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Question at hand
Pavlinova O.V. - Pollution Charges: Applicable Legal Regulation and Problematic Aspects pp. 1-27


Abstract: Because the social structure of today’s human society, the nature of the institutional relations, actions of people related to using natural resources and their attitude to the environment do not comply with the laws of natural evolution, regulating human business and production activities is now becoming especially important so that we can prevent random and unreasonable use of natural resources. This problem can be solved in 2 ways: legal and economic. One of the leading combined economic and legal method of regulation is charging for adverse impact on the environment (pollution charges). This work uses systematic approach to analyze the currently effective legal regulation of pollution charges and identifies the problematic aspects. The article identifies the administration drawbacks of pollution charges and suggests ways to improve them in the current situation. It makes conclusions concerning the quality of the environmental policy maintained in Russia and administration of the pollution charges. It also suggests changes to the existing laws and regulation.Currently, we can observe annual increase of amounts spent on prevention of all the pollution types. However, despite such annual costs aimed at prevention of environmental damage, the scope of atmospheric, water and soil pollution has not reduced to any significant extent.
Shemyakina M.S. - Modelling of a region’s tax potentials pp. 1-43


Abstract: The article analyzes the structure of tax revenues of the consolidated budget of Mari El (an autonomous republic within Russia). The author tries to substantiate the uniformity of this structure. He states that the share of the three basic taxes (the tax on individuals’ incomes, the tax on organizations’ incomes and the tax on organizations’ properties) practically undergoes no changes in the entire volume of the tax revenue of the consolidated budget. The author, using correlative and regressive analysis, creates models describing the dependence of the macroeconomic performance upon the main sources of tax revenues. He also creates a model with the use of which he estimates the taxable capacity of the region.The article uses such general scientific methods as analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, abstraction, modelling, experiment.The novelty of the study is a development of a methodological instrumentarium for forecasting the taxable capacity of a region. The author also offers some means for changing the processes of the “Tax” automated information system (including the system “Tax-3”, which is now being implemented in the work of the region’s tax services) and its analytic subsystems from the point of view of modernization of tax services.
Ponkin I.V. - Uncertainties in public management pp. 1-10


Abstract: The article analyzes the sources and the essence of uncertainties in public management. Uncertainties are an inseparable part of the process of making decisions in public management. They are an inevitable factor in projecting, making and realization of such decisions in many situations in public management.The author adheres to such scientific methods as the method of systematic analysis, comparative legal method, the method of synthesis, the method of abduction. With the use of these methods, the author reveals fundamental features and the essence of uncertainties in public management and the sources of such uncertainties.The author suggests his own definition of “uncertainty” and describes the concept of “uncertainty in public management”. He also gives a review of today’s discussions on this subject and the major possible approaches to coping with uncertainties in public management.
Shakirova R.K., Fedorova T.V. - Model for Executive Decision Making Process Performed at the Level of Regional Tax Politicy Based on Retrospective Analysis of Current Data Provided by Tax Authorities Regarding Transport Tax pp. 1-27


Abstract: The high level of differentiation between socio-economic situations of the various layers of Russian society encourages the Government to seek ways to regulate the level of income and consumption of citizens. As a tool of the regulation legislators introduced multiplying factors of transport tax in January 2014. Changes in the procedure for calculating tax on high-priced cars have led to complication of administration of this type of payment, as well as to some infringement of the rights of taxpayers (due to the need to recalculate the tax and re-submit a declaration by the end of 2015). This fact encourages to seek alternatives towards regulating the consumption level (in terms of means of transport) using tax instruments. The objective of the research (to develop an administrative decision making model in the field of regional tax policy) achieved on the basis of a retrospective analysis in the absence of the full scope of the required information in the official statements of the Federal Tax Service of the Russian Federation. The work is to offer an alternative approach to taxation of high-priced cars registered by taxpayers, which is to use multiplying factors when calculating transport tax based on the engine capacity of the vehicle. However, calculation of the transport tax taking into account the cost of passenger cars could be effective in the case of careful study and consistency between the procedure and terms of approval of the list of high-priced vehicles, vehicle tax calculation and tax reporting.
Idrisova L.R. - A new look at the concept of offshore pp. 1-17


Abstract: The research subject of this article are the concepts of offshore companies and offshore companies, gives a brief historical excursion into the history of the development of offshore companies as an economic phenomenon. According to the author, the concept of offshore historically created to conceal information about the incomes of the companies go into oblivion, but to understand and predict phenomena in the whole of its development worthy of attention. The financial crisis of 2014 - 2015, sets the vector ceased to exist offshore in their usual sense. Were applied scientific (comparison, analysis, synthesis, abstraction, generalization) and specific scientific methods (formal dogmatic, comparative legal studies, etc.). It is concluded that the offshore has gained a special position in the world economy, becoming a critical element of global business strategies, thereby promoting a variety of cross-border financial flows and the acceleration of the turnover of financial assets. The author reveals the criteria, by which corporations choose offshore companies with optimal conditions.
Raimov A.V. - Economic Assessment of Corporate Confidential Information pp. 1-9


