Philosophical Thought - rubric Philosophy of history
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "Philosophy of history"
Philosophy of history
Korolev S.A. - Secularization and Desecularization in Terms of the Concept of Pseudomorphic Development of Russia pp. 1-54


Abstract: The article is devoted to studying the interaction between the processes of secularization and desecularization in historical retrospective and in the modern world. The author makes an attempt to rethink the relevant processes in terms of the pseudomorphosis and pseudomorphic inversion. Particular attention is paid to the processes of secularization and desecularization in post-Soviet Russia and to the forms and mechanisms of desecularization at the beginning of the XXI century. The author concludes that the aggressive Soviet secularism wasn’t replaced by trend of desecularization directly. Brutal atheism gave its place to a model of civilized secular society. It is only since the beginning of the 2000s desecularization began to gain strength. In Russia, this trend was not only a sign of the global movement to the "post-secular society", but a manifestation of the classical pseudomorphic inversion.
Zhdanov V.L. - The philosophy of history of Arnold J. Toynbee in the context of the global world changes pp. 1-6


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the stages of civilizational development, including the transition from barbarian to ecumenical in accordance with the historical model of A. J. Toynbee, as well as the assessment of the modern globalizational trends. The subject of this research is the philosophy of history of Arnold J. Toynbee and the questions of correspondence of religion and culture in the context of the formation and development of civilizations. Special attention is given to peculiarities and importance of Toynbee’s civilizational conflict in light of the ongoing globalizational processes worldwide. The author explores the dangers that may be caused by Westernization (being the carrier of technocratic principles), as well as globalization overall. Research methodology includes the analysis of specific features of Toynbee’s philosophy of history and determination of the significance of religion and culture in the process of formation of civilization. The main conclusion lies in the statement that the philosophy of history of A. J. Toynbee is a useful theoretical framework that allows assessing tactical and strategic forecasts in the context of globalization. Retention of the inner values along with acceptance of borrowings from foreign cultures for their soft assimilation opens an opportunity for the state to bypass the stage of crisis and raises the chances for preserving the basis of cultural identity.
Glushchenko G.Y. - History versus memory: to the problem of interrelation between history and memory pp. 37-50


Abstract: The object of this research is the collective memory as an important aspect of historical consciousness. The subject is the problem of interrelation between history and collective memory. The article examines the essential aspects of history and memory. The goal of the work consists in characterizing the principal forms of interaction between history and memory, determination of the most common to present time form of such interaction, as well as exploring the question of regularities of historical consciousness due to the problem of historical time and oblivion. The author analyzes various methods of interaction of the indicated realms: historical consciousness as a specific case of memory (Collingwood), history as a way of retaining the relevant for today images of memory (Halbwachs), history as a form of cultural memory (Assmann). In this case, memory enriches the historical consciousness with the value orientations; history realigns the entirety of existing memories. Cultural memories has a connective structure that links the past and present, the key function of which is repetition. History becomes the cultural-historical narrative with supporting function; the substantiated recorded history – is a situation when the countries, nations, and groups comprehend themselves through specific experience. The key function of memory lies in transforming of such experience into the narrative affected by the variations in memory framework. Thus, it is a reliable fact that certain powers of history are active within a particular historical period. History is an attempt to restore the missing and distorted, which is impossible without the worldview and culture of society; while memory performs a task of restoring the spirit of the era. The article suggests the principle of complementarity – memory and history complement one another, correlating separate facts and events with images and symbols; as well as research the phenomenon of historical culture that leans on the analysis of phenomena in the context of the experience of historical mentalities, where the captured images manifests as the interpretational models of the world.
Tsygankov A. - Everyday Life and Historical Events: Cultural and Anthropological Roots of Myth History In Traditional and New European Socieities pp. 39-48


Abstract: In the article the explication of the cultural and anthropological bases of a mythologization of historical events, in traditional and new European societies in their genetic interrelation with activity of public and historical consciousness is carried out. The analysis of phenomenology of perception by consciousness of society of the phenomena of human life in the world including everyday life and historical events is realized, specifics of similar perception in a discourse of traditional and new European cultures come to light. Special attention is paid to a question about particular relations between myth history, historical events and everyday life in public consciousness.By means of use of a phenomenological method the conceptualization of such phenomena as everyday life and histrorical events is realized, and also their interrelation with process of formation of myth history is analyzed. It is pointed out that mythological interpretation of the past by public consciousness in traditional and new European societies is interconnected with perception of phenomena of everyday life and historical events is made. The phenomenon of everyday life in culture of traditional society is constantly substituted for historical events that leads to a full mythologization of the whole world. In consciousness of the new European society, on the contrary, the aspiration to the elimination of surprise and the associated phenomenon of everday life is observed.
Demin I.V. - Understanding of history as integrity in the perspective of the classical and neoclassical philosophy pp. 47-90


