Philosophical Thought - rubric Political philosophy
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "Political philosophy"
Political philosophy
Zaitsev A.V. - Pilosophy of Dialogue and Dialogics of Civil Society: Origins and Nature pp. 1-53
Abstract: The present article discusses the ancient origins of dialogics of civil society  as a form of discursive search for truth  by socially active citizens of the Greek polis. Along with the tradition of Socratic dialogue, the article also considers discursive practices of the sophistic and agonistic dialogue. The author of the article also describes  "dialogical turn" and retreat into philosophical reflection from the analysis of the subject - object relation to understanding the subject - object interaction, from monologue to dialogue in the form of intersubjective communication. These philosophical grounds create the theory and methods for rethinking the democratic practices of interaction between the state institution and civil society. This provides the basis for formation of a new branch of philosophical and political knowledge which the author called "dialogics of civil society". 
Borisenkov A.A. - On political consciousness pp. 1-29


Abstract: This article examines political consciousness as a special kind of consciousness, one which reveals its nature and close connection with political knowledge. It also proposes a definition of the term and focuses on the necessity to separate political consciousness from ideological consciousness, and thus from the ideologies associated with it. This helps to overcome misconceptions in relation to prevailing political consciousness. Different types of political knowledge, and the contradictions that exist in their classification, are also analyzed.
Erokhov I. - Supremacy of theoretical thought over practical thought in Plato's political philosophy pp. 13-36


Abstract: Based on the example of Plato’s political philosophy, this article explores the phenomenon of supremacy of theoretical thought over practical thought, which is a universal trait of the classical Ancient Greek philosophical systems. The first part of the articled indicates the conceptual similarity of the two-level systems of knowledge of Plato and Aristotle in the role that theory plays in relation to practical thought. The second part of the article reconstructs the concept of Plato's philosophy of politics, outlines the key political strategies he dealt with, and provides analytical reconstruction of the democratic theory of politics, oligarchic and civil-political, where the latter is the reflection of Plato’s original political views. The final part is dedicated to the method of Plato's political philosophy. Analysis of the context of using the term “theory” by Plato allows reconstructing the key methodological characteristic of Plato's model of theoretical philosophy. The article also provides the typology of practical knowledge, and substantiates the reasons according to which the political philosophy, as one of the types of practical knowledge, had to adhere to the theoretical prescriptions that fully determined the content of political reflection. The paper reveals the central practical task of philosophical theory, which by Plato's plan was intended to cease the political strife in Athens using true knowledge. The thesis is substantiated that using theory, Plato sought to complete the history of practical politics and subsequently shift towards building the “ideal state” based on the laws that are mandatory for all citizens of the polis. The article also discloses the principles of complex interrelation of the three Socratic methods: irony, dialectics and maieutics, which in Plato's political philosophy manifested as a single complex method. It is demonstrated that the method fulfills a bonding function between theory and practice, which allows transferring the theoretical truth to the sphere of practical problems of politics.
Tselykovskiy A.A. - Political Messianism as the Basis of the Russian Imperial Myth pp. 13-25



Abstract: The subject of this study is the content, structure, and functions of the imperial political myth. The relevance of the research topic is dictated by the current political situation. In the conditions of growing global political tension and confrontation between Russia and Western countries, accompanied by information and memorial wars, the problem of searching for spiritual and value bases of modern Russian public consciousness arises. Myth, as a social phenomenon, has a powerful meaning-forming potential. Therefore, the practical significance of analyzing the processes of myth-making is to obtain effective tools for managing social processes. The imperial myth is a stable set of political myths rooted in the national culture and largely predetermining the specifics of political traditions. The process of formation of the imperial myth was considered in its historical dynamics at different stages of the Russian state existence. For this purpose, comparative-historical analysis, interdisciplinary analysis, systemic and holistic approach, as well as the principles of the dialectical method were used. The analysis suggests that the imperial myth is based on political messianism. The phenomenon of political messianism is a set of socio-political myths that form an idea of the special position of a nation and assert the existence of its special historical mission, as well as set vectors for the development of political practice. The Messianic imperial myth played a major role in the process of formation and consolidation of the unified Russian state. Later it underwent various transformations. In modern Russian political practice the imperial messianic myth again acquires the status of one of the main elements. Understanding the specifics of modern mythmaking practice with the help of the concept "imperial myth" allows us to take a new look at the political sphere and identify its inherent tendencies.
Chizhkov S. - B. N. Chicherin on the freedom, law, and constitutional question in Russia pp. 24-40