Abstract: The subject of the research is the mathematical-and-statistical tools that are used in the process of quantitative evaluation of economic and financial consequences of the loss of corporate confidential information. Experts in information security can carry out a qualitative analysis and evaluation of the importance of such information but they cannot do the quantitative evaluation that has financial and economic equivalents. Thus, quantitative evaluation of the information value when analyzing the risk of an information security incident is a very nettlesome problem. In this article Raimov describes different types of the information resource value. He also offers a method to define the full value of the corporate information asset and evaluate the weighted average cost of information. As an example, the author analyzes a development laboratory planning to develop a new plant. The result of the research is the quantitative evaluation of the confidential information value, in particular, information asset of the aforesaid development laboratory in a monetary equivalent. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author offersh is own method that allows to transfer the qualitative evaluation into quantitative without any particular requirements. The main conclusion of the research is that in the process of collecting the information asset, it is necessary to keep a balance between the quality and amound of information on the one hand and the value of information on the other hand.  
Kireeva E.V. - Budgetary Risks: Assessment and Ways of Minimization pp. 1-8


Abstract: The subject of the research is the problems related to the analysis of budgetary risks and the ways to minimize the impact of above described risks on the social and economic situation in Russia. The object of the research is the federal budget of the Russian Federation. The author of the article examine such aspects of the topic as methods to evaluate probability and intensity of the negative influence that risks may hvae on the budget stability; and creation of the reserves that allow to influence the quality budget functions, in particular, stabilising and stimulating functions.  The author pays special attention to the insufficient elaboration of the important elements of a complete system of the budget risk management mechanism. The research methods include analysis of data from official Internet sites (Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation), and methods of synthesis of theoretical and practical aspects. The main findings of the research are as follows. The author of the article has analyzed the following key problems: 1. undeveloped categorical apparatus; 2. weak institutional structure of the budget risk management;  3. staff deficiency. The author's contribution and novelty of the research are caused by the fact that the author offers ways to solving the aforesaid problems. 
Akopdzhanova M.O. - Determination of the Status of the Joint Stock Company: New Legislation pp. 12-17


Abstract: The subject of this research is to examine the changes made to the current Russian legislation on joint stock companies, legal aspects of its application based on the data of short stories, as well as their role and importance for the regulation of civil turnover, improve the effectiveness of the enforcement of legislation by the participants of economic relations. This article examines the procedure of recognition of the joint stock company as a company having public status, as well as how changes are made to the appropriate status. Based on the characteristics of the status of the recognised rules of alienation of shares and equity securities of the company, convertible into shares. The methodological basis of the study was a set of General scientific and special methods of attainment of objective socio-legal reality in the study area: methods of analysis, synthesis, systematization and generalization, formal-logical method. In the research process were defined function and legal value, legal consequences of the change of status of a legal entity (joint stock company). In this article attention is also paid to consideration of the types of legal liability, occurring in case of violation of the order of the activities of joint-stock company.The conclusions of this article can be useful for law enforcement agencies, students, graduate students, and all those interested in jurisprudence.
Shemarykina D.A. - Trends in the Development of Information Legislation on Enforcement Proceedings between Federal State Bodies of the Russian Federation pp. 13-24


Abstract: The article discusses the necessity and urgency of improving the legal norms governing the activities of the Federal Bailiff Service (FBS) being the only authorized body of the executive branch performing the enforcement of court decisions. Thus, one of the priorities of the Russian FBS is to replenish Russia's consolidated budget by debt enforcement of taxes and duties, administrative fines, execution fees. One of the strategic objectives is transition to enforcement in electronic form. To solve it, the Russian FBS should ensure the legal value of paperless electronic interaction with public authorities. The legal analysis of formulated proposals on legal regulation of information interaction between the Federal Bailiff Service and other bodies of executive power has been applied as a research method. It is concluded that the development of legislation on the exchange of electronic information on enforcement proceedings between federal state authorities of the Russian Federation is one of the priority activities. Eventually, it would not only improve the enforcement of judicial decisions, but also increase the revenues in the federal budget. 
Utkin V.V. - On standardization in the Russian Federation: problems of efficiency of administrative-legal management pp. 18-37


