeared the multiple and extensive op-ed materials, which were called to explain the specificity of a new approach of the Old Believers towards connection with the new world. Methodology of this work applies the combination of historical-comparative and historical-hermeneutic method that allows tracing the peculiarities of evolution of the state policy with regards to the Old Believers. The scientific novelty consists in identification of the specific features of relations between the Northern Old Believers and the elite of Russian society. It is determined that the highest officials of the Empire symphasized with the religious dissidents. Government’s position with reference to the Old Believers became the subject of discussion within the highest government circles. However, the advantage was on the side of the pragmatically oriented administrators who were ready to compromise in the confessional questions. In turn, the Old Believers appeared to be capable of introducing the drastic changes into their eschatological views.
Issues of war and peace
Sogdanova Z.G. - Periodicals about the harm inflicted by German Fascist occupants pp. 149-156


Abstract: During the first days after the liberation from German Fascist occupation, the regional mass media published records on the sustained human losses and inflicted material damage. The provided data regarding all social spheres that suffered from the occupants carry an emotional tone justified by the human pain. The subject of this article is the periodicals of the Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and Stavropol Krai as the source of assessing the harm inflicted by the German Fascist occupants over the period of the Great Patriotic War. The key sources for writing this article became the periodicals from the National Archive of the Republic of Kalmykia and the State Archive of Stavropol Krai. Methodological basis is comprised by the dialectical and materialistic analysis of the historical events and facts published on the pages of periodicals during the post-occupational time. Thus, the periodicals, as the sources reflecting the events at the moment of their accomplishment, allow making a conclusion that policy of fascist conquerors carried mass character, and regardless of the regions and inhabiting peoples was standard, similarly rough, inhumane, barbarian, and ruthless.
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