Finance and Management - rubric Question at hand
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Question at hand
Pavlinova O.V. - Pollution Charges: Applicable Legal Regulation and Problematic Aspects pp. 1-27


Abstract: Because the social structure of today’s human society, the nature of the institutional relations, actions of people related to using natural resources and their attitude to the environment do not comply with the laws of natural evolution, regulating human business and production activities is now becoming especially important so that we can prevent random and unreasonable use of natural resources. This problem can be solved in 2 ways: legal and economic. One of the leading combined economic and legal method of regulation is charging for adverse impact on the environment (pollution charges). This work uses systematic approach to analyze the currently effective legal regulation of pollution charges and identifies the problematic aspects. The article identifies the administration drawbacks of pollution charges and suggests ways to improve them in the current situation. It makes conclusions concerning the quality of the environmental policy maintained in Russia and administration of the pollution charges. It also suggests changes to the existing laws and regulation. Currently, we can observe annual increase of amounts spent on prevention of all the pollution types. However, despite such annual costs aimed at prevention of environmental damage, the scope of atmospheric, water and soil pollution has not reduced to any significant extent.
Shemyakina M.S. - Modelling of a regions tax potentials pp. 1-43


Abstract: The article analyzes the structure of tax revenues of the consolidated budget of Mari El (an autonomous republic within Russia). The author tries to substantiate the uniformity of this structure. He states that the share of the three basic taxes (the tax on individuals’ incomes, the tax on organizations’ incomes and the tax on organizations’ properties) practically undergoes no changes in the entire volume of the tax revenue of the consolidated budget. The author, using correlative and regressive analysis, creates models describing the dependence of the macroeconomic performance upon the main sources of tax revenues. He also creates a model with the use of which he estimates the taxable capacity of the region.The article uses such general scientific methods as analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, abstraction, modelling, experiment.The novelty of the study is a development of a methodological instrumentarium for forecasting the taxable capacity of a region. The author also offers some means for changing the processes of the “Tax” automated information system (including the system “Tax-3”, which is now being implemented in the work of the region’s tax services) and its analytic subsystems from the point of view of modernization of tax services.
Ponkin I.V. - Uncertainties in public management pp. 1-10


Abstract: The article analyzes the sources and the essence of uncertainties in public management. Uncertainties are an inseparable part of the process of making decisions in public management. They are an inevitable factor in projecting, making and realization of such decisions in many situations in public management. The author adheres to such scientific methods as the method of systematic analysis, comparative legal method, the method of synthesis, the method of abduction. With the use of these methods, the author reveals fundamental features and the essence of uncertainties in public management and the sources of such uncertainties. The author suggests his own definition of “uncertainty” and describes the concept of “uncertainty in public management”. He also gives a review of today’s discussions on this subject and the major possible approaches to coping with uncertainties in public management.
Shakirova R.K., Fedorova T.V. - Model for Executive Decision Making Process Performed at the Level of Regional Tax Politicy Based on Retrospective Analysis of Current Data Provided by Tax Authorities Regarding Transport Tax pp. 1-27


Abstract: The high level of differentiation between socio-economic situations of the various layers of Russian society encourages the Government to seek ways to regulate the level of income and consumption of citizens. As a tool of the regulation legislators introduced multiplying factors of transport tax in January 2014. Changes in the procedure for calculating tax on high-priced cars have led to complication of administration of this type of payment, as well as to some infringement of the rights of taxpayers (due to the need to recalculate the tax and re-submit a declaration by the end of 2015). This fact encourages to seek alternatives towards regulating the consumption level (in terms of means of transport) using tax instruments. The objective of the research (to develop an administrative decision making model in the field of regional tax policy) achieved on the basis of a retrospective analysis in the absence of the full scope of the required information in the official statements of the Federal Tax Service of the Russian Federation. The work is to offer an alternative approach to taxation of high-priced cars registered by taxpayers, which is to use multiplying factors when calculating transport tax based on the engine capacity of the vehicle. However, calculation of the transport tax taking into account the cost of passenger cars could be effective in the case of careful study and consistency between the procedure and terms of approval of the list of high-priced vehicles, vehicle tax calculation and tax reporting.
Idrisova L.R. - A new look at the concept of offshore pp. 1-17


Abstract: The research subject of this article are the concepts of offshore companies and offshore companies, gives a brief historical excursion into the history of the development of offshore companies as an economic phenomenon. According to the author, the concept of offshore historically created to conceal information about the incomes of the companies go into oblivion, but to understand and predict phenomena in the whole of its development worthy of attention. The financial crisis of 2014 - 2015, sets the vector ceased to exist offshore in their usual sense. Were applied scientific (comparison, analysis, synthesis, abstraction, generalization) and specific scientific methods (formal dogmatic, comparative legal studies, etc.). It is concluded that the offshore has gained a special position in the world economy, becoming a critical element of global business strategies, thereby promoting a variety of cross-border financial flows and the acceleration of the turnover of financial assets. The author reveals the criteria, by which corporations choose offshore companies with optimal conditions.
Raimov A.V. - Economic Assessment of Corporate Confidential Information pp. 1-9


Abstract: The subject of the research is the mathematical-and-statistical tools that are used in the process of quantitative evaluation of economic and financial consequences of the loss of corporate confidential information. Experts in information security can carry out a qualitative analysis and evaluation of the importance of such information but they cannot do the quantitative evaluation that has financial and economic equivalents. Thus, quantitative evaluation of the information value when analyzing the risk of an information security incident is a very nettlesome problem. In this article Raimov describes different types of the information resource value. He also offers a method to define the full value of the corporate information asset and evaluate the weighted average cost of information. As an example, the author analyzes a development laboratory planning to develop a new plant. The result of the research is the quantitative evaluation of the confidential information value, in particular, information asset of the aforesaid development laboratory in a monetary equivalent. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author offersh is own method that allows to transfer the qualitative evaluation into quantitative without any particular requirements. The main conclusion of the research is that in the process of collecting the information asset, it is necessary to keep a balance between the quality and amound of information on the one hand and the value of information on the other hand.   
Demidova O.L. - Regarding Compensation for Harm Resulting From Violations of Tax Laws, and the Need to Introduce the Criminal Liability of Legal Entities pp. 1-7