Abstract: This article explores the problem of understanding of history as integrity in the perspective of metaphysical and post-metaphysical historico-philosophical reflection. The author determines the main approaches towards the problem of unity of the history, as well as analyzes interpretations and solutions of this problem presented in the works of Hegel, B. Croce, L. Karsavin, O.Spann, and P. Veyne. A special attention is given to the analysis and comparison of the various ways of understanding of the unity of historical process in the context of classical philosophy of history. The author distinguishes the notions of the “integrity of history” and the “completeness of history”; it is demonstrated that the apprehension of history as integrity is possible without implying the idea of the “completeness of history”. In the context of classical (metaphysical) philosophy of history, the unity of the historical process is provided due to the differentiation of the two levels of historical events: ontological history, which identifies with the logic of history, and the empirical history. In post-metaphysical philosophy, the possibility of conceptual understanding of the world history as integrity is denied; what is accepted, is just the multiplicity of unrelated events.
Gashkov S.A. - Cornelius Castoriadis reforms the philosophy of history pp. 50-58


Abstract: The subject of this research is the social heritage of the prominent French philosopher Cornelius Castoriadis (1922-1997). The authors gives special attention to the plots of his works that are referred to the problem of such philosophical interpretation of the historical process, in which a human would not resemble an alienated subject, but rather a conscious, creative being. On this path, the philosopher meets Marxism, existentialism of Sartre, and structuralism of Lévi-Strauss, which he critically comprehends, upholding his kindred principles related to the Greek democratic traditions. He critically rejected scientism, naturalism, individualism, Eurocentrism, functionalism, positivism and determining, which in his opinion, eclipse the true content of all of the three methodologies. The author reviews a number of theses and text of Castoriadis, comparing with the text of some representatives of Marxism (Lenin, Plekhanov), existentialism (Sartre), and structuralism (Lévi-Strauss, Foucault, Althusser). The scientific novelty consists in the attempt to present Castoriadis as a so-called reformer of the philosophy of history. He configures not only as a successive critic of Marxism, existentialism and structuralism, but also as an independent thinker who revived the fading interest to the philosophy of history. The main conclusion is defined by the fact that the works of Castoriadis represents a cycle of studies on the philosophy of history, and in the center of the live historical process is a creative group of people a monolith of the “magma” of social reality and social ideality.
Matveichev O.A. - Anacharsis. Wise because Scythian pp. 53-61


Abstract: This article gives special attention to Anacharsis – one of the most mysterious and contradictory persona of the Ancient Greek history. Despite many surviving testimonies on the life of a remarkable Scythian and fragments of his doctrine, many researchers still have doubts about the historicity of this character. The popular in Antiquity image of Anacharsis as a “Wiseman-savage” who avoided the decaying influence of civilization is being formed in the works of Ephorus and the Cynics, and later in the works of Diodorus, Plutarch, Aelian, and Lucian. Ephorus made Anacharsis one of the Seven Sages, which endows him with the status of one of the founders of philosophy. Perhaps the image of Anacharsis was used for the purpose of allegorical propaganda, namely to magnify the Athens. The author concludes that Anacharsis’ philosophy differs from the contemporary to him Greek philosophy and reveals him as an alien from a different civilization; it demonstrates the motives characteristic to Indo-European mentality and mythology. It is also important to understand that Anacharsis influence upon the Greek philosophy was highly significant; and reflected in the works of Cynics, Sophists, Plato, and Aristotle. Thus we can conclude that directly or indirectly, Anacharsis’ doctrine compiles the foundation of the Greek, as well as the Western philosophy, and due to this fact it requires a more detailed attention of the researchers.
Belyaev V.A. - Mikhail Petrov's 'Historical Anthropocentrism' and the Project-Anthropological Logic of the European History pp. 63-186


