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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Psychologist" > Contents of Issue № 04/2014
Contents of Issue № 04/2014
Philosophy and psychology
Kulagina-Yartseva V.S. - Anthrony J. Steinbok. The Distinctive Structure of the Emotions (translated by Kulagina-Yartseva, V. S.) pp. 1-29

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0425.2014.4.12971

Abstract: The purpose of the article is to investigate, whether the acts relating to the emotional sphere of experience in the objectifying acts of cognition are funded, or have the unique structure and are independent of these acts. On this perspective we find the beginning of reasonings in Husserl's phenomenology.Revolutionism of ideas of Husserl consisted not simply in opening of intentional structure of consciousness, but in the unique phenomenological approach which has allowed it to describe a way of judgment of what is something (life a subject) in relation to force and limits of subjectivity. Saying that emotional acts are funded in more primary the intentional acts, Husserl means that emotions depend on objectifying acts because characteristics of the last that "the non-objectifying act", presented in a sense, meant something outside itself are necessary for them. Certain emotional experiences, such as considered here (trust), or in a broader sense, such which treat the sphere interpersonal and a reality of the personality, shouldn't be understood as based in the objectifying acts. Though it doesn't contradict to the basic structure of "funding" offered by Husserl, it contradicts to his early understanding of emotions.
Inner world
Subbotskiy E. - Excurstion to the World Behind the Looking-Glass: Magic Thinking in the Modern World pp. 30-73

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0425.2014.4.12322

Abstract: In article questions are considered: What is the magic reality? This reality gets into what spheres of life of the modern person? In what the reason of penetration of magic reality into life of the modern person? To what consequences can lead such penetration? In the ancient time and the Middle Ages access to magic reality was provided by religion or alternative religions of practice: witchcraft, sorcery, astrology, alchemy. During the Renaissance era art joined them. In the XIX century there was a movement of a spiritualizm, in XX – parapsychology. At last at the end of XX - the beginning of the XXI century there are portable interactive forms of visual representation of magic reality – computer games and the Internet, and a wide circulation of individual electronic displays (laptops, ah-pedov, of iPhones, etc.) brought the interactive world of a world behind the looking-glass into a family and a nursery. Psychological researches showed that the belief in the magic world at the modern person didn't disappear, and left deep into the unconscious. This hidden belief sprouts to all spheres of modern life: economy, policy, medicine, morals, entertainments, education, even in physics and science about a brain. Why children "sit down" on games in which they possess magic force? Why rational people often make economically unprofitable decisions? How it turns out, what the educated people can accept opinion of politicians which contradicts its radical interests? Why in medicine the effect of placebo works? From where at terrorists, both during war, and during the world, such fanatical determination and strength of mind? How it is possible, what even in the absence of supervision, in themselves, some people choose good, but not angrily, acting contrary to own benefit? Why physiologists call work of a brain as "magic"? The answer to these and other questions – in extramental belief of the modern person in supernatural. Novelty: (1) For the first time some phenomena in the sphere of children's game, policy, economy, medicine, morals, and science about a brain are considered in the context of the last psychological researches of magic thinking; (2) Also consideration of historical evolution of access for the person to magic reality, and also consequences of contact with this reality for the individual and society is new. Conclusions: (1) The magic thinking during which known laws of physics can be broken, of biology and psychology, widely practices in the modern world in the form of entertainments, games, and other kinds of activity based on imagination; (2) Both children, and educated adults, consciously or unconsciously, trust in possibility of the supernatural; (3) This hidden belief generates specific effects in different spheres of life: to policy, economy, medicine, the moral sphere, the sphere of entertainments, even in the sphere of science; (4) The wide circulation of interactive electronic displays facilitates access for the modern person to the imagined world of the supernatural; (5) As a result the probability of influence of the hidden belief in supernatural on behavior of the person increases.
To understand the human being
Goncharuk E.A. - Erich Fromm and Jean-Paul Sartre about Masochism: Comparative Analysis pp. 74-95