Abstract: The subject of this research is the transformation of the political and philosophical-legal concept of B. N. Chicherin throughout 1870’s. During these years, Chicherin was an active participant of discussions related to the further constitutional development of Russia. The confrontation between the liberal and democratic concepts of future constitution, as well as the entire complex of questions pertaining to the questions of development of political rights and freedoms and formation of the representative government, all of these became the subject for Chicherin’s major work “The Constitutional Question in Russia”. A special attention is given to the analysis of such changes within the political philosophy of Chicherin that took place during these years. Within the framework of this research the author demonstrates the evolution of Chicherin’s political concept towards the more gradual liberalism. The concept of gradual transition of Russian to the representative government based on the reformation of already existing government authority (the State Council) is being analyzed during the course of this research. This work also shows that Chicherin’s new concept of political life is aimed at consolidation of the truth within public relations.
Bazaluk O.A. - The theory of war and peace pp. 28-52


Abstract: The subject of this research is the theory of war and peace. In the author’s opinion, the problem of war and peace originates in the nature of a human – in his psyche. This is namely why the empirical and theoretical basis of this research consists of the facts and regularities: a) neurosciences, psychology, and social philosophy; b) geophilosophy; c) war history and military science. The author sequentially solves two issues during the course of this work: determines the axiomatics of the theory of war and peace, as well as formulates its main statements. As the regular manifestations of the complicated structure and functions of the neuronic ensembles of subconsciousness and consciousness, war and peace are ways of achieving the regulatory compromise between the manifestations of active beginning, which initially lays in human psyches, and the influence of the external environment – the natural selection; between the complicated demands of the psy-space – totality of psyches on the Earth scale and the ability of their satisfaction; between the proclaimed idea that unites the psy-space, and the possibility of its realization. The war and peace regulate the qualitative contents and manifestations of the psy-space: the quantity of psyches, the structure of which predisposes aggression, is decreasing; while the quantity of psyches, the manifestations of which are aimed at integration and cooperation, is increasing. The European history of the XX – early XX centuries is a vivid example of how the complicated structure and functions of the psyche have changed the qualitative content and manifestations of the psy-space of the Earth by the virtue of war and peace.
Podolskiy V. - Philosophy of social policy in Europe of the XVI century on the example of works of the Spanish thinker Juan Luis Vives pp. 28-44


Abstract: The object of this research is the European thought in the area of social policy in the early XVI century. The subject of this research is the ideas of Spanish philosopher Juan Luis Vives (1492-1540) on helping to people in need. The article reviews the stance on social policy of the Spanish humanist Juan Luis Vives. His thoughts are analyzed in the context of the contemporary to him doctrines of the founders of Protestantism – Martin Luther, Ulrich Zwingli and Jean Calvin, as well as practices formed in the continental Europe and England in the XVI century. The teachings of theologians and philosophers of the XVI century are relevant within the framework of studying social policy from the perspective of ideas, as well as the history of institutions. The comparative-historical approach was applied for studying the practices in the area of social policy and their evolution. A discourse analysis is used for examination of Vives’ basic postulates alongside the ideas of the key philosophers of that time. The following conclusions were made: 1) despite the fact that a number of authors expressed similar ideas, Juan Luis Vives can be called the first theoretician of the social state 2) the establishment of social policy in the research literature is usually associated with Protestantism, but the theory was developed by the Catholic Vives, and the practical measures were implemented by the Catholic kings Carlos and Francis 3) Vives expressed the paramount idea of social policy – the state should prevent from marginalization of citizens in order to maintain social stability. At the same time, marginalization is caused by both, absence of help to the people in need or unwise rendering of assistance, which accustoms to idleness.
Garshin N.A. - Phenomenon of ideology in the context of crisis of the symbolic pp. 34-45


Abstract: The subject of this research is the existence of classic ideologies (conservatism, liberalism, socialism, and nationalism) in modern world and their interaction with the coeval social movements and ideas in the context of crisis of the symbolic. The article raises the question about fate of the phenomenon of ideology, necessity of certain changes within the space of discourse of the ideologies and modern social movements. Special attention is given to the correspondence of modernized ideologies to its principles, factors of rise and decline under the current conditions. Relevance of this work consists in the fact that due to the indicated above properties of ideology, alongside the old, firmly established ideologies, emerge the new ones, the status of which has not yet been fully clarified, so is their role and impact upon the local and global sociopolitical processes. At the same time, due to the growing importance of mass media and Internet, similar phenomena and social movements deserve and demand particular attention, because in the current tense political situation, one or another actions in one part of the planet are able to provoke chain reaction around the globe.
Voropaev D. - Civilizational process in the West and East pp. 37-51


