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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Contents of Issue 01/2017
Contents of Issue 01/2017
Culture of the mundane
Antonova A.A. - The transformation of public spaces in contemporary urban culture pp. 1-7

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2017.1.21820

Abstract: The subject of this research is the processes of public spaces in contemporary urban culture. This paper explores the reasons that, according to most researchers, will lead to the decline of the traditional public life and urban public spaces. The author tries to present the arguments in favor of the existence of new forms of public spaces, and other forms of existence of social life in the cities.The author distinguishes two concepts are not well enough developed, in studies of public urban space: "mobility" and "hybridity". If fully explore these phenomena, we can solve the problem of confrontation between the public and private spheres, and to identify new forms of social interaction through the prism of fluidity of modern life.The theoretical basis of the research based on the concept of "mobile sociology" Urry. The concept of "mobility", which is based on the refusal of thinking in "terms of stable structures," allows to build a new research methodology public spaces.The main results of the study can be attributed primarily to the recognition of the existence of a certain duality in all social processes. This conclusion allows to see the mixing of public and private life and the emergence of the result of the hybrid spaces in the urban environment (libraries with remote access, parks with elements of virtual reality).There arise new types of public spaces (fairs mobile) and new ways of implementing publicity in traditional spaces (Wi-Fi access, mobile objects) in the urban environment.
Fine arts
Ezernitskaya A. - Procession in St. Mark's Square and Miracle of the Cross at the Bridge of S. Lorenzo by Gentile Bellini: the experience of conceptual interpretation pp. 8-23

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2017.1.21954

Abstract: The narrative depiction cycles of the Renaissance, similar to the archive documents, manifest as the distinct primary sources and contain the important information, which allows revealing the essence of well-known work more extensively. The subject of this research is the two canvases by Gentile Bellini “Procession in St. Mark's Square” (1496) and “Miracle of the Cross at the Bridge of S. Lorenzo” (1500) painted by the request of Scuola Grande di San Giovanni Evangelista in Venice. Based on the studied archive documents, the author attempts concretizing the maximal amount of historical characters – participants of the portrayed by Bellini events. Mostly using the iconological analysis, the author clarifies the essence and reveal the inner meaning of the oeuvre. For the first time the well-known works of Bellini are examined in parallel with the primary sources texts. The article analyses not just the depictive features of the compositions, but rather their historical information content, considering the Venetian realities and underlining the details that were important to Gentile Bellini as the signs of the era. Among the portrayed on both canvases, were identified the representatives of the Compagnie della Calza – important and intrinsic members of the cultural life of the Republic of Venice of the XV-XVI centuries.
Culture and cultures
Savvina O.V. - Female beauty standards: natural and cultural pp. 24-34

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2017.1.20508

Abstract: This article examines the female beauty standards substantiated by the cultural preferences (for example, “lotus feet” of Chinese women in Medieval times), as well as standards based on perception of a woman as young and beautiful – natural beauty. The author reveals the interrelation between two types of standards and attempts giving answer to the question: do the cultural standards contradict to the natural standards. For answering this question, the work analyzes the formation of cultural standards of female beauty alongside their cultural essence. The author turns to the works of experts in the field of plastic surgery and sociological research for revealing the standards of natural beauty that are common to the people of various cultures; and then, analyzes the cultural standards of beauty, their functions, and prerequisites for emergence of the new standards (based on the example of key standards of the XX century). The conclusion is made that cultural beauty standards do not contradict or deny the natural, but are built over them. Health risks that women tend to take in order to correspond with the standards, always remains unnoticeable, because otherwise, their sacrifices are in vain. The article highlights the functions of cultural beauty standards united into three main groups, which are called to reflect: 1) origin of a person and his social status; 2) personal qualities and moral orientations; 3) world perception and place of an individual in the world.
Culture and Cult
Kanokova F.Y. - Gender signs in sculptural and visual solutions of the stone-carved stelas of the Nogais pp. 35-41

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2017.1.21539

Abstract:  The subject of this research is the sculptural and visual solutions of the stone-carved stelas of the Nogais in form of the tombstones. Carved headstones of anthropomorphic and stela forms were decorated with calligraphic carve, geometrical and floral ornaments, trine emblems “tamga”, with abundance of the Islamic symbols and subject compositions. The anthropomorphic headstones have the silhouettes of the traditional male headgear of Nogai people, while the subject compositions consists of the realistic images of male and female appurtenances, clothes, and tools. The topic of the research is highly relevant and revealed from the various perspectives by the modern ethnographers, historians, and experts of Nogai culture. The question of gender affiliation of the stone-carved stelas remains open within the reviewed materials. This article is first to conduct classification in accordance with the gender affiliation, as well as carry out hermeneutical reading of the figurative elements. The main results of the work are aimed at elimination of the established gap.  
Philosophy of culture
Aleksandrov N.N. - Three stages of engineering style of design of the XX century pp. 42-55