Abstract: The article is devoted to the problems that may arise in the process of compensation for harm as a result of tax crime committed by physical entities, and the need to introduce criminal liability of physical entities for tax evasion. The object of the research is the social relations that may arise in the process of development of criminal policy, prevention of tax violations, and criminalization of legal entities' activity that relates to evasion of taxes with the purpose to improve the financial status of a company. The subject of the research is applicable legal acts of the Russian law that set forth the responsibility for tax violations, The Supreme Court's and Constitutional Court's stance thereon, judicial practice, statistical data, and foreign academic literature. The author of the article pays special attention to the threat of state tax security, in particular, inefficient legal regulation of responsibility for tax violations and compensation for harm, and the fact that the current law does not establish penal consequences for legal entities that avoid paying taxes. The methodological basis of the research includes general and special research methods such as the dialectical method, gnoseological method, formal law method, formal logic method, system structural method and linguistic method. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author of the article contributes to the legal basis of fighting against tax violations. In order to seek compensation for harm resulting from tax evastion, the author emphasizes the need to set forth punishment for entities that commit tax crime as a suspended sentence or fine, lay criminal responsibility on companies or large fines for tax crime. 
Kireeva E.V. - Budgetary Risks: Assessment and Ways of Minimization pp. 1-8


Abstract: The subject of the research is the problems related to the analysis of budgetary risks and the ways to minimize the impact of above described risks on the social and economic situation in Russia. The object of the research is the federal budget of the Russian Federation. The author of the article examine such aspects of the topic as methods to evaluate probability and intensity of the negative influence that risks may hvae on the budget stability; and creation of the reserves that allow to influence the quality budget functions, in particular, stabilising and stimulating functions.  The author pays special attention to the insufficient elaboration of the important elements of a complete system of the budget risk management mechanism. The research methods include analysis of data from official Internet sites (Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation), and methods of synthesis of theoretical and practical aspects. The main findings of the research are as follows. The author of the article has analyzed the following key problems: 1. undeveloped categorical apparatus; 2. weak institutional structure of the budget risk management;  3. staff deficiency. The author's contribution and novelty of the research are caused by the fact that the author offers ways to solving the aforesaid problems. 
Li W., Song Y. - Managing moral risks in medical insurance from the perspective of development of medical informatization pp. 1-11


Abstract: The subject of this research is the methods of managing moral risks from the perspective of development of medical informatization, which allows maintain efficiency of medical insurance and lowering medical expenses. The authors meticulously examine the problem of growing medical expenses in China, concept of moral risk in medical insurance, as well as causes for emergence of moral risk in medical insurance. Analysis is conducted on the history of development of medical informatization and functionality of information system of medical insurance in China. The question as raised on application of general information system of gathering vast amounts of intersecting data in medical insurance. The article employs method of scientific cognition of theoretical and empirical levels. The theoretical base for this research is comprised of works of Chinese and foreign scholars on the issues of moral risks in medical insurance. The scientific novelty consists in development of a moral risk management model in medical insurance on the background of informatization of medical service. A conclusion is made that moral risks in medical insurance are tightly connected with the asymmetry of information in subjects of insuring. Medical informatization became a very important means for moral risk management in medical insurance and has great prospects for increasing efficiency of the work of medical facilities.
Salnikov K.E. - Foreign experience in reducing the construction time pp. 1-13


Abstract: The subject of this research is administrative relations that arise in the process of reducing the construction time as a branch of material production that is carrying out erection of buildings and reconstruction of structures of various designation. The object of this research is the construction complex as a whole; companies of various corporate structure functioning on the investment-construction sector; organizational legal forms of interaction between the parties to the investment-construction process; state regulation in the sphere of major construction. The goal of this article consists in examination of foreign experience in resolution of primary issues with regards to construction time management: assessment of the duration of processes and allocation of resources. The author explores such aspects of the topic as the economic component of administrative impact upon the implementation of a construction project; parameters of project management (time, quality, and cost); modern time management techniques; business process reengineering; principles of cross-team building. The scientific novelty is defined by the insufficient study of the questions of improvement, theoretical, experimental and feasibility study of technological processes, methods and forms of construction planning and its production facilities in the context of reducing the construction time. The value of this work for the national economy consists in studying the theory and practice of reducing the construction time and searching for solutions of scientific and technical problems of construction by means of development and creation of the competitive construction technologies, as well as organizational and technological decisions. The following results were achieved: determination of the key parameters of project management (time, quality, and cost); analysis of cost increase of the project depending on usage of the strategies for reducing production schedule; examination and visualization of development strategies for increasing competitiveness of the companies in complex business, as well as assessment of the level of customer satisfaction according to the system of basic criteria. The author passes an original opinion on the effectiveness of time reduction techniques.
Stepanov N.S. - The future of China's economy under the influence of trade tensions with the United States pp. 1-8


Abstract: The subject of the study is the trends and patterns of development of the Chinese economy, taking into account the impact of trade friction with the United States. It is proved that the conflict between the United States and China has been growing for more than half a century, intensifying in recent years, which is reflected in the growing bilateral tensions at the political and economic levels. The goal of China's modern strategy in the international arena is to make a multipolar world a reality, to make China an alternative to the United States, and as a result led to trade friction between the United States and China. China remains the most involved country in the production value chains on the world market, and is trying to maintain and increase the positions gained over the past decades. It is proved that the introduction of additional tariffs on mutual trade between the United States and China has led to classic trade effects associated with a change in the level of protection, namely, the effect of creation and shift. Their direction was opposite to the effects observed in the case of a reduction in customs duties. The main strategic directions of the development of the Chinese economy are formulated. In the new conditions, the trade war between the United States and China should be considered as a conflict that sets a certain trend. There is more and more talk about new terms of trade liberalization agreements, whether bilateral, regional or global. The institutional subsystem develops under the influence of changes in socio-economic relations.
Dvoretskii V. - Legal status of the Alaska Permanent Fund: general characteristics pp. 10-18