Abstract: The subject of this research is the civilizational process in the West and East (China). Attention is given to the sociocultural phenomena that aligns West and East, particularly: the substitution of anthropocentric discourse with cosmocentrism in the sphere of ethics, religion, and ideology; flattering of cognitive landscape of the consumer society; techniques of total control and mental manipulation; post-liberal dismantlement of personal life, private property, and welfare state in absence of the referent USSR. The article underlines the proximity of the Western technological innovation system to the matrix of a specific symbolic mentality. The research is conducted from the perspective of civilizational approach, principle of linguistic determinism, with help of the methodology of structuralism, as well as method of aesthetic verification of K. Lenontyev’s ideological doctrines. The author introduced into the discourse of humanitarian disciplines the term of co-involution of the two dominant civilizations: in the long view of coexistence based on the relative symbolic reality – in cognitive terms for China as primary, and secondary for the West. The risks of “student” to China strategy are substantiated, which associate with the expanding layer of bilinguals and possible scenario of civilizational “gift” to the world in case of the language reform analogous to Japan.
Myurberg I. - Ideology matters: European political philosophy in pursuit of ideological concept of the XXI century pp. 39-59


Abstract: Marxist understanding of ideology as a “false consciousness” should be recognized as most influential (in retrospective assessment) among classical theories of ideology of the XIX and XX centuries. The problem of overcoming this understanding substantiates current situation of distrust of the institution of ideology itself. The goal of this research consists in demonstration of fundamental novelty of certain methods of formation of the renewed political ideology that replace Marxist ideology. The establishing new perspective to some extent originates with the political and philosophical classics of the XX century. The starting point of this research is the fact that since the middle of the previous century, the ideology was perceived as one of the most problematic fields of the Western European political thought. The author examines the theoretical-methodological approaches of M. Foucault, enhanced with the method of morphological analysis. Applicable to the problem of modernization of ideology, the goal traced by Foucault lied in determination of the historically specific “discourse order” opposed to neoliberal polymorphism as the political “art of governance” (“the birth of biopolitics”). This approach suggests following the principle of self-criticism in philosophical cognition of ideology alongside other principles. Within the cognitive framework of political philosophy, it manifests as a solution, speaking of the “political”, going into the field of philosophical concepts from the established language of political science to where it is required by the task for describing “regime of the truth”.
Vinchkovskii E.V. - Desacralization of citizenship pp. 44-51


Abstract: This article analyzes the current models of obtaining the status of citizen and changes of the principles of integration into the political community. Emphasis is made on interpretation of the concept of citizenship in the works of Ayelet Shachar, who suggested viewing citizenship solely as a network of human relationships. Such citizenship is defines by A. Shachar as the “earned” (Ius Nexi) that removes the problem of loyalty lottery in the citizenship by birth. She draws conceptual parallels between citizenship and property with regards to personal character, need for establishing social link between the citizen-proprietor and the thing-status. Due to similar interpretation of political membership, A. Schahar critically assessed another model of entering the community as “citizenship for investments” that breaks the genetic relation of the citizen and the state. The study leans on the method of philosophical comparativism and systemic analysis which allow viewing the reception of philosophical ideas in the context of legal and political practices of the states, clarify their mutual influence. The author argues for the concept “citizenship for investment”, primarily as the new way of obtaining political membership. Multiple identities within personality must suggest multiple grounds for the emergence of such identity. In terms of resumption of the link between the ideas of citizenship and property, is highlighted an evident trend of turning the status into a commodity and possibility of selling it. The author believes that the explored models of obtaining the status of citizen open a new horizon for the studies dedicated to multiculturalism and mechanism of the formation of loyalty.
Grachev B. - Eurasian Economic Union is an international organization or multidimensional institution. Ontological discrepancies and political consequences pp. 45-54