Abstract: This work is an analytical commentary on the book by M. K. Petrov "Language. Sign. Culture". Petrov belongs to the generation of Soviet philosophers of the second half of the twentieth century. The central idea of his philosophy is the 'scientizing' of the society. When implementing this program, Petrov, on the one hand, introduces the idea of the structural subject of different cultural worlds - the social code. Based on this concept he distinguishes European culture from non-European culture. On the other hand, he introduces the idea of the "disciplinary structure" of science that expresses the structural anthropological subject of the European world demonstrated in the concept of "social code". The European social code views an individual person as an innovative-universal being, i.e. having the right to innovation and participation in the world construction in general. Combining the genesis of the European world with the disciplinary structure of modern science, Petrov achieves the two tasks. The first task is to descibe the genesis of European culture as a transition from "traditional" culture to the European social code. The second task is to construct the transition from the disciplinary structure of philosophy over theology to science. Implementation of the second task of Petrov is the main object of criticism in this work. The author emphasizes that the manner in which Petrov goes to the disciplinary structure of science and the understanding of this structure deproblematize the anthropological logic of European history. Instead of talking about European history as the history of the production and critics of the world projects ( first of all, projects of man), Petrov explores the logic of "disciplinary continuity" of philosophy, theology and science. As a result, the logic of the fault of European history between the middle ages and the modern period is pushed aside. Although it is, in the author's opinion, should be placed at the centre of attention when defining the essence of the fundamental structures of modern European world in general and science in particular. Exploring the logic of this fault, it is also possible to significantly complicate the notion of science, to put it in connection with the new European anthropological projects and come to understand the position of Petrov as one of the actualization of this project in the context of the struggle with the "closeness" of the totalitarian-authoritarian system.
Gizha A.V. - Ontology of subject of a historical action: paradigmatic exhaustiveness of the past and variations of the future pp. 64-74


Abstract: This article examines the formation of ontology of human world, which carries a historical-paradigmatic character. The structure of philosophical discourse that has a triadic form of realization was previously specified. The author indicates a noticeable discrepancy between the achieved concretion of a philosophical thought and its practical demand in society. This, in turn, leads to an inevitable one-sidedness and deficiency of the thought itself alongside the social practice, when development of societies is defined by the increscent dominant matrix-paradigmatic aggressiveness and general deception. This is namely the form of ontological obscurity, which intensifies prior to the historical liberation or dawn. The author asserts the semantic exhaustiveness of the existing paradigmatic foundation of historical-civilizational movement, which carries a natural character. Exit into the humanistically sensible future is possible by the virtue of shifting towards the paradigm of human  existence, which is intelligible in the context of rational practice. Outside the subject application of its theorizations, philosophy cannot consider its action accomplished, but currently it is not even on the agenda.  
Demin I.V. - Heinrich Rickerts philosophy of history: between metaphysics and post-metaphysics pp. 65-82


Abstract: This article analyzes the philosophical-historical concept of Heinrich Rickert, as well as identifies the difficulties and contradictions faced by this concept. Special attention is given to the question about Rickert’s concept in the context of classical and nonclassical historiosophical teachings. It is demonstrated that the Rickert’s philosophy of history became one of the first attempts to overcome the classical (speculative) historiosophy of Hegelian type. Distancing from Hegelian metaphysics, Rickert was trying to avoid the two extremes in understanding of history naturalism and historicism (relativism). However, if naturalism in historical writing is actually being overcome by postulating the two irreducible to each other methods of comprehending reality (generalizing and individualizing), then avoding the historical relativism for Rickert is possible only through the return to the ontological model of speculative type, The experience of philosophical conceptualization of history within the framework of Neo-Kantian concept of H. Rickert shows that the logical analysis of the structure of historical knowledge, even complemented by the philosophical theory of values, does not allow solving the essential questions on nonclassical philosophy of history. The methodology of “reference to the values” cannot go without ontology, in other words, the representations about nature and specificity of historical existence.
Demin I.V. - The problem of historical identity in the philosophy of Frank Ankersmit pp. 75-88


Abstract: This article examines the F. Anfkersmit’s concept of historical identity, as well as determines its main approaches towards the identity conceptualization within the modern philosophy of history. The author clarifies the correlation between the notions “historical identity” and “sociocultural identity”, and also defines the place of the concept of “elevated historical experience” in the context of post-metaphysical historical philosophical reflection. Special attention is given to the role of oblivion in the process of changing the sociocultural identity. The content of the notions “memory”, “oblivion”, and “trauma” is being revealed within the framework of the problematics of identity. The author pursues parallels between the interpretation of identity of a subject in Ankersmit’s philosophy and the phenomenological philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre. Unlike the constructivist theories of sociocultural identity, in Ankersmit’s concept the identity of a subject is not constituted via the description of history, but rather logically and ontologically precedes any forms of historiographical representations. Identity is not a construct, but a direct given. The elevated historical experience which reveals to the historical subject its unlikeness, is the experience of an irreversible gap between the past (previous identity) and the present (new identity).
Demin I.V. - Criticism of historicism in philosophy of Leo Strauss pp. 79-90