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the examination of peculiarities of legal status of the “Alaska Permanent Fund”, which is one of the largest and financially successful state-owned investment and wealth funds worldwide (sovereign wealth). Attention is given to the history of creation of the “Alaska Permanent Fund”; analysis of regulatory framework of its structure and competencies of executive authorities; examination of the peculiarities of investment policy of the fund and approaches towards the establishment of its investment portfolio; as well as the protective, it its essence, practice of investments into the assets and securities of the United States. The conclusion is made that the practical experience of the “Alaska Permanent Fund” can be partially applied by the Russian state-owned investment and wealth funds (particularly, the “Russian National Wealth Fund”), excluding the financing practices at the expense of the fund of such individual payouts to the citizens as dividends, unconditional basic income, benefits, etc. The scientific novelty consists in the use of regulatory material relevant for the period from 2018-2019, which allows making conclusions based on the most recent foreign practices and management procedures of the state-owned investment and wealth funds.
Akopdzhanova M. - Determination of the Status of the Joint Stock Company: New Legislation pp. 12-17


Abstract: The subject of this research is to examine the changes made to the current Russian legislation on joint stock companies, legal aspects of its application based on the data of short stories, as well as their role and importance for the regulation of civil turnover, improve the effectiveness of the enforcement of legislation by the participants of economic relations. This article examines the procedure of recognition of the joint stock company as a company having public status, as well as how changes are made to the appropriate status. Based on the characteristics of the status of the recognised rules of alienation of shares and equity securities of the company, convertible into shares. The methodological basis of the study was a set of General scientific and special methods of attainment of objective socio-legal reality in the study area: methods of analysis, synthesis, systematization and generalization, formal-logical method. In the research process were defined function and legal value, legal consequences of the change of status of a legal entity (joint stock company). In this article attention is also paid to consideration of the types of legal liability, occurring in case of violation of the order of the activities of joint-stock company.The conclusions of this article can be useful for law enforcement agencies, students, graduate students, and all those interested in jurisprudence.
Levchaev P.A., Khezazna B. - Transformation of management in the conditions of digitalization processes and artificial intelligence pp. 12-20


Abstract: The goal of this research consists in studying the influence of digitalization processes upon generally recognized (“classical”) management approaches, as a management science in a narrow sense, or the impact of control subsystem upon management subsystem for achieving the set goals (in a broad sense of understanding managerial impact). The object of this research is the transforming (under the influence of digital technologies) management science. The subject of this research is a set of conceptual economic, organizational and managerial relations established in the process of development and influence of digital technologies upon the basic provisions of management science. The author applies systemic, procedural and comprehensive scientific approaches with corresponding tools, as well as the theory of information objects. The following conclusions were made: 1) in the conditions of digitalization, increases the effectiveness of management decisions based on implementation of digital technologies, and in particularly of algorithms and capabilities of artificial intelligence; 2) polarization of society increases, which entails a very limited by a number of top management pyramid control subsystem, represented by the initiator, developer, controlling element, and the lower part – represented by service users, and object of management influence.; 3) management system becomes self-sufficient, since it already incorporates a set of all possible variables in implementation of managerial acts with regards to “formalized” object of influence. The action of object in predetermined digital environment forms the competences of existence therein, depriving an individual of the creative beginning and the ability to think and act independently; 4) paradigm of the classical school of management (with prevalence of personal communication skills for influencing the managed system) is replaced with the paradigm of formalized-algorithmized and depersonalized management of focus groups carried out by artificial intelligence.
Dashieva B.S. - To the question on convergence of labor productivity in Russia pp. 12-21


Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of the process of convergence of labor productivity in the Russian Federation. Labor productivity is the key indicator of economic growth and national competitiveness. The object of this research is the types of economic activities and Russian regions. Convergence is viewed from the industrial and territorial perspectives. Industrial convergence manifests in decreasing variability rates of labor productivity. Territorial convergence consists in outstripping the growth rates of labor productivity in the developing regions in contrast with the developed subjects of the federation. The research methodology is based on the use of statistical methods. In particular, the author applies the indicators of variation, matrix of matching coefficients of correlation, and analysis of time series. The author’s main contribution lies in the extensive use of statistical criteria for determining convergence of labor productivity (by means of correlating coefficients and variation rate). The author reveals that the convergence of labor productivity in the Russian Federation is weak. It is presented mainly in the industrial sector. Territorial convergence is absent. It testifies to the high resource dependence of the Russian economy and the need for investing into technologies, as well as revival of the capital asset fund due to expansion of the domestic production.
Shemarykina D.A. - Trends in the Development of Information Legislation on Enforcement Proceedings between Federal State Bodies of the Russian Federation pp. 13-24


Abstract: The article discusses the necessity and urgency of improving the legal norms governing the activities of the Federal Bailiff Service (FBS) being the only authorized body of the executive branch performing the enforcement of court decisions. Thus, one of the priorities of the Russian FBS is to replenish Russia's consolidated budget by debt enforcement of taxes and duties, administrative fines, execution fees. One of the strategic objectives is transition to enforcement in electronic form. To solve it, the Russian FBS should ensure the legal value of paperless electronic interaction with public authorities. The legal analysis of formulated proposals on legal regulation of information interaction between the Federal Bailiff Service and other bodies of executive power has been applied as a research method. It is concluded that the development of legislation on the exchange of electronic information on enforcement proceedings between federal state authorities of the Russian Federation is one of the priority activities. Eventually, it would not only improve the enforcement of judicial decisions, but also increase the revenues in the federal budget.  
Bai Y., Fastovich V.V. - Analysis of the dynamics of development and competitiveness of the Chinese gas industry pp. 15-29