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0425.2014.4.13020

Abstract: In article the comparative analysis of a phenomenon of masochism at the neofreudian E. Fromm and the existentialist J.-P. Sartre is undertaken. It is shown that Freud saw masochism roots in secrets of children's psychosexual development. Fromm as the representative of a neofreydizm made an attempt considerably to change this diagnosis. He came to the conclusion that a phenomenon of a sadism and masochism not so much psychoanalytic, how many a social phenomenon. People become hostages of this neurotic state as a result of education, socialization and realization of the interpersonal relations. The power corrupts people. She forces many to seek for love of power, and others dooms to humiliation and subordination. Essentially other look is developed by Sartre. He believes that masochism not so much social, how many an anthropological phenomenon. The power can't force the personality to cruelty or submission if it doesn't coincide with its existential choice. Sartre creates the concept of masochism in polemic with Simona Beauvoir with whom it was connected by the love relations. The author uses methods of historical reconstruction of a problem. It allows to show that masochism has historical aspects. At different stages there were different versions of sources of masochism. In article also methods of philosophical comprehension of the person are applied. Thus, the phenomenology of a sociality is replaced in article with existential thinking. Novelty of article that the problem of masochism isn't reduced only to psychological aspect. For the first time in domestic literature in historical aspect views Freud, Fromm and Sartre are compared. It is as a result shown that from a stage to a stage the judgment of this phenomenon becomes more and more developed, clear and theoretically productive. Existential examination is characterized as the most well-founded.
Professional psychology
Kukuev E.A. - Ridigity of Subjects of Education pp. 96-125

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0425.2014.4.12796

Abstract: In article results of empirical research of subjects of the education conducted in March-April, 2014 are analyzed. Selection was made by teachers of schools, teachers of higher education institution, graduates of schools, college and higher education institution. As object of research the rigidnost of subjects of education acted. The associativity of concepts openness/closeness – a rigidnost is analyzed. The parallel between openness of the person and his relation to innovations is drawn. On the basis of the dispersive analysis conclusions about a ratio of a rigidnost of teachers and a rigidnost of the being trained are drawn; communication of a rigidnost of subjects of education and the accommodation district (city/village), steps of education (school-college-higher education institution) is investigated. The technique acted as diagnostic tools "A Tomsk questionnaire of a rigidnost of G.V.Zalevsky" (TORZ). This technique allows to draw a conclusion not only on a rigidnost of the person, but also to analyse its compound components. As a whole the analysis is carried out on 8 scales: 1 . Scale of the general rigidnost; 2 . Subscale of an actual rigidnost; 3 . Scale of a sensitive rigidnost; 4 . Scale of an adjusting rigidnost. 5 . Rigidnost scale as states. 6 . Scale of a premorbidny rigidnost. 7 . Reality scale. 8 . Lie scale. Empirical research of a rigidnost of subjects of education allows to draw the following conclusions:1 . On all components of a rigidnost (TORZ) significant distinctions are received. In particular, at teachers level of a rigidnost is higher on four components (from six): general rigidnost (000); actual rigidnost (000); sensitive rigidnost (010); rigidnost as state (000).2 . The Rigidnost of subjects of education isn't connected with the district of their accommodation (city/village).3 . The hypothesis that "the rigidnost of graduates of educational institutions isn't connected with a step of education (school-college-higher education institution)" received confirmation partially. That is, statistically significant distinctions between selections were shown on scales: sensitive rigidnost (043); premorbidny rigidnost (017). Thus, selection "school students" on all scales showed the lowest points on rigidnost components. That on the one hand it is possible to characterize positively: school students are most open for the changes happening in their life. On the other hand, raises a question of influence of post-secondary education on formation of the fixed forms of behavior.Thus it should be noted that this analysis is considered as primary. The received results have to be put in a formulation of the following hypotheses, so and research continuation. Declared system approach demands the analysis of a phenomenon of openness in system of the interconnected features of the person, as allows to come nearer, in particular, to disclosure "the nature and mechanisms of innovative behavior" that is especially important in an education system.
Psychology of emergency
Sedykh N.S. - Information and Psychological Methods of Influence In the Process of Training Suicide Bombers pp. 126-165

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0425.2014.4.12912

Abstract: In article features of operation of global communications for development of terrorist ideology and advance of ideas of suicide terrorism are considered, information and psychological ways of the influence which is carried out for training of suicide bombers are analyzed. In this regard the author addresses to a question of a role of mass media in designing of social knowledge and meanings, considering mass media as the diskursivny system participating in production and reproduction of the typified values. In the context of a perspective of formation of extremist consciousness and psychological readiness for suicide terror features of virtual reality, the information environment, designing of media texts, the propaganda receptions and methods of psychological influence which are widely used for involvement of youth in terrorism and training of suicide bombers are analyzed. Need of optimization of information and psychological counteraction of ideology of extremism and terrorism for specific sociohistorical conditions is designated. In this context possibilities of mass communication in formation of anti-terrorist values in the Russian society are considered. The question of development of the pedagogical journalism urged to form social values, belief and to influence the motivational sphere of the personality is staticized. In the context of a perspective of the organization it is information – psychological influence by extremists and implementation of the corresponding counteraction possibilities of secular and religious education are also considered. The question of a role of psychological science in development of information culture and advance of ideas of social dialogue, a consent, solidarity is staticized.
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