Abstract: The subject of this research is the ontological nature of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU). An attempt is made to determine the conceptual philosophical-political characteristics of this organization in the light of particular and universalistic approaches. The author examines and describes the impact of ontological characteristic upon the process of formation and functionality of the international organization and multilateral institution. In future, the dual nature of EAEU can carry political and practical consequences for the Eurasian integration – the question of expectations and outcome from its participation in the indicated integration project, degree and nature of influence upon the domestic policy of EAEU member-states may arise sooner or later. The author's special contribution consists in formulation of the problem of long-term existence of the Eurasian Economic Union from perspective of identification of its ontological characteristics. For achieving success in this regard, integration must represent a universalistic paradigm founded on the principle of pan-unity (universality), when any integration structure is a part of infinite whole, the Universe, endued with the basic characteristics and patterns, and interconnected with all other parts. However, if integration wends the path of particularism, it would be founded on the positivistic methodology, which in turn, considers “external realities” and their structures as measurable. Each participant of the integration would seek to comply with the own national interest, which first and foremost is aimed at preservation of national sovereignty. In this regard, the term “international organization” no longer reflects the nature of such integration structure to the fullest, and thus it can be referred to as “multilateral institution”.
Yangutov L. - Buddhism as a factor of soft power in China’s political strategy pp. 49-53


Abstract: This article examines the traditional values of Buddhism that are widely used in China’s modern political strategy. Emphasis is made on the tolerance underlying the content of Buddhist teaching, as well as its peace-loving nature that determines stance on other philosophical-soteriological views. Attention is also given to the significance of Buddhism, as a language of diplomacy, extensively used by Chinese rulers in relations with neighboring countries. This diplomacy leaned on such pillars of Buddhism as tolerance, pacifism and compassion. It is underlines that these principles are consonant with the political course of modern China aimed at building a harmonious world. The article demonstrates that Buddhism has become the foundation for expanding the cultural and political influence of China in the countries of Asia, Europe and America. Therefore, the authorities of modern China show great interest in development of Buddhism capacity as a factor of “soft power” with regards to political strategy.
myurberg i.i. - History as an “analytical activity” (development of the concept of “historical time” in the modern sciences on nature and society) pp. 50-74


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the examination of the emerged in the XX century new approaches towards understanding of history and historical time. The search for the contemporary answers to the question: “What is history?” began with the parallel innovative research of physicists and philosophers, and continued throughout the entire XX century. Each of the participating disciplines was moving towards the new understanding in its own unique way. The goal of this work is to demonstrate the interdisciplinary character of the established concept, its central notions (irreversible time, historical event), and also give special attention to the singularity of theoretical solutions, discovered by the political philosophy at the brink of the XX and XXI centuries. The results acquired during the examination of the established interdisciplinary concept, allow concluding that the present research initiative belongs namely to the political theory; particularly, the author gives a clear theoretical explanation of the fact that philosophical analytics as a method produces a different affect depending on its application to the various elements of the studied process (political event).
Zaitsev A.V. - Dialogue between government and society in the digital public sphere (theoretical and methodological aspect) pp. 51-62



Abstract: The subject of the research of this article is the theoretical and methodological aspect of the transformation of dialogical interactions between government and society in the digital public sphere. The essence of this transformation, taking place in the context the digital information society, is the reconfiguration of the "traditional" public sphere into a digital public sphere, civil society into a digital civil society, the usual offline dialogue between the government and society into an intersubjective digital online dialogue. Unfortunately, many of these changes up to the present time remain completely unexplored by Russian political science and related fields and branches of socio-humanitarian knowledge. The scientific novelty of the article consist in the question of choosing the most adequate theoretical and scientific-methodological means for the study of the transformations occurring in the digital public sphere in the contest of the dialogue between government and society. The main purpose of writing this article is focused on the study and selection and choosing the most appropriate theoretical and scientific and methodological tools for the study of transformations occurring in the digital public sphere, in the dialogue between government and society, tools that make it possible to comprehend the leading transformational trends in the field of communication technologies.
Borisenkov A.A. - Concerning Democratic Political Culture and Political Progress pp. 53-74
Abstract: The author of the article describes special features of democratic political culture. It is shown that this culture is created as a result of representative democracy and consists of democratic patterns of the decision making process. The author also analyzes the statement that demoractic political culture is the factor of systematizatio of political life and democratization of political influence and, as a result, of political progress. The author also describes the role of political culture in personal socialization. 
Podolskiy V. - "Social question" in political philosophy of N.A. Berdyaev, S.N. Bulgakov and S.L. Frank: comparative analysis of concepts pp. 53-69