Abstract: The object of research of this article is the natural gas industry of China, special attention is paid to competitive strength. Michael Porter's models cover many issues of the competition problem. The authors use M. Porter's five competitive forces to analyze China's gas industry. Together, these five factors influence the attractiveness of the industry and the decisions of competitive strategies in its place. Changes in various combinations of the five forces ultimately affect changes in the potential profit of the industry. The authors reveal the space of competitive forces, the competitive environment in the gas industry of the People's Republic of China, identified the driving and restraining forces of the gas industry of the People's Republic of China. The main conclusions of the study are: the main driving force in the gas industry in China comes from buyers, the restraining force in the gas industry in China mainly comes from the main competitors of the industry. China's economic development, demand for clean energy and increasingly advanced technologies for the development and use of natural gas are driving the development of China's gas industry. The raw materials of gas in China are highly dependent on imports, the construction of the infrastructure of the gas industry is difficult and expensive, and the efficiency of the use of the built gas industry is insufficient. Identification and analysis of the driving and binding forces of the industry, and the development of countermeasures are especially important to ensure the sustainable development of the industry.
Utkin V.V. - On standardization in the Russian Federation: problems of efficiency of administrative-legal management pp. 18-37


Abstract: The subjects of research are problems of efficiency of the administrative and legal management. The implementation of the Concept of development of national standardization system is possible only with the condition of optimization of public administration. In order to improve administrative-legal regulation in the sphere of standardization in the context of economic integration at the legislative level it is necessary to establish the legal framework for standardization, content needs to be mandatory for Federal, regional authorities, local government, legal entities and individuals, the self-regulatory organizations, business enterprises and organizations irrespective of form of ownership. Were applied scientific (comparison, analysis, synthesis, abstraction, generalization) and specific scientific methods (formal dogmatic, comparative legal studies, etc.). It is concluded that the introduction of the measures proposed by the author of the perfection of administrative-legal regulation will allow to increase the efficiency of state management in the sphere of standardization in the context of economic integration and globalization, will contribute to the formation of the innovative potential and competitiveness of the Russian economy.
Novichkova O.V. - Diversification of Credit Risk by Application of a New Banking Product pp. 18-24


Abstract: Commercial activity of the organizations of the Russian banking sector is subject to risks which differ in a big variety and rather high level in comparison with a portfolio of these risks at the banks functioning in the countries with stabler and developed economy. Mainly, it is caused by complexity of an economic situation in Russia, imperfection of its banking system. Inevitability and importance of risk in banking predetermine need of complex studying of all its aspects as an obligatory element of the economic researches preceding the beginning of bank activity or which are carried out in its process. One of the most important in this system is risk management. Risk it is possible and it is necessary to operate, using various methods allowing to predict approach of a risk event and to soften its consequences in a certain degree. The research subject is bank risks and a control system of them; the work purpose – disclosure of the main approaches to classification of financial risks of bank, methods of an assessment and management of them, and also definition of ways of their minimization.Monographic research, analysis of structure and dynamics, methods of the economic analysis, methods of the statistical analysis. The analysis is carried out and the directions of minimization of financial risks of commercial bank are defined. On the basis of the revealed features introduction of a new banking product, namely providing leasing transactions on acquisition of agricultural machinery that will allow to reduce the level of credit risk as the main component of financial risks of the organizations of the banking sector is offered.
Ryabova S.G. - Dominant trends in the development of social infrastructure in rural areas of the Republic of Mordovia pp. 18-31



Abstract: The subject of the study is the dominant trends in the development of the social infrastructure of rural areas of the Republic of Mordovia. The author focuses on the fact that underestimation of the role of social infrastructure and a rather long period of its financing on a residual basis led to an increase in territorial imbalances in its development. Most of the social infrastructure facilities are concentrated in cities and district centers, and rural settlements are still significantly inferior to them in the level of infrastructure provision. The problems of physical deterioration of social infrastructure facilities, as well as the low level of their transport accessibility for the population living far from district centers remain relevant. The unevenness of social living conditions in rural settlements with different populations persists in almost all municipal districts of the republic. A detailed analysis of the structural elements of the social infrastructure of rural areas of the Republic of Mordovia indicates that the preservation of bipolar conditions of territorial development remains the dominant trend. The scientific novelty of this study is to identify territorial imbalances in the level of development of the social infrastructure of rural areas and to develop practical recommendations aimed at reducing them and increasing the infrastructural potential. According to the author, this will largely be facilitated by construction, bringing infrastructure facilities in line with modern requirements, ensuring balanced development of social infrastructure systems, etc. Special attention should be paid to improving the regulatory framework for the development of rural social infrastructure, creating conditions for attracting investment in the social sphere of the village.
Prygunova M.I., Nikiforova E.G. - Efficiency of government subsidization of small and medium businesses as a factor of sustainable urban development pp. 19-27


Abstract: The object of this research is the government subsidization of small and medium businesses (SMB) as a factor of sustainable urban development. Under the “green city” and “sustainable city” the authors mean the balanced social, economic, and technical co-development. Moreover, the author present an original matrix for forecasting development of small and medium business in the Republic of Tatarstan until 2020, which allows making effective decisions by the branches of government responsible for development of small and medium-size businesses the region. An assessment is given to the established levels of risks in the activity of small and medium businesses based on probability method, with consideration of forecasting data presented in the official sources: GRP and financing of small and medium businesses in the Republic of Tatarstan. The research allowed concluding that in order to meet the planned targets on increasing the portion of SMB in the GRP with a preset amount of funding, it is necessary to increase the efficiency of measures on subsidization of SMB. The authors believe that it must become the main priority in the measures on subsidization of SMB across not only the region, but its capital Kazan in particular.
Stepanov N.S. - Economic and political future of Hong Kong pp. 21-30


