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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "Philosophy of liberty"
Philosophy of liberty
Parkhomenko R.N. - Veritas non auctoritas facit legem* (on evolution of the concept of public sphere of J. Habermas pp. 41-51


Abstract: The subject of this research is the concept of political public sphere considered in the works of J. Habermas. The article traces the emergence of the phenomenon of political publicity, which in Habermas’ opinion, initially appears as a requirement of the developing economy of Western countries. The political public sphere affected the formation of Anglo-Saxon model of the state that implied the primate of law and rational reasoning, as well as public discussion of the relevant economic and political questions. In accordance with the indicated paradigm of political thoughts, the appropriate in the state must coincide with the just. Methodology lies in examination of the works of Habermas, including the untranslated into the Russian language and relatively unknown in Russia. The main conclusion consists in the statement that Habermas believes that the legislation in democratic state must represent not a result of political will, but based on the rational agreement of all actors of the free market. Public sphere, therewith, is called to bring more transparency into the democratic process of decision-making in the state.
Rakhmanovskaya E. - Two images of authority pp. 62-72


Abstract: The subject of this research is the hunger for power, its origins, and ways of manifestation. Lust for power is viewed as a universal, inseparable quality of human nature. It is stated that each individual initially possesses the autocratic potential, but its fulfillment depends on the path selected for self-realization: actual growth of strength, creative activity, formation of authority, or creation of simulacrum, phantom nature of power expressed in authoritarianism, use of seizure of power, compulsion and oppression as an instrument of acquisition of power. The main method of this study lies in comparing the authoritative and authoritarian types of power and determination of the essential differences. The author applies the principles and approaches of philosophical anthropology, social philosophy, and psychoanalysis. The conclusion is made that the insurmountable lust for power evolves due to the blocked realization of the initial autocratic potential. Authority from the power is not passion, but represents a task, horizon for the development of personal qualities. It enters the field of constant struggle for self-determination due to the inevitable burden of authoritarianism.
Alenevskii I.A. - Three knots in the problem of freedom of will pp. 68-76


Abstract: The subject of this research is the problem of freedom of will within the history of European thought that leads to the actual anthropological situation of modernity – trending towards posthumanism. The problem determines the three parts of knots subjected to untangling: existential, philosophical, and scientific (worldview). The key task lies in development of the adequate theoretical apparatus for the problem of freedom of will that allows detecting the actuality of human existence; collecting and retaining in multiplicity the forms and methods, in which a human shows his will (strong or weak, soft or firm, tense or wise, etc.); as well as making conclusions of worldview character on freedom. The scientific novelty consists in theoretical formulation of the problem of freedom of will that is capable to determine the multiplicity of forms, corresponds to reality that makes a human to grasp and show his will. The character of these forms testifies to the turbulence or crisis of willful consciousness. Unlike the metaphysics that ascribes to free will of a human the universal normative form of the moral law (Kant) or moral responsibility (modern analytical discussions), the article determines the existential part of the problem, which allows structuring the philosopheme of free will and unraveling its distinct theoretical form and practical implementation that can have aesthetic, ethical, and political dimensions.  
KOZHUKHOVSKIY P.S. - Recognition and cultural deformation of personality in Nancy Fraser’s philosophy pp. 77-82


Abstract: The subject of this research is such aspect of social philosophy as the philosophy of recognition. Over the two recent decades, a growing number of the philosophers and political scientists started considering the recognition of personality a promising basis for participation in the moral criticism of social life. Nancy Fraser utters strong doubts regarding the critical potential of the personality recognition theories due to the fact that they encourage the simplification of personal identity to cultural identity. The article attempts to demonstrate the drastic distinction between Nancy Fraser’s philosophy and philosophy of other representatives of the problematic of recognition. The study applies the hermeneutic methodology; problem-thematic analysis and interpretation of material; structural-functional, historical, and comparative-historical methods. The main conclusion of the conducted research consists in the relevance of problematic set by Nancy Fraser. Unfortunately, the modern Russian philosophical thought does not give proper attention to the problem of recognition, although in the West, such problematic is quite popular and one of the most discussed.
KOZHUKHOVSKIY P.S. - Axel Honneth’s concept of three dimensions pp. 91-104


Abstract: The subject of this research is the theory of the “struggle for recognition” of Axel Honneth, a prominent representative of the modern liberal thought. This work explores the main idea of Axel Honneth’s theory, in which he mentions about the existence of the three spheres of dimension within the phenomenon of recognition – existence as an emotional, normative (ideological-rational), and social recognition. We should note that this topic carries a relevant character in the modern philosophy and is examined by many scholars in Russia and abroad. The main conclusion consists in the actualization of the problematics presented by Axel Honneth. Unfortunately, the modern Russian philosophy does not give due attention to this subject of study, although in the West the problem of recognition is a very popular, as well as one of the most debatable topics today.
Parkhomenko R.N. - Habermas' Discursive Concept of Freedom pp. 117-148


Abstract: The article is devoted to the prerequisites of Jurgen Habermas' theory of society as well as his idea of deliberative democracy that is based on the discursive agreement of all members of the society on vital social issues. Opposed to the classical interpretation of democracy, Habermas' consensus principle states that laws and regulations are legitimate not because they are mandatory for all individuals but because these laws and regulations are willingly accepted by all members of the society. In the classical theory of demoracy laws and regulations must be willingly accepted by individuals because they are just and fair, while Habermas' principle of justice is based on the democratic principle that these laws and regulations are accepted by all individuals concerned. Therefore, grounds for accepting a law or regulation are created not by practical reason or theoretical research but by open discussion of all members of the society. As an addition to the article, you shall also find Jurgen Habermas' brief biography and an extensive list of references. 
Parkhomenko R.N. - Genesis of the Idea of Freedom in Western European Philosophy pp. 179-210
Abstract: The author of the article traces back the formation and development of the idea of freedom in Antique, Medieval and New European Philosophies up to Descartes' ideas. The analysis shows that modern definition of the ide of freedom as well as the ideas of law, justice and civil society are based on Antique and Medieval philosophies. Following philosophies and political studies only develop theoretical categories and application of these categories in formation of modern democratic states. 
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