Abstract: The difference in organizational forms in social policy is caused by different economic and political reasons and different political and philosophical approaches to social problems. The hierarchy of values defines opinions on the social question and ideas about the appropriate architecture of social policy. The decisions that laid the foundations for social policy in Europe were made in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and their logic resembles the philosophy of the “Christian socialism” most. The purpose of the article is to identify and compare the attitude of Russian authors who were closest to Christian socialism towards the social question and their approaches to solving it. The key works of the authors on the social question were studied. The comparative historical approach, hermeneutics, discourse analysis, and institutional analysis were used. All authors tend to problematize both the social question and its' solutions, rather than offer their own proposals. All three talk about the importance of human internal development and criticize socialist ideas about environmental determinism and human renewal through mechanical reorganization of the economy. All authors moved from Marxism to its criticism, although Berdyaev's views shifted in his later works to the left, to the most radical position of the three thinkers, to the conviction that capitalism has to be abolished, which he blames for oppression and exploitation. Bulgakov sympathizes with the logic of economic organization in socialism, but considers it possible to change economic relations while maintaining the political system. Frank is convinced that limited social reforms within the framework of a market economy are sufficient to provide social support to those in need. Berdyaev and Bulgakov think that justice is the most important value, while Frank thinks that duty is. Berdyaev and Bulgakov follow the key arguments of Christian socialism, and Frank - those of liberal conservatism.
Balakleets N.A. - War, Politics and Subject: Carl von Clausewitz’ philosophy of war activity pp. 55-70


Abstract: The subject of this article is the war concept of Carl von Clausewitz, presented in his work "On War" ("Vom Kriege"). The article explains the importance of the theoretical heritage of the German General for philosophical discourse. The article contains detailed review of such elements of Clausewitz's theory, as the relationship of war and politics, structure and characteristics of war activity. Particular attention is paid to the temporal aspects of war activity, as well as the analysis of its subject. Based on the numerous, including non-translated into Russian theoretical sources (R. Aron, H. Münkler, U. Kleemeier, W. Palaver, R. Girard, M. Foucault, J. Law et al.), the author explicates heuristic potential and methodological significance of Clausewitz's ideas with regard to the current state of society.Along with the general theoretical research methods the author uses poststructuralist and hermeneutical methodology as well as the method of comparative analysis of philosophical doctrines.The novelty of the study lies in the detection of the variety of philosophical issues (including methodological) implicitly represented in Clausewitz’ war theory. The author comes to the conclusion that the relationship between war and politics analyzed in "Vom Kriege" is complex and controversial. The special contribution of the author consists in the explication of biopolitical ideas in the teaching of the German theorist, as well as in the explanation of the relevance of the category of subject in Clausewitz’ interpretation to modern management philosophy.
Nekhorosheva K. - Cartesian method – the philosophical foundation of modern democracy? pp. 55-61


Abstract: This article examines the philosophical grounds of the modern concept of democracy on the basis of Cartesian tradition demonstrated in works of Alexis de Tocqueville and Jean-Paul Sartre. The philosophical-anthropological interpretation of Descartes by the two French thinkers of different generations raised new questions and offered new answers important for understanding the essence of Western democracy. They believed that the achievement of Descartes mostly lies in the fact that he posed the problem of free and independent reasoning, which is the foundation of democratic regime. The article applies the method of philosophical comparative studies, axiological and anthropological approaches. The author’s main contribution into the research of this topic is defined by the fact that he traced the French contribution into the American strategy of “self-sufficient” thought, and afterwards, having returned to the French context, examines what was exactly borrowed by the political theory and social knowledge that developed the idea of democracy within the methodological doubt of Descartes.
Mishurin A.N. - Esoteric doctrine pp. 61-80


Abstract: This research by the renowned American political philosopher Leo Strauss is dedicated to the preservation of tradition of the division of philosophical texts into esoteric (public) and esoteric (hidden) within the work of Gotthold Ephraim Lessing. This work continues the cycle of articles on the questions of exo- and esoteric, introducing new criteria of distinction between them, and therefore – renewing and enriching the “rules of careful reading” advanced by Strauss in the “Persecution and the Art of Writing” and the “On a Forgotten Kind of Writing”, as well as in some of his other works. Strauss attempts to comprehend the cause that forced the researches of XIX century, including such prominent researcher of antiquity as Friedrich Schleiermacher, to refuse the traditional division of philosophical teachings into exo- and esoteric. He finds it in the liberalization of the “modern” views – in the thought on almightiness of reason that has infiltrated the ranks of historians of philosophy, and the resulting equality between the cognitive abilities of all people. The division into exo- and esoteric initially proposes division of audience of the philosophical text into readers capable to comprehend its meaning and capable of such effort. The antique philosophy, followed by Lessing, supports this division; the modern philosophy rejects it.  
Mishurin A.N. - Vulnerability of Carl Schmitt’s concept of the political pp. 67-74