Abstract: Relevance of this article is substantiated by series changes in the world's largest economy, related to the special status of Hong Kong, which is rapidly losing its autonomy and privileges associated with it. The goal consists in outlining potential prospects and restrictions pertaining to economic and political future of Hong Kong. The subject of this research is the peculiarities, trends and patterns of Hong Kong’s development in the economic and political spheres. Examination of the development of Hong Kong and the factors impacting these processes was conducted by means of structural approach, methods of logical, comparative and statistical analysis, grouping, abstract-logical modeling, etc. The conducted research of modern trends and patterns allowed determining the key problems that may negatively affect successful development of Hong Kong in the nearest future: China’s encroachment on the special status of Hong Kong, reflected in the adoption of in 2019; possible sanctions from the United States, threatening to deprive Hong Kong of the status of world’s top financial hub; protests of Hong Kong’s residents; effects of the Coronavirus pandemic in the economic sector. The acquired results may be applied in formation of Hong Kong’s strategic development vectors, considering current conditions of political conflicts, as well as crisis trends related to Coronavirus pandemic. The scientific novelty lies in identification of the problems of current state of Hong Kong, as well as in formulation of possible solutions for balancing the crisis trends. The author believes that there could be several scenarios of events. Full abolition of the special status of Hong Kong seems less realistic, as it would suppress the attempts to establish relations based on the principle “one state – two systems”.
Makarov I.N., Droganov O.N. - Company financial strategy, capital structure and borrowing: consideration of the impact of industry-specific and technological risks pp. 22-31


Abstract: Currently, the economic structure and dominating technologies within most of the industries are rapidly changing. The next scientific discovery or technological invention can easily collapse the financial strategy of a company that bet on “wrong” technologies, or did not foresee sufficient safety margin within its capital structure, borrowing policy and investment strategies, which would allow managing the risk flows. The subject of this research lies in the approaches towards the definition of the capital structure and borrowing system, capable of establishing financial stability of a company under the conditions of technological transformation of the industry markets. The goal of this work is to determine the conditions of financial stability of a company during technological transformation on the industry markets. The results of this research, which also justify the scientific novelty, consist in the system of determinants of financial stability of a company in the long-term perspective, theoretical substantiation of the correlation between borrowing and the development phase of the industry market. The author concludes on the need for variation of the allowable level of borrowing for companies working at different stages of development of the industry markets depending on likelihood of emergence of a technology or product that would drastically change the structure of these industry markets.
Akopdzhanova M. - Legal Prospects of Development of Private-Public Partnership as Economic and Legal Form of Cooperation between State and Business pp. 23-30


Abstract: Public-private partnership is a form of cooperation between the governmental authorities, local authorities and economic actors (business entities) aimed at achieving socially important results in the form of enabling the functioning of the most important sectors of public life (supplying products, constructing infrastructure and other facilities, performing other work and providing other services). The importance of the public-private partnership has become especially important in the situation when the government supports various forms of economic activities, development of competition and ensuring the competitiveness of Russian goods manufacturers. This article describes the possible directions of improvement of the currently effective laws and regulations on public-private partnership performance of which may activate this line of operation of public-law ad private-law subjects of economy. The methodological miss for this research is the combination of general scientific and special methods of research into the social and legal reality in the area under study: analysis, synthesis, systematization and generalization, formal logic methods. The article examines and analyses the most important aspects of the public-private partnership, purposes, objectives, directions of ensuring the high performance and efficiency of the development of this form of cooperation. During this research, on the basis of the analysis of the law application practice, the authors identified possible directions of improving the legal regulation of the institute of public-private partnership.
Liu Y., Zub A.T. - Features of managing Large Bridge Construction projects in China pp. 24-32


Abstract: Using the methods of document research and comparative analysis, the author examines in detail such aspects of the topic as the role of the state in the management of large construction projects, a three-dimensional model of integrated management of large bridge projects, the impact of fine management on improving the quality of the project, the function of "cultural management", etc. Special attention is paid to the management of bridge construction projects between the river and by sea is a large-scale, complex and integrated management of engineering projects, representing the characteristics of interdisciplinary, multi-domain and multi-regional cross-penetration, reflecting the rich connotation of overall planning, coordination and integration of resources. Based on the analysis of the Sutong Bridge, the bridge over the Hanzhouwan Bay, the Jiangyin Bridge, this article summarizes the feature of construction project management in China.   The main conclusions of the study are the mechanism of the state's influence on the management processes of large construction projects that ensure great success of megaprojects. In the course of modernization, China has formed a set of management characteristics of large-scale engineering bridge construction with Chinese features thanks to a large amount of research and practice. With the support of the country as a basis, a management system combining industrial management and engineering construction management, national power and business. The mutual influence of the authorities, the combination of cultural management and emotional management through a "refined" transformation of management comprehensively guarantee the successful completion of the construction of super-large bridge projects. It provides background information for managing other large-scale engineering projects. The construction of large-scale projects laid the foundation for China's socio-economic development.
Ishtiryakova L.H. - Development trends in cultural sphere of the Republic of Tatarstan in the conditions of lockdown pp. 26-34


Abstract: Introduction of restrictive policy due to the COVID-19 pandemic affected the development of cultural sphere in 2020. This article traces the development of cultural sphere within the framework of measures aimed at prevention of the spread of COVID-19 in the Republic of Tatarstan. The goal of this research lies in the analysis of the key aspects of cultural development in the Republic of Tatarstan in 2020, as well as in determination of the major issues caused by lockdown, grounds for the development of recommendations regarding the conditions for providing uniform access to cultural products of the republic based on the Russian and international experience. The scientific novelty consists in proposal of measures for uniform rendering of cultural services with consideration of the experience of restrictive policy during the spread of coronavirus disease. In 2020, cultural sphere in the Republic of Tatarstan is characterized by rapid increase in the demand for online display of cultural products on the background of a significant drop in attendance of cultural establishments. Theoretical framework of this article is based on the overview of scientific research conducted by foreign and Russian scholars in cultural sphere. The research employs the method of descriptive analysis of statistical data in cultural sphere alongside the main normative acts that determine the vector of development of this sphere, and anti-epidemic measures adopted in 2020.
Zakirova E.R., Sheina E.G., Astanakulov O.T. - Methodological approaches towards assessing the efficiency of investment and financial risk management of economic entities pp. 27-36


