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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Psychologist" > Contents of Issue є 05/2016
Contents of Issue є 05/2016
Societal passions
Pogontseva D.V. - Forms of Discrimination in Contemporary Social Psychology pp. 1-6

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.5.20574

Abstract: The author of this article discusses some of the types of "discrimination" in modern social psychology, in particular, such type as lookism, i.e. discrimination based on the external appearance of the Other. The author notes that lookism can be understood in its original definition as discrimination of beautiful or not beautiful people, but also in a broader sense, as discrimination of people  that triggered by their appearance or style (clothes, hairstyle, etc.). The analysis of Russian and foreign works shows that in spite of the high interest in the phenomenon of lookism, at the moment there is an insufficient number of researches devoted to the specificity of lookism in general and ethnolookism in particular. At the same time, there is a growing interest in the problems of lookism due to economic, political and migration processes both in Russia and abroad. The expanding phenomenon of migration around the world and confrontation of Islam to other religions lead to numerous conflicts starting from terrorist attacks in Moscow, Stavropol Region, different regions of the North Caucasus and ending with the conflict with the Islamic state and terrorist attacks in France (in particular, in the editorial office of newspaper "Charlie Hebdo"), the terrorist act in Belgium as well as conflicts with Islam representatives in Germany.
Ётнос и этничность
Proshkina V.A., Khoroshikh P.P., Sergievich A.A., Lekhanova F.M. - Gender Stereotypes and Gender Identity of Youth of the North: Comparative Analysis pp. 7-11

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.5.20379

Abstract: The article deals with one of the most pressing issues of modern gender psychology - the changing gender identity of the youth. The authors of the article present the results of the study on the gender identity of modern youth from the Northern areas of the Far Eastern district of the Russian Federation and adherence to gender stereotypes as well as the comparative analysis of the relationship between personality traits and a proposed gender-based portrait of the same gender person. The research is based on the model offered by S. Bam. The results of the research have shown that there is a shift in gender roles of today's youth. In the portrait of modern females the girls indicate masculine traits. This indicates the formation of a new strategy of women's behaviour in Russian society - the equation with men in psychological terms. Men along with masculinity traits also indicate femininity traits which indicates the decline in their level of internal aggression. Thus, the shift of gender roles occurs in both gender directions. It is also worth noting that a certain class of people with an androgynous behavioural style has been defined by the authors which indicates a "transitional" stage in the shift of gender attitudes. The concentration of more than half of the respondents in the field of androgyny opens new perspectives for further research in this area of scientific knowledge
Philosophy and psychology
Faritov V.T. - Heidegger as a Remedy: the Ontology of Psychiatry pp. 12-23

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.5.20296

Abstract: The article deals with the influence of philosophies on the theory and practice of psychiatry. The material of the research is the work of the German psychiatrist and philosopher Ludwig Binswanger. The object of the research is the ontology of psychiatry. The subject of the research is the interpretation of fundamental ontology and existential analytics of Martin Heidegger in psychiatric research of Ludwig Binswanger. The author of the article analyzes the problem of the ontological foundation of psychiatry as a scientific discipline, the basic concepts of existential analysis as a method of psychiatric research, and describes the existential structure of schizophrenia. The author has used the methodological principles and the framework of categories and concepts from fundamental ontology and existential analytics. The main result of the research is the explication of the ontological content of existential analysis as a method of research in the field of psychiatry. The author shows that the works of Ludwig Binswanger bear not only mental but also the philosophical significance. Psychiatric studies of Ludwig Binswanger are based on phenomenology, fundamental ontology and existential analytics.
Professional psychology
Vasileva I.I. - Safety Culture: To ManageЕor Better Not? pp. 24-33