Abstract: The subjects of research are problems of efficiency of the administrative and legal management. The implementation of the Concept of development of national standardization system is possible only with the condition of optimization of public administration. In order to improve administrative-legal regulation in the sphere of standardization in the context of economic integration at the legislative level it is necessary to establish the legal framework for standardization, content needs to be mandatory for Federal, regional authorities, local government, legal entities and individuals, the self-regulatory organizations, business enterprises and organizations irrespective of form of ownership. Were applied scientific (comparison, analysis, synthesis, abstraction, generalization) and specific scientific methods (formal dogmatic, comparative legal studies, etc.). It is concluded that the introduction of the measures proposed by the author of the perfection of administrative-legal regulation will allow to increase the efficiency of state management in the sphere of standardization in the context of economic integration and globalization, will contribute to the formation of the innovative potential and competitiveness of the Russian economy.
Novichkova O.V. - Diversification of Credit Risk by Application of a New Banking Product pp. 18-24


Abstract: Commercial activity of the organizations of the Russian banking sector is subject to risks which differ in a big variety and rather high level in comparison with a portfolio of these risks at the banks functioning in the countries with stabler and developed economy. Mainly, it is caused by complexity of an economic situation in Russia, imperfection of its banking system. Inevitability and importance of risk in banking predetermine need of complex studying of all its aspects as an obligatory element of the economic researches preceding the beginning of bank activity or which are carried out in its process. One of the most important in this system is risk management. Risk it is possible and it is necessary to operate, using various methods allowing to predict approach of a risk event and to soften its consequences in a certain degree. The research subject is bank risks and a control system of them; the work purpose – disclosure of the main approaches to classification of financial risks of bank, methods of an assessment and management of them, and also definition of ways of their minimization.Monographic research, analysis of structure and dynamics, methods of the economic analysis, methods of the statistical analysis. The analysis is carried out and the directions of minimization of financial risks of commercial bank are defined. On the basis of the revealed features introduction of a new banking product, namely providing leasing transactions on acquisition of agricultural machinery that will allow to reduce the level of credit risk as the main component of financial risks of the organizations of the banking sector is offered.
Akopdzhanova M.O. - Legal Prospects of Development of Private-Public Partnership as Economic and Legal Form of Cooperation between State and Business pp. 23-30


Abstract: Public-private partnership is a form of cooperation between the governmental authorities, local authorities and economic actors (business entities) aimed at achieving socially important results in the form of enabling the functioning of the most important sectors of public life (supplying products, constructing infrastructure and other facilities, performing other work and providing other services). The importance of the public-private partnership has become especially important in the situation when the government supports various forms of economic activities, development of competition and ensuring the competitiveness of Russian goods manufacturers. This article describes the possible directions of improvement of the currently effective laws and regulations on public-private partnership performance of which may activate this line of operation of public-law ad private-law subjects of economy. The methodological miss for this research is the combination of general scientific and special methods of research into the social and legal reality in the area under study: analysis, synthesis, systematization and generalization, formal logic methods. The article examines and analyses the most important aspects of the public-private partnership, purposes, objectives, directions of ensuring the high performance and efficiency of the development of this form of cooperation. During this research, on the basis of the analysis of the law application practice, the authors identified possible directions of improving the legal regulation of the institute of public-private partnership.
Akopdzhanova M.O. - Institution of Mediation in the Russian law pp. 28-36


Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of the legal aspects of the use, role and importance of mediation for the development of social relations, strengthening of legal culture and effective compliance with current Russian legislation. Judicial interpretation, clarification of the highest judicial authorities and available data on the application of the mediation procedure, allow to implement uniform criteria and rules for reaching consensus (agreement) of participants in civil transactions and economic relations with all the key issues of entrepreneurial and other economic activities, allowing, thus, to unify the law enforcement practice that is able to provide the most effective protection of the rights and freedoms of citizens and the legitimate interests of society and the state. The methodological basis of the study involves a set of general and special research methods for understanding objective socio-legal environment in the study area: methods of analysis, synthesis, systematization and generalization and formal-logical method. In the course of research the authors have defined functions and legal value as well as legal consequences of the use of mediation, have researched explanations on the formation of a uniform judicial practice provided by these judicial authorities. The conclusions of this article can be useful for law enforcement agencies, students, graduate students, and others interested in questions of jurisprudence.
Chkhutiashvili L.V. - Environmental Audit under the greening of the Russian economy pp. 50-61