Abstract: The subject of this research is the methods of assessing the risk management of an economic entity. Special attention is given to the assessment of investment and financial risks considered most important from the perspective of planning the future financial result. The goal of this work lies in the examination of theoretical foundations, peculiarities and correlations of the category of “risk” with the enterprise performance indicators, which allows to logically substantiate the multistage system of investment and financial risk management, universal to economic entities operating in various sectors. Methodological base is structure on the theory of risk management and corporate finance, which allows viewing the characteristic of the investment and financial risks, specificities of their forecasting and assessment, as well as determining the importance of influence upon the financial result. The authors develop an algorithm of financial and investment risk management of the economic entity, which represents an open system with the object and subject of management, executive branch affecting the object of management for the purpose of changing the end financial result, and six management stages. The authors also propose and logically substantiate the multidimensional vector model of risk assessment, based on the hypothesis for the dependence between the initial value of the asset and the value of risk, and determining the true value of the asset “minus the risk” value based on this formula. The authors believe that further research on this topic would help solve a relevant for the Russian economy problem of the establishment of comprehensive system of assessment and management of risks of economic entities.
Akopdzhanova M. - Institution of Mediation in the Russian law pp. 28-36


Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of the legal aspects of the use, role and importance of mediation for the development of social relations, strengthening of legal culture and effective compliance with current Russian legislation. Judicial interpretation, clarification of the highest judicial authorities and available data on the application of the mediation procedure, allow to implement uniform criteria and rules for reaching consensus (agreement) of participants in civil transactions and economic relations with all the key issues of entrepreneurial and other economic activities, allowing, thus, to unify the law enforcement practice that is able to provide the most effective protection of the rights and freedoms of citizens and the legitimate interests of society and the state. The methodological basis of the study involves a set of general and special research methods for understanding objective socio-legal environment in the study area: methods of analysis, synthesis, systematization and generalization and formal-logical method. In the course of research the authors have defined functions and legal value as well as legal consequences of the use of mediation, have researched explanations on the formation of a uniform judicial practice provided by these judicial authorities. The conclusions of this article can be useful for law enforcement agencies, students, graduate students, and others interested in questions of jurisprudence.
Lyapuntsova E.V., Khokonov B.M. - Financial control as the basis of reproductive management in the new economy pp. 30-43


Abstract: The subject of the study is the transformation of financial control in the context of new conditions of economic development, when irreversible changes in its basic content unfold. The importance of such studies increases with the formation of modern management drivers that can significantly increase the efficiency of the use of limited reproductive resources. Accordingly, the author's end-to-end hypothesis is the presentation of financial control as a basic element of new financial relations. This approach opens up the possibility of overcoming the limitations of the current practice of financial control, reduced mainly to its instrumental forms, maximally oriented to commercial interests, which is accompanied by a decrease in direct investment activity in reproduction processes. To a large extent, this state of affairs was the result of differences in the initial methodological approaches to financial research. Therefore, the main goal of the work is to find priority forms and tools for integrating financial control into modern reproductive process management systems. The methodological apparatus of the study was formed on the basis of a systematic approach with additional argumentation through theoretical and functional generalizations, logical and expert assessments, which made it possible to present new financial control in the future in order to increase reproductive efficiency. The results and scientific novelty of this research are contained in the disclosure of the new content of financial control integrated with digital technologies of the distributed registry and blockchain. As the main conclusion, the necessity of transformation of financial control into the basis of a network-centric management system of national reproduction is argued.
Nikolaichuk O.A. - Households in modern Russia: are there grounds for expanding financial strategies? pp. 32-49


Abstract: The subject of this research is the household consumer expenditure in the context of transformation of market conjuncture due to economic and political factors. The goal of this work consists in determining and characterizing the current financial strategies of the national households. The author believes that the unresolved problem of economic growth of the Russian economy along with the absence of the effective measures on involvement of household assets into the economic process hinder the economic development of the country. Therefore, the relevance of this research is substantiated by the following observations: revaluation of savings of the population as a potential of the country’s economic growth; absence of the effective regulatory policy of the household economies; need for developing the policy aimed at ensuring households with an adequate standard of living for savings and investment, and thus, the growth of national wealth. The scientific novelty consists in gathering analytical information on interpretation of the country’s economic development from the perspective of the household incomes and expenditures as a crucial indicator of economic growth of the country. The conclusion is made that in the conditions of the decline in business activity and drop in real incomes of the Russian population overt the recent years, the consumption of durable and investment goods has reduced. The author describes the household financial strategy within the framework of the model of “delayed consumption”, as well as makes recommendations on the creation of institutional conditions for expanding financial strategies of the households.
Salnikov K.E. - Reduction of construction time as a result of increase of labor efficiency pp. 38-49