Abstract: This article examines and analyzes the motives, grounds, and directions of the criticism of historicism in philosophical concept of Leo Strauss. The author determines and organizes the basic arguments proposed by Strauss against the principle of historicism. All objections made by Strauss are divided into two groups: the first includes the arguments that contest not the very content of the principle of historicism, but the attributed to it methodological meaning in the context of philosophical  and scientific cognition; the second includes the conceptual (general philosophical and worldview) objections against historicism. Strauss views historicism as a challenge faced by the modern philosophy. According to Strauss, the key role in development of the classical philosophical tradition and establishment of the concepts of historicity, played the consolidated in modern age idea of progress. Strauss assembles all of the major objections and arguments that were expressed against historicism by the representatives of various philosophical trends of the XX century. Personal contribution of Strauss into the criticism of historicism consists in substantiation of the thesis that this principle cannot have the historical and empirical explanation, but represents an inward controversial philosophical ideology. He conclusively demonstrated that the position of historicism cannot be confuted by the historical facts and arguments, but rather rejected for the sake of some other (not less fundamental than historicism) philosophical principle.
Korolev S.A. - On the Issue of mongolization of Rus pp. 81-106


Abstract: The author examines the issue of the Mongol supremacy and its influence upon the development of Russia. The article presents various points of view on this issue that exist within the philosophical and historical literature, including the concepts of the ideologist of Eurasianism. The aspects of derivation of the Mongol models of government are being reviewed; we should note the presence of certain lag, which is substantiated by the fact that Moscovian rulers could understand the Mongol technologies in its entirety only after the liberation from the Mongol yoke. The author critically analyzes the version about the dominant influence of Byzantine Empire on the development of post-Mongol Rus’. The differentiation of the notions “state”, “authority”, and “governing techniques” lies in the foundation of this research. This allows showing a real derivation of the Mongol governing techniques by the Moscovian rulers. The author comes to a conclusion about the evidence of mongolomorphic pseudomorph – overlapping of the Horde-era matrixes of governance with the Russian society and institutions. This process had an extremely negative and long-lasting effect upon the development of Rus’. The Byzantine ideology was primarily used to legitimize the mongolomorphic system of governing techniques.
Demin I.V. - Principle of historicism in the context of classical philosophy pp. 84-98


Abstract: This article examines the main interpretations of the principle of historicism in the context of classical philosophy of history: “romantic” historicism, Hegelian historicism, and Marxist historicism. It is demonstrated that the principle of historicism has the constitutive meaning for the philosophical historical reflection, however, in various versions of the philosophy of history, such principle attaint different and at times incompatible with each other interpretations. Namely such representation of the principle of historicism in many ways substantiates the specificity of one or another concrete version of the philosophy of history. Historicism can be combined and/or contradict the other fundamental principles of European philosophy and science – substantialism, transcendentalism, teleologism, determinism, objectivism, reductionism, universalism, and presentism. Classical historicism represents a fundamental ideology of the metaphysical (speculative) philosophy of history, the paradigmatic examples of which are the theories of the historical process of Hegel and Marx. The following key features are inherent to the classical historicism: linear conception of time, idea of development (progress), finalistic determinism and teleologism, presumption of existence of the universal regularities of historical development.
Prokhorov M.M. - Historical Definition of Being pp. 99-165
Abstract: The present article continues the topic started in the article "Being and History: Relation and Definition". The article focuses on the historical definition of being. From this point of view, being is viewed as human history, i.e. human activity aimed at reaching certain goals and targets. The author of the article describes contradictions of historical being that are presented as the confrontation between humanism and inhuman manifestations in history and touches upon humanistic concepts developed by Socrates, Marx, Solovyev and Jaspers. At the same time the author of the article traces back the opposite trend leading to the "sunset" or "the end" of history. In this regard the author describes existence of the mankind "under boundary conditions". One of the forms of such 'boundary existence' is the phenomenon of liminality that has passed all the way from ancient initiation rites to the Nazi forced labor camps. Particular section of the article is devoted to the analysis of the radical constructivist attitude towards being. 
Korobkova Y.E. - 'Eschatological' Nature of the Russian Religious Philosophy of History in the First Quarter of the XXth Century pp. 149-169