Abstract: One of the pivotal works for the creative path of Carl Schmitt became “The Concept of the Political” that provokes a number of controversies. Having withstood three revisions, caused also by criticism from the colleagues, “The Concept of the Political” appears to multiple researchers as one of the most vivid manifestations of realpolitik in the XX century. However, this article defends a different point of view. The conducted analysis demonstrates that the positions expressed by Schmitt in his work strongly depend on the classical liberalism, and particularly the thought of Thomas Hobbes. Schmitt, whose verve, in essence, is anti-liberal, remains within the limits of liberalism. At the same time, another frame for theses narrated in “The Concept of the Political” is Nietzscheanism. Namely due to the impossibility of synthesizing liberal and anti-liberal positions, Schmitt’s work remains incomplete. It seems that the author was could not follow to its logical end none of the claimed theses: definition of politics, representation on the state, or position on non-moralism of the political. Thus, “The Concept of the Political” could not suffice any ideological position and remained practically incomplete as an alternative to the liberal view on politics.  
Kuchinov A.M. - Analysis of Socio-Cultural Factors of Politics: Searching New Theories and Methods pp. 72-121


Abstract: This article is a continuation of research cycle about theories of socio-cultural factors influence on political process, the renewed version of the article "The approach to political process analysis through its interdependence with socio-cultural dynamics – alternative for "political culture" approach", which was sent to scientific journal "Philosophy and culture". In this article attempt to review, to analyze and synthesize different methods and approaches of political science, psychology, geography, biology, ethnology, sociology, philosophy and other sciences that study the influence of sociocultural factors on politics, is made. Poorly developed in Russian science approaches and methods are in priority. Examples of different sciences integration are given – political science with philosophy, geography, psychology, biology; arguments for application of mathematical methods in studies of social and cultural factors of politics, are given. An emphasis on the inadmissibility of all social processes reduction to a single factor is made, inadmissibility of any reductionism, failure of the prevailing today "civilization" and "behavioral" approaches is shown.
Garshin N.A. - The problem of political marginality in the context of deformation of tolerance pp. 78-83


Abstract: The subject of this research is the phenomenon of political marginality common to the contemporary history. The author meticulously examines the differences between social and political marginality, emphasizing the reasons why the political marginality must be viewed as a peculiar phenomenon of modern social reality. The key place in this study takes up the problem of establishment of the acceptable boundaries thermistor, tolerance with regards to new, nonclassical ideas and movements, as well as negative consequences of the excessive tolerance attitude and insufficient tolerant attitude towards the political subjects that can be recognized as marginal. The scientific novelty lies in the comprehensive analysis of such comparatively new phenomenon as the political marginality and its demarcation from the social marginality. In the course of this demarcation, the author underlines the distinct features and specificity of political marginality. The novelty consists in the establishment of strong correlation between marginality and tolerance. The main conclusion lies in the need for appropriate boundaries of tolerance pertinent to the new and nonclassical political movements, in order to use their potential for the benefit of entire society and hear out the majority of citizens, but at the same time withstand radicalism and violence.  
Mishurin A.N. - Philosophy as Rigorous Science and Political Philosophy pp. 82-99


Abstract: In the present article Leo Strauss touches upon the problem of the relationship between political philosophy and politics. In the modern age political philosophy has lost its universal nature while politics, on the contrary, has gained it. Strauss refers this fundamental shift to the influence of the philosophy of Martin Heidegger and his 'radical historicism'. Heidegger's radical historicism responds to the challenges of those times, i.e. the times when the idea of the borders of history prevailed. In these terms, Strauss mentions Hegel and his conception of the end of history as well as Nietzsche and Marx and their idea of the begining of history. Just like Nietzsche and Marx, Heidegger took his philosophy as the prelude to the beginning of history or, how Strauss calls it, the 'absolute', i.e. the turning point of history. However, such approach deprives the previous philosophy in general and political philosophy in particular of all their aspirations. Radical historicism makes philosophy dependent on historical conditions starting from the very moment when it appears. Trying to avoid the 'end of history', Strauss starts to move backwards. In our cuse, he directly appeals to Heidegger's teacher, Edmund Husserl and his work 'Philosophy as Rigorous Science'. 
Myurberg I. - Constructivist approach and relevant alternatives within the modern theory of ideology: problems and solutions pp. 84-104