Abstract: The subject of this research is the regulatory relations arising in the context of reduction of construction time as a branch of material production, which carries out the erection and reconstruction of buildings and structures of various designation. The object of this research is the construction sector overall; enterprises of different forms of property that functions in the investment and construction sector; organizational-legal forms of interaction between the actors of investment and construction process; state regulation in the sphere of capital construction. The goal of this work lies in solution of the key problems of regulating the construction terms: estimation of time and allocation of resources. The author examines the contractual models for the implementation of investment projects; factors that improve efficiency; technical and technological factors; organizational and economic factors; classification of construction works; role of general labor in modern industrial sectors; reduction of construction time; optimization of organizational issues; modern contact models; traditional model of organizing organization (M-1); EPC-contract model (M-2) ; construction based on EPC(M)- contract (M-3); factors that contribute to reduction of construction time due to the use of contractual models. Special attention is given to the causes and reserves for reduction of construction time in the instance of using various contractual models. The scientific novelty is determined by lack of knowledge on the questions of improvement, theoretical, experimental and technical-economic substantiation of technological processes, methods and forms of organizing construction and its production capacities with regards to reduction of construction time. The importance of this work for the national economy consists in studying the theory and practice of reducing construction time and finding solutions to scientific and technical problems of construction via development and creation of competitive construction technologies and organizational-technological solutions, which would intensity the processes of erection, reconstruction and modernization of buildings while reducing labor, material-technical, fuel and energy resources.
Talalaeva N.S., Murav'eva N.N. - Assessment of the impact of the financial and economic factors of macro environment upon the efficiency of financial management in small and medium businesses of Volgograd Region pp. 43-55


Abstract: The object of this research is the financial management in small and medium businesses (SMB). The subject of this research is the process of assessing the impact of financial and economic factors of macro environment of small and medium businesses of Volgograd Region upon the performance and efficiency of their financial management. As quantifiable key factors influencing financial situation, development and financial management of small and medium businesses, the author selected the factors of the financial and economic block: inflation rate, interest margin and personal income, volume of state incentives. The resultant indexes of the efficiency of financial management became the individual financial indicators. The authors establish the statistically important strong impact of inflation, shift in short-term interest rates for loans allocated to SMB actors, and average personal income of the population of Volgograd Region upon the efficiency of financial management of small and medium businesses of the region. The authors determine the weak impact of the federal and regional incentives for the development of SMB upon the performance of financial management. Systemic approach toward assessment of financial management allows the entrepreneurs to increase the efficiency level considering the opportunities and risks of macro environment.  
Lipinsky D.A., Musatkina A.A. - To the question on the institution of financial legal responsibility in the law system pp. 45-69


Abstract: The object of this research is the social relations regulated and protected by the norms of financial legal responsibility. The subject of this research is the norms of the institution of financial legal responsibility, their functional, genetic, coordination and subordination links; as well as system of the existing scientific views on the institution of financial legal responsibility. The author explores the general features and characteristics of cross-sectoral institution of legal responsibility; substantiates its subject, method and polystructuredness. Based in the general attributes of the institute of legal responsibility, the author determines the characteristics of the institute of financial legal responsibility; analyzes its complex structure comprised of a number of subinstitutions. Various sectoral (internal) and external links of the institution of financial legal responsibility namely with other legal institutions and branches of law are determined. The scientific novelty consists in establishing the presence of two relatively independent legal formations within the national system of law: firstly, sectoral institution of financial legal responsibility; and secondly, cross-sectoral institution of financial legal responsibility. Besides sectoral characteristics of the institution of financial legal responsibility, the author determines cross-sectoral characteristics of the second normative institution. The existence of cross-sectoral institution of financial legal responsibility is substantiated by the presence of certain “points of intersection” within the subject of legal regulation, as well as the general principles, objectives, definitive norms along with coordination, subordination and genetic links. The existence of both, sectoral and cross-sectoral institution of financial legal responsibility is also predetermined by polystructuredness of the system of law itself.
Korobko K.I. - Profit of medical organization from conducting medical activity: axiom or a reason for discussion? pp. 49-59


Abstract: This article examines such mandatory element and special purpose of entrepreneurial activity as gaining profit applicable to medical activity. The author analyzes medical activity in terms of gaining profit based on the legislatively consolidated sources of funding in the sphere of health promotion, which are united into three groups: funds from budgets of all levels, funds from mandatory medical insurance and funds from organizations and citizens, funds received from private and legal entities, including voluntary donations, and other sources that are not prohibited by the legislation of the Russian Federation. The article employs the general and private scientific methods, such as formal legal, analytical, systemic, statistical, and economic analysis. The scientific novelty of this research consists in the following conclusions: that profit from conducting medical activity can be acquired within the framework of rendering paid medical services; the prices (tariffs) for medical services provided within the framework of compulsory health insurance and budget funding do not imply profit. The author advances an opinion that the model of funding in the sphere of protection of public health is substantiated by the social orientation of the activity of the state towards maintenance and promotion of health of its citizens.
Chkhutiashvili L.V. - Environmental Audit under the greening of the Russian economy pp. 50-61


Abstract: In this article, the subject of study are the organization of environmental audits under the greening of the Russian economy. The object of study - the environmental activities of enterprises - users of natural resources. The author examines in detail the environmental audit of economic activities of Russian enterprises as a tool for obtaining reliable information relevant to the preparation and adoption of environmentally sound solutions, which aims - the expression of a qualified opinion on the environmental sustainability of the enterprise at the reporting date, as well as the interpretation of environmental performance, identify trends in its development.Particular attention is paid to environmental audits to improve the competitiveness and profitability of production enterprises from the standpoint of growth of the environmental efficiency of its environmental performance, with the task of environmental audit validation reporting is maintained.The main conclusions of the study is that the greening of the economy should be one of the strategic objectives of development of the state, as only such a path of development will create favorable conditions for the development of competitive industries, will ensure the preservation of the environment, the use of new methods of environmental management, including environmental audit.To evaluate the effectiveness of business, according to the author, it is important to assess the economic and financial situation of the company counterparties (creditors and debtors, competitors), to conduct market research Market in constant comparison of the actual and the declared strategy of business development.Analysis of the reverse effect of economic and financial stability to improve environmental conditions and strengthen environmental sustainability shows how the company is viable in today's market conditions. The higher the resistance, the greater the advantage it has over other firms in the same sector in obtaining loans and investment. This company has a high investment attractiveness and acceptable level of risk for business owners.
Popova E.M., Nikitina T.V. - Financial literacy in the digital era: new opportunities and challenges pp. 50-67