Abstract: The object of the present research article is justification of the idea of history as the anthropomorphic process that was famous in Russian philosophy of the first quarter of the XXth century. The subject of the research is the Russian religious philosophy of history of the first quarter of the XX century. The problem of sense of history in the Russian religious philosophy of this period is considered within orthodox metaphysics. The sense of history consists in the movement of mankind to God. Development of human history is understood as the two-uniform process assuming the movement of God to the person and the person to God. The point of intersection of these two movements  is the Christ's Manifestation which is defined as the "basic fact" of history: the history goes to the fact of the Manifestation of Christ and from the fact of Christ's Manifestation. The Manifestation specifies the sense and appointment of the person and mankind in general - the Kingdom of Heaven. Implementation of sense of history within this world is denied since full "transformation" of the world can't be achieved. The research methods ued by the author of the article include analytical and comparative methods. The main conclusions of the author when conducting a comparative analysis of the concepts of history by N. Berdyaev, S. Frank, E. Trubetskoy and S. Bulgakov are that all of them argue within classical orthodox understanding of sense of history as the anthropomorphic movement of human towards the end of history, i.e. the Kingdom of Heaven. All specified philosophers of history represent this movement not as passive, and as the active movement by the end of history – "transformation" of the world. Oppositions between eschatological understanding, on the one hand, and active changing the world (as S. Frank positioned himself), with another, here not. The "End" of history is understood, how death of all angry and "absorption" in eternity of all "kind" in the world. The movement towards the Kingdom of Heaven assumes active opposition to the evil, transformation of the world into a hell. The evil can't be destroyed but only "it is changed and brightened up", "is forced out by power of good", from here - a world hristianization through "injection of powers of love and good fortune".  The novelty of article is caused by the fact that the author offers the system analysis of the basic provisions of the idea of history as the movements towards the end, i.e. the Kingdom of Heaven, as a general idea for the Russian religious philosophy of history.
Fatenkov A.N. - The present past: literary and philosophical sketches of post-revolutionary Russia pp. 212-243


Abstract: This article interprets the content and methodology of literary and philosophical sketches of post-revolutionary Russia from the perspective of existential realism as expounded by Walter Benjamin and Louis-Ferdinand Céline. Its focus is the idea that European intellectuals, with their negative attitudes to the bourgeois social order, were overly critical in their perception of Soviet reality. Correlation with historical evidence verifies the author's understanding of the past and the present, and emphasizes priority of the existential over the social in human nature. The article ends with a philosophical and literary response to "Requiem", Yuri Mikhailov's book of metaphysical prose in which the life and work of MA Bulgakov is used as a prism through which the fate of Russia is sympathetically analyzed.
Sizemskaya I.N. - A.I. Gerzen and the problem of variability of the historical process pp. 229-262


Abstract: This article looks at the key points of A.I. Gerzen's historico-philosophical views about "uncombed improvisation of history", about the problem of variability of the historical process and the impact of coincidence and purposeful human actions on this process. These ideas are interpreted by the author in relation to modern socio-philosophical knowledge.
Ursul A.D. - Futurization as a Temporal Phenomenon pp. 426-470


Abstract: The author draws our attention to the fact that permanent interest to studies of the future has been enhanced by the adoption and development of the sustainable development strategy. The article deals with the concept of tempo world (in various interpretations) and temporal integrity as a system-synergetic relationship of the past, present and future.  Futurization and retrospection processes and their accelerated form of the examples of biological and cosmological evolution. Proposes a process of accelerated flow of time in the future at the inflationary stage of the Big Bang inflationary futurization counting process. "Temporality inflation" can be thought of as an extremely rapid, incredibly fast advance the future as other time period and possibly spatial expansion. Inflationary stage of the Big Bang at a rapid pace as a "simulated" and to some extent, "anticipated" that began to be made in the future of the Universe in a much slower pace in the global (universal) evolution. This correspondence can be interpreted as the presence of anticipatory reflection in the development of the Universe, where the processes are fundamentally futurization way as preservation of existing forms of material systems and their evolutionary continuation.
Alekhina E.V. - Cosmological Aspect of the Meaning of Life in Russian Religious Philosophy (End of XIX - First Half of XX Century) pp. 545-589


Abstract: The author of the article studies a religious approach to the problem of the meaning of world and human existence. Religious approach values spiritual bases of the Universe, unique and absolute value of life, divine origin of life and ultimate destiny of human. The meaning of life has much to do with the question about the world origins, the main principles of the Universe and hierarchy of the visible world. Creationism created the grounds for the Russian philosophers to understand the meaning and purpose of the Universe. Creationism was opposed to evolutionism, in other words, it was a  transcendental but not immanent principle (approach) to the Universe. This or that scenario of world and human origins contains (or does not contain) the purpose, meaning of the world and human existence. Having faced the fact that human civilization can eventually come to the end, post-classical philosophy in XX century turned to 'new ontology', i.e. understanding of life as a spiritual phenomenon and a 'life world'. Russian philosophy during the first half of XX century developed in the same direction, too. Based on the principles of cosmic consciousness and christocentrism, Russian philosophers showed the unity of the world and human existence, natural philosophy and philosophical anthropology, philosophy and science. 
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