Abstract: The subject of this research is the history of the development of the concept of “ideology” in the European sociopolitical theory. Emphasis is placed on constructivism as the general concept that incorporates a range of methodological approaches towards tracing the evolution of the phenomenon of ideology in the XX –XXI centuries. The study of the latest methodologies is part of the project of returning the concept of ideology to the modern sociopolitical discourse, which complies with the current standards of political knowledge. The used methodological approaches employ cultural-historical, comparative, critical-analytical and narrative methods. Special attention is given to narrative approach as an object of study and method used in the course of research. The conclusion is made on the dependence of certain aspects of the concept of ideology depend on the cultural-historical circumstances of its origin (i.e. the specificity of the Western European civilizational context). Substantiation is given to the special role of the principle of individualism as a fundamental characteristic, which distinguishes between the Western European ideology and its Russian alternative. The author determines the theoretical source that has the capacity for the development of relevant (corresponding to the theoretical inquiry of the XXI century) Russian project of ideology. The aforementioned statements define the scientific contribution and novelty of this work.
Davydov O.B. - Liberal multiculturalism and communitarian multiculturalism: dispute regarding the community pp. 87-92


Abstract: The subject of this research is the philosophical multiculturalism in its liberal and communitarian versions. The object is the distinction in ontological foundations of the two philosophical discourses – between the individual and the community. The author describes and analyzes the key moments of theoretical discussion between the representatives of liberal and communitarian multiculturalism, which took place in the Western academic environment of the late XX century. For liberals, the essential goal consists in protection of the individual rights and liberties, while for communitarians it is the protection of society as the basic component of cultural diversity. The applied comparativist methodology allows determining the strong and weak sides of each of the parties of philosophical discussion pertaining to the nature of sociocultural diversity. The result of the conducted research lies in establishment of the relevance and prospects of further development of the communitarian multicultural strategy. The communitarian approach towards examination and transformation of the sociocultural diversity of modern societies can become the foundation for formulation of the conditions of harmonious coexistence of the various cultural communities within the framework of the single social space.
KOZHUKHOVSKIY P.S. - Ted Fleming “Recognition in the work of Axel Honneth: Importance of the theory of transformative learning”. (Translation) pp. 96-110


Abstract: The highly rational and abstract reasoning of Habermas related to the formation of democratic will along with the rules on involvement into such reasoning, affected the theory of transformative learning. Communicative activity, as well as critical self-reflection requires energy. Conditions that allow to reason are the abilities towards the adult education, for example the development of critical self-reflection on the same level as the ability to take part in the “critical dialectic reasoning, which includes the assessment of assumptions and expectations and supports faith, values, and feelings” [1, p. 60]. These difficulties, at least partially, lead to a different understanding of the transformative learning, as in the works of Boyd and Meyer [2], as well as of Taylor [3]. From the very beginning, Mezirow [4] closely united the transformative learning with the project of critical theory and formation of democratic will described by Habermas. Jefferson, Marks and others noted that democratic participation is an important mean for self-improvement and produces individuals who are most tolerant to changes, sensitive to reciprocity, mora capable of moral reasoning and more adjusted to self-reflection [1, p. 60]. The theory of transformative learning is being criticized based on the absence of the fundamental proper understanding of social dimension in education [6]; thus it encourages further explanation and advancement of this theory [1].
Fedorova Y. - Islam in Perception of the Modern European Community: Stereotypes and Reality pp. 99-125