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.5.19883

Abstract: The article is an attempt to clarify the concepts of organizational psychology: organizational culture, safety culture, safety climate, overcoming the inherent illegibility of the humanities categories, and to reveal their functional significance. The multiplicity of simultaneously ongoing organization actions is accepted as the starting point in the argument. All kinds of actions are commonly grouped in three classes: formal, non-formal and informal. The simultaneous relevance of goals of different directions and a set of conflicts between them are considered as a closest consequence and as an important inherent feature of real production activity. The organizational management is logically determined by the need to resolve conflicts and get the nominal output. It is carried out by the chief executive officer. In each case of resolving conflict the leader sets the priorities between conflicting goals and puts thereby forward the sample for staff for solutions in similar conflict situations. Dozens of standard rules of conduct set by the leader form the organizational culture. The chief executive officer proved to be the main creator of organizational culture. The peculiarity of a particular culture is set by the stable structure of dominant objectives and corresponds to the concept of climate. Safety culture, thus, is determined as the sustaining of steady dominance of the ensuring safety objectives in all situations of conflict of simultaneously relevant objectives. It is a secondary result of chief’s style to conduct the affairs but not a business process. All attempts to neglect the real forming factors of organizational culture in management lead to the formation of quasi-functions, which cause organizational neurosis, one of the signs of which are “safety games”. All forms of organizational neurosis are destructive and preserve the preconditions of breakdowns and accidents. The examples of wrong safety problem solutions in Russian power industry are provided.
Psychology and pedagogics
Sennitskaya E.V. - Dependence of the Emotional State of the Reader and Listener on the Amount and Hierarchical Structure of Perceived Information pp. 34-39

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.5.20482

Abstract: The object of the research is the emotional state of the reader and the listener while he(she) is percepting the information in different amounts and with different hierarchical structure. The work is devoted to the problem of how the emotional state depends on the structuring and dosing of the information. The main objective is to develop recommendations on how to structure and dose verbal, mathematical and motional information to avoid negative emotions that arise because of lack of information or its redundancy. The study develops information theory of emotions by P.V. Simonov. Theoretical significance of this research is to clarify the terms of «lack of information», «information overload». The findings of research can be used in teaching, advertising, political and clinical psychology. Methods of the research are an empirical study in the form of monitoring of the activities of school and university teachers, as well as a natural experiment with students of 9–11 grades and students of 1–2 college courses. The content of training conducted by the author or another teacher was modeled in the form of object-hierarchical scheme. Further, by observation and interviews changes in emotional state of the subject were indicated. Until now, the emotional state of the person considered by researchers only in connection with the content of the information perceived, whereas in the present study proves the connection between the emotional state and the structure as well as the amount of information, regardless of its content. The result of this study was the conclusion that when the unknown object is revealed less than three well-known ones, readers (and even more listeners) experience negative emotions, which subjects described as a depression or a pulling feeling of uncertainty, and in the case when the unknown object is revealed due to more than five known objects of a linear sequence, subjects experience negative emotions which are characterized as irritation, impatience, a sense of redundancy of the information and uselessness of the further disclosure of the object. In the case where an unknown object is revealed by three to five known objects the subjects define their state as a cheerful and upbeat, the information as inspiring, clarifying, helping them to slice and dice this information.
Eros and Thanatos
Spektor D.M. - Doomness and Transgression. Georges Bataille pp. 40-52

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2016.5.19702

Abstract: The subject of the research covers transgression in relation to phenomena traced back primarily in writings of Georges Bataille (limit states of emotional experience and, at the same time, mass practice and actions inducing the "transition state"). The study shows that a) above mentioned practices are rather pragmatic historically; b) the phenomena and phenomenology of transgression are usually understood through introspection which should be completed with historical reenactments reproducing, among other things, the logic of transgression genesis in terms of its necessity; c) it is impossible to get an in-depth comprehension of the nature of 'denial', 'doomness' and other important other-world-states without defining their particular genetic source or outcome which is understood in terms of ontology as being-in-the-world determining the reality of the world on the way of ontology constantly appealing to its sources and being expressed, first of all, in a form of emotional experience (the feelign of self, existence, identity). The research method used by the author relates to the analysis and historical reenactment of being as a category studied from the materialistic and genetic points of view. Transgressinos are viewed in terms of necessary acts of finding roots in life and drawing upon the world-being-ready-for-involvement. The drama of the world apepars to be an initial imputation or channel of transfer alowing to 'feel' the world on the other side of insuperable stimulus-response determinism. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author emphasizes the problems of being-in-the-world that are caused, in the first place, by limits of the natural state (reflex response) which cannot be overcome in any natural way. In this research the author demonstrates that overcoming is connected with the shock-terrifying. Thus, the problem of being-in-the-world cannot be 'solved' and eliminated but still remains important and includes 'being' in the status-of-transition. 
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