Abstract: In this article, the subject of study are the organization of environmental audits under the greening of the Russian economy. The object of study - the environmental activities of enterprises - users of natural resources. The author examines in detail the environmental audit of economic activities of Russian enterprises as a tool for obtaining reliable information relevant to the preparation and adoption of environmentally sound solutions, which aims - the expression of a qualified opinion on the environmental sustainability of the enterprise at the reporting date, as well as the interpretation of environmental performance, identify trends in its development.Particular attention is paid to environmental audits to improve the competitiveness and profitability of production enterprises from the standpoint of growth of the environmental efficiency of its environmental performance, with the task of environmental audit validation reporting is maintained.The main conclusions of the study is that the greening of the economy should be one of the strategic objectives of development of the state, as only such a path of development will create favorable conditions for the development of competitive industries, will ensure the preservation of the environment, the use of new methods of environmental management, including environmental audit.To evaluate the effectiveness of business, according to the author, it is important to assess the economic and financial situation of the company counterparties (creditors and debtors, competitors), to conduct market research Market in constant comparison of the actual and the declared strategy of business development.Analysis of the reverse effect of economic and financial stability to improve environmental conditions and strengthen environmental sustainability shows how the company is viable in today's market conditions. The higher the resistance, the greater the advantage it has over other firms in the same sector in obtaining loans and investment. This company has a high investment attractiveness and acceptable level of risk for business owners.
Pastukhanov A. - Managing Risks at Banks Partially Owned by the Government pp. 98-113


Abstract: The subject of the research is the key elements in the system of risk management at systemically important banks partially owned by the government. Due to observed changes in the banking sector, there is a certain need to review the system of risk management in these banks. In the course of the research Pastukhanov analyzes the main indicators of banks' financial stability and describes negative tendencies in banking activities taking into account their transfer to a new international standard The Third Basel Accord. Results demonstrate the fall in banks' profitability and raise in the value of funding sources. To define possible causes of such dynamics, the author of the article analyzes the main elements of the risk management system at banks. By using methods of structural-logical and comparative analysis, the author evaluates the ability of the system to resonse to challenges. In his research Pastukhanov general research methods such as analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, abstraction, formalization, classification, structural-logical and comparative analysis. Results of the resaerch prove the hypothesis that it will be reasonable to review the system of risk management at banks partially owned by the government in order to minimize losses during the transfer to international standards and raising of business profitability. The outcome of the research is the conclusion about the need to integrate the system of risk management in the strategic decision making process made by banks partially owned by the government as well as to implement non-financial risk management. 
Shiryaeva G. - Difficulties of Leasing pp. 114-121


Abstract: The subject of the research is the issues arising in the process of leading deals under the conditions of Russia's economy. The purpose of each leasing deal is to provide an effective assessment of all possible risks and to find methods that guarantee their complete or partial prevention. In her research Shiryaeva defines a number of difficulties parties of a leasing deal may face. The author conducts an evaluation of all possible risks related to document distribution, pricing, accounting and tax accounting, anaylsis and evaluation of a financial status of a lessee and lessor. The author also offers ways to minimize or completely prevent these risks. The methodological basis of the research involves a set of general and special research methods such as analysis, synthesis, systematization, generalization, argumentation and other formal logical methods. The results of the research expand our knowledge about risk managing as an instrument to be used as part of a strategic development and increasing efficiency of lessor's and lessee's activities. At the same time, integrated and successive poilcy in all aspects of a leasing deal increases efficiency of leasing as an instrument of business financing and allows to use all potential of leasing. Conclusions made by the author of the article may be useful to researchers, professors, post-graduate students, practical experts in the sphere of leasing relations as well as everyone who may be concerned about the topic of the research. 
Litvinov E.O. - The Loan Debt Burden of Russia's Population in Terms of the Crisis pp. 122-131


Abstract: The subject of the research is the processes of creation and quantitative evaluation of individual loanee's credit burden as an important indicator of effective functioning of the country's credit banking system and, at the same time, indicator of recessionary tendencies in its development. Global financial crisis, especially in Russia due to the adverse impact of various geopolitical factors, occlusion of external financial sources of the credit activity of Russian commercial banks, decline in income, growth of unemployment and inflation have brought the problem of evaluating the credit burden of the country's population to the fore. The present research is aimed at creating a detailed system of indicators to evaluate the loan debt burden, analysis of scales and dynamics of the credit burden, coming to verifiable conclusions about its development tendencies in Russia, and elimination of negative tendencies in the development of the value of the credit burden at the present stage. The research was carried out using such methods of research as analysis and synthesis, deduction and induction as well as systems', structural, functional, factor, and economic-statistical analysis. The author clarifies the term 'loanee's credit burden' and emphasizes the need to conduct a quantitative evaluation of the loan debt burden as well as offers different approaches to conducting such evaluation. The author also performs the quantitative evaluation of Russian population credit burden over the period of time since 1998 till 2016 and analyzes different scenarios for eliminating gaps and contradictions caused by the development of the population credit burden at the present time. The quantitative evaluation of the credit burden allows to make reasonable conclusions about the dynamics, vector and development tendencies of retail lending, forecasting and prevention of its negative influence on the credit banking system as well as to define the best credit burden which would satisfy interests of all participants of credit relations. 
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