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2017.1.19159

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the question of periodization of design history of the XX century, precisely the period between 1920 and 1960.  It is marked as a special “engineering style” with its own distinctive features that are revealed in the text. Within the framework of engineering style, the author highlights three manners that consistently replace each other – archaic, classical, and decadence. On this lowere level of cycles, the regularity is determined that is associated with the 11-year sun cycles explored in A. L. Chizevsky’s heliotaraxy. By the virtue of this mean, design correlates with the history of culture, politics, and evolution of mentality. Thus, a new periodization in the XX century history of design is being established, and the reviewed period serves as its first stage. The author’s main contribution into this work lies in formulation of new periodization in the history of design of the XX century, in other words, a universal technical inter-style with a starting point in 1920 and completion in 1953. It is demonstrated that within the engineering style, have existed and consistently replaced each other the three distinct manners. In addition to this, the author underlines that the most recent manner was postponed for 5 years due to the war, which took all the resources and paralyzed the market competitiveness.
Culture of the body
Pronkina A. - Cosmetic practices of transformation of human body in the conditions of modern culture: terminology, typology, and spheres of functionality pp. 56-71

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2017.1.20653

Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of implementation of cosmetic practices of body transformation in the context of modern culture. The author examines such phenomenon as the ways of ordinary or specialized visual bodily transformation associated with the scenic or scenic-sculptural arrangement of person’s appearance avoiding the violation of the biological structures of a body. Special attention is given to the development of phenomenological characteristic of bodily “procedures” that support its sociocultural status, as well as establishment of correlation between the realizations of human cultural existence at present stage. The main goal of the article consists not in just pointing out at the problem itself, but also attempt establishing the thoughts and such thoughts and limits, in which takes places the scenic and scenic-sculptural transformation of natural modality of the body by means of terminological, typological, and functional fixation. The scientific novelty consists mainly in actualization of discourse of the cosmetic practices of transformation within the framework of scientific formulation of the problems of natural and artificial body at present stage of cultural development. The article demonstrates that all of them from the perspective of its structure are realized in both, ordinary and specialized areas, as well as capture such cultural complexes as science, lifestyle, fashion, education, and art.
Cultural heritage, tradition and innovation
Kimeeva T.I., Polevod V.A. - Methods of actualization of the historical-cultural and natural heritage in activity of university museum pp. 72-79

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2017.1.21095

Abstract:  The subject of this research is the work of university museum “Archeology, Ethnography, and Ecology of Siberia” pertaining to actualization of the objects of historical-cultural and natural heritage in form of ethnographical and entomological collections of the museum, which in turn are viewed as the object of this research. The goal of the article consists in determination of the peculiarities of actualization of heritage within the framework of cultural-educational activity of the museum, as well as substantiation of the approaches, methods, and recommendations that contribute into optimization of the activity, when the collections based on museum methods are included into the modern sociocultural space. Analysis of actualization of museum collection as a whole, considering the specific characteristics of ethnocultural and natural heritage, is based on the systemic methodological approach. Scientific novelty of this article manifests in the necessity of identification of opportunities to include the various types of heritage into the modern museum space, as well as improve the theoretical base on actualization of such heritage with regards to the museum practices. The research reveal the extensive opportunities and prospects of actualization not just the ethnographical materials, but also entomological collections.   
Culture of the mundane
Kanokova F.Y. - Complexes of traditional male and female costume of Nogais pp. 80-87

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2017.1.21521

Abstract: The subject of this research is the complex of male and female traditional costume of Nogais, which reflects the characteristic features of nomadic or sedentary lifestyle of the ethnos. Currently, the examined question is insufficiently studied; it is practically not represented in museums or national life, and the main visual material consists in sketches and impressions of the travelers, as well as photo images of the XVIII-XX centuries. This research is conducted for closing such gap. The work applies the general and specific methods of culturological and art review; the method of field ethnography is used due to the disperse dwelling of the Nogais. This article is first to determine not just the local peculiarities, but also common features that characterize the Nogai costume as an integral and monumental phenomenon that has common constructive and compositional system. This research is called to acquire further development in reconstruction of costumes for the museum collections and stage variations.
Art and Art History
Burmatov M.A. - Conception of the new forms of song repertoire in Soviet Russia (1920s 1930s) pp. 88-97

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2017.1.22039

Abstract: The object of this research is the Soviet song of the 1920’s – 1930’s as a genre stylistic phenomenon. The subject of this research is examination of the issues of history of development, content structure, and peculiarities of the song repertoire during these years. The shift in sociopolitical formation in Russia caused by the revolutionary events of October 1917 that drastically changed the national cultural identity, including the song art. The article makes an attempt to trace the performing traditions of that period (folk song, urban folklore, mass song). Using the method of analysis, the author underlines the presence of crisis in a number of the traditional song genres and development of the new forms of song repertoire on the background. The article points at certain peculiarities common during this timeframe to the Russian vocal art. Accent is made on the development of lyrical intonation in a song, which encouraged the popularization of musical compositions. The author highlights the role of jazz music culture as an accelerator in development of the new features in stage music art.
Styles, trends, schools
Aleksandrov N.N. - Genesis and composition of Art Deco style pp. 98-117

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2017.1.19161

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the important in development of design period (1931-1942) that is known as Art Deco. The author reveals its overall stylistic orientation, including the presences of Art Deco trends in the early Stalinist style. The examined period (decade of Art Deco dominance) is viewed as a sequence of alternation of the four stylistic trends, referred to as a famous in theory of design functional, grades, and circular stylization  and their synthesis of the late 1930’s. General methodology of the research is systemic genetics, and partially the cycle theory, including the author’s variation in existential form of both. The main conclusion of the conducted research consists in the fact that the genesis of Art Deco is a transitional state from purely engineering manner of the 1920’s to the baroque and decadent manner of engineering style of the 1940’s – 1950’s. This is demonstrated by the reviewed states of Art Deco style that differ in their form.
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