Abstract: Increase of access to financial services (financial inclusion) and overcoming the new digital gap are the priority task of the national governments, which entails the development of state programs and implementation of various initiatives The subject of this research is the financial literacy and instruments for its improvement in the conditions of new digital reality. The question is raised on the need for reconsideration of the financial literacy in the digital context, and implementation of the more extensive multidimensional approach towards its definition. The authors present the results of scientific research conducted in different countries, which prove that financial and digital literacy are the key determinants of financial inclusion. The analysis of foreign practice of introducing the programs aimed at the improvement of financial literacy of the population leads to a number of practically valuable conclusions, namely high potential and effectiveness of the projects that use interactive technologies. The scientific novelty lies in formulation of recommendations that would contribute to more effective implementation of the programs intended for improving financial literacy of the population: targeted programs for improving financial literacy adapted to the needs and level of knowledge of a specific target audience; interactive content that develops both, financial and digital literacy in the context of using financial products. Special attention is given to the formation of competencies for secure use of digital financial products, information awareness of the participants of the programs on the fraudulent schemes. The increase of financial literacy is considered as an indirect financial protection of the consumers.
Strel'nikov V.V. - Contradictory trends in the Russian banking pp. 56-68


Abstract: The subject of this research is the key trends in the development of Russian banking in terms of the unfolding processes of digitalization, financialization, and disintermediation. These trends develop at the level of separate parameters of loan costs, dynamics of private deposits, profit margin, expansion of electronic document flow, implementation of international recommendations with consideration of the national market conditions., as well as  at the higher level of complex characteristics of the formation and advancement of resource capacity of the credit sector, and efficiency of its utilization. At the same time increases the complexity of internal trends due to the external challenges of financial sector, incentivizing for possible refrain from bank’s mediation in mobilization of loan resources and partial withdrawal of funds from bank deposits to investment instruments. The goal of this work lies in determination of systemic contradiction in the growth of the Russian banking sector.
Pastukhanov A. - Managing Risks at Banks Partially Owned by the Government pp. 98-113


Abstract: The subject of the research is the key elements in the system of risk management at systemically important banks partially owned by the government. Due to observed changes in the banking sector, there is a certain need to review the system of risk management in these banks. In the course of the research Pastukhanov analyzes the main indicators of banks' financial stability and describes negative tendencies in banking activities taking into account their transfer to a new international standard The Third Basel Accord. Results demonstrate the fall in banks' profitability and raise in the value of funding sources. To define possible causes of such dynamics, the author of the article analyzes the main elements of the risk management system at banks. By using methods of structural-logical and comparative analysis, the author evaluates the ability of the system to resonse to challenges. In his research Pastukhanov general research methods such as analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, abstraction, formalization, classification, structural-logical and comparative analysis. Results of the resaerch prove the hypothesis that it will be reasonable to review the system of risk management at banks partially owned by the government in order to minimize losses during the transfer to international standards and raising of business profitability. The outcome of the research is the conclusion about the need to integrate the system of risk management in the strategic decision making process made by banks partially owned by the government as well as to implement non-financial risk management. 
Shiryaeva G. - Difficulties of Leasing pp. 114-121


Abstract: The subject of the research is the issues arising in the process of leading deals under the conditions of Russia's economy. The purpose of each leasing deal is to provide an effective assessment of all possible risks and to find methods that guarantee their complete or partial prevention. In her research Shiryaeva defines a number of difficulties parties of a leasing deal may face. The author conducts an evaluation of all possible risks related to document distribution, pricing, accounting and tax accounting, anaylsis and evaluation of a financial status of a lessee and lessor. The author also offers ways to minimize or completely prevent these risks. The methodological basis of the research involves a set of general and special research methods such as analysis, synthesis, systematization, generalization, argumentation and other formal logical methods. The results of the research expand our knowledge about risk managing as an instrument to be used as part of a strategic development and increasing efficiency of lessor's and lessee's activities. At the same time, integrated and successive poilcy in all aspects of a leasing deal increases efficiency of leasing as an instrument of business financing and allows to use all potential of leasing. Conclusions made by the author of the article may be useful to researchers, professors, post-graduate students, practical experts in the sphere of leasing relations as well as everyone who may be concerned about the topic of the research. 
Litvinov E.O. - The Loan Debt Burden of Russia's Population in Terms of the Crisis pp. 122-131


Abstract: The subject of the research is the processes of creation and quantitative evaluation of individual loanee's credit burden as an important indicator of effective functioning of the country's credit banking system and, at the same time, indicator of recessionary tendencies in its development. Global financial crisis, especially in Russia due to the adverse impact of various geopolitical factors, occlusion of external financial sources of the credit activity of Russian commercial banks, decline in income, growth of unemployment and inflation have brought the problem of evaluating the credit burden of the country's population to the fore. The present research is aimed at creating a detailed system of indicators to evaluate the loan debt burden, analysis of scales and dynamics of the credit burden, coming to verifiable conclusions about its development tendencies in Russia, and elimination of negative tendencies in the development of the value of the credit burden at the present stage. The research was carried out using such methods of research as analysis and synthesis, deduction and induction as well as systems', structural, functional, factor, and economic-statistical analysis. The author clarifies the term 'loanee's credit burden' and emphasizes the need to conduct a quantitative evaluation of the loan debt burden as well as offers different approaches to conducting such evaluation. The author also performs the quantitative evaluation of Russian population credit burden over the period of time since 1998 till 2016 and analyzes different scenarios for eliminating gaps and contradictions caused by the development of the population credit burden at the present time. The quantitative evaluation of the credit burden allows to make reasonable conclusions about the dynamics, vector and development tendencies of retail lending, forecasting and prevention of its negative influence on the credit banking system as well as to define the best credit burden which would satisfy interests of all participants of credit relations. 
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