Abstract: The article is devoted to the relations between Europeans and Muslims through history and in modern times. The author shows how Europeans formed the negative image of Islam that at first was for objective reasons (wars of religion, expansionary pretenses of the Arabian Caliphate and the Ottoman Empire and etc.) and later was caused by subjective and ideological factors. As a result of treating Muslims as intruders for many centuries, a whole number of stereotypes has been created about modern Muslims, their religion and cultural traditions. These stereotypes considerably aggravate the already tensed sociopolitical situation in the EU member states and make us again question the possibility of the positive integration of Muslims into the European community. By using the historical and conceptual analysis methodology, Yu. Fedorova analyzes a number of widely common stereotyped images of Muslims formed in the European Community and related to socio-political, judicial (legal) and religious ethical aspects of intercultural communication. The research is focused, first of all, on the politicized opinion on Islam as a powerful destructive force ad the main source of the world terrorist threat. Secondly, the research studies the opinion that Islam does not know such legal categories as equality and freedom as Europeans understand them. Thirdly, the research also covers the perception of the Islamic culture as the culture that is entirely determined by religion and trying to impose their values on Europeans. A whole range of factors make these stereotypes even stonger including religious, cultural and ethnic differences, ideological factors, political motives, socio-economic environment and etc. Therefore Yu. Fedorova believes that from the scientific point of view, it is not efficient to search for the explanation of the aforesaid problem in the conflict of cultures (European and Muslim cultures) as the two cultures separated from each other by non-overcomable boudaries of ethnic and religious differences. 
Borisenkov A.A. - On the Political Culture as a Way of Political Being pp. 102-128
Abstract: The author of the article reveals the contents of the political culture and analyzes its interpretation approaches which have formed in the political science lately. The author proves the thesis that political culture is a form of social and actually existing culture, and the socail culture consists in the politics forming technology, witch is presented with the management desicion making rules. The article describes the main types of political culture and based on that, forms the special law of existence of political culture.
Fedorova Y. - The 'Female Issue' in Islam: Discourse about the Status of a Woman in a Modern Islamic Society pp. 102-128


Abstract: In her article Fedorova analyzes the modern scientific discourse on so called 'female issue' in Islam. The first part of the article is devoted to a circle of problems related to stereotyped images of a totally 'rightless' position of Muslim women. In the first part of the article the author also describes the sources of the development of such stereotypes in the West and Russia. The second part of the article is devoted to the description of alternative points of view on the aforesaid issue presented by both Muslim scientists and their European colleagues as well as the concept of equality in Islam versus Western interpretation thereof. The research is based on the methodology of the comparative historical and conceptual analysis as well as the method of analyzing results of surveys and gender researches in Islam. The author concludes that Islam does not always mean repressino of women as it looks like if we continue to follow stereotypes. Quite on the contrary, today Islam does not restrict a woman but offers her a peculiar sytem of social and legal coordinates based on the principle of functional differentiation of genders and specific Islamic understanding of equality. 
Ugrin I.M. - Between the right and the truth: on some peculiarities of the Russian civil culture pp. 123-152


Abstract: This article is concerned with a pressing issue of establishing civil culture. It studies the issue of civic awareness against the backdrop of human development itself and evolution of its material and spiritual nature. The process of establishing civil culture is felt to be unfinished, rather being in its first stages, than in culmination. The peculiarities of establishing civil culture in Russia are analyzed. One of the key values for the Russian civil culture appears a value of the truth. The truth is a special category related to the Russian set of mind, and it includes both the concepts of verity and justice. This category makes it possible to give a positive answer to a question about existence of the Russian civilization and define some of its peculiarities, as well as differentiate it from the Western civilization, having the value of law as its key value.
Letnyakov D.E. - To Forget about the 'War of Cultures': Why We Need to Revise the Discourse on Migration pp. 124-148


Abstract: In this article the problem of integration of the Central Asian migrants in Russia is considered. Investigating a religion role in societies of Post-Soviet Central Asia (mainly in Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan - the countries which are the main donors of labor for Russia), and also analyzing values and installations by which migrants are guided, being in our country, the author criticizes cultures-tsentrichnost of the migratory discourse in Russia preferring to operate with concepts like "war of cultures", "cultural extreneity of migrants" etc. It is possible to distinguish a number of comparative methods, including a method of the comparative-historical and comparative and politological analysis, a method of the analysis of the documents and other texts relating to a work perspective from the main methods applied when writing article. The main conclusions of research consist in the following: speaking about integration of migrants, it is necessary to consider, first of all, not cultural factors, but legal and social and economic. Only a conclusion of migrants from "shadow", creation of conditions for their legal security, simplification of procedure of legalization and other practical measures can promote real integration of migrants into the Russian society. Reasonings on other cultural and religious identity of the population coming for work only take us away from the real problems. 
Borisenkov A.A. - Peculiarities of Political Development pp. 171-198


Abstract: The article is devoted to the concept of political development. The author of the article describes the contents, stages, means, grounds and forms of political development and shows the close connection between political development and political life. The author also establishes the provision that poltical life is one of the means of political development that appears in the form of political evolution. Based on the analysis of the structure of political development, the author describes the grounds and forms of political life as well as factors of its destruction.  
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