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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Sociodynamics" > Rubric "Morality and politics"
Morality and politics
Kutyrev V.A. - Ideological Causes of Modern Terrorism Across the World and in Russia pp. 1-33
Abstract: The author shows the limitations of a narrow-minded opinion on what causes international terrorism as well as non-efficiency of sociotechnical methods of fighting it. It is interpreted as the contradiction between the life style of a pragmati technological society (civilization) and socities oriented at traditional spiritual values (cultures). Global expansion of the idea of technological consumer civilization leads to the death of civilization. Russia sould not hurry to get rid of spiritual life regulators. Struggle to keep traditions as the basis of culture and control over technologies, especially in humanitarian sphere, - this is the essential condition for creating the historical future of modern humanity. 
Esina N.S., . - On the issue of attitude to gifts within the system of fighting corruption. pp. 1-12


Abstract: By the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation N. 298 of March 13, 2012 it was assigned to the Government of the Russian Federation "... to issue before October 1, 2012 a typical normative act, obligating persons holding state offices in the Russian Federation, constituent subjects of the Russian Federation, municipal offices, state servants, municipal servants, employees of the Central Bank of hte Russian Federation, employees of the organizations formed by the Russian Federation based upon the federal laws to provide notification on receipt of gifts due to or related to their official positions in cases provided for by the federal legislation". Why is this issue being discussed? Many specialists state that the provisions of the Civil Code and the laws on public service and status of the military officers regulating the relations among the officials and gifts to them, contain significant contradictions.  Therefore, the existing contradictions in the legislation of the Russian Federation do not facilitate the unified approach to its implementation, as it was stated in the letter issued by the Ministry of Labor of Russia, and untill these contradictions are terminated, there should be a model regulation.  In our opinion, there is need to directly exclude the situations, which directly or indirectly lead to the appearance of material benefits.  The society generally should not have  suspicions on "wellness" of material benefit received by the official.
Ursul A.D., . - Moral and Ethical Issues of the Humankind In Terms of Transfer to Sustainable Development pp. 1-68


Abstract: The authors of the article analyze the main moral and ethical issues of the humankind at the modern state of the development of society. Environmental crisis has made the humankind to think over these problems because today the crisis is a real threat not only for individual societies but the biosphere in general. Based on the assumption that all the problems under consideration have the same general feature, i.e. all of them can be described from the point of view of the dominance-submission relation, the authors of the article suggest to replace the dominance - submission ethics with the care - responsibility ethics in interpersonal relations for the purpose of sustainable development. Creation of a stable society is a necessary condition for sustainable development. Special emphasis is made on the need to expand the definition of sustainable development as well as the scope of application of the term so that it includes the sphere of ethics. In broader terms sustainable development means non-regressive, i.e. the safest type of social evolution aimed at protection of civilization and biosphere, their co-existence and co-evolution.
Tumskiy S.V. - Provocation as social action: its definition in the context of cross-disciplinary analysis. pp. 1-11


Abstract: The article is devoted to the phenomenon of provocation in the ambivalent postmodern society. The article outlines the prerequisites for usage of provocations by social actors, among which are riskogenics, “liquidity of moral”, high socio-cultural dynamics resulting in increased rationalization of social interaction. The purpose of the article is researching provocation as social action with consideration of research results by modern scientists, as well as analysis of elements of provocation strategies, their nature and the possible targets of provocators. In terms of research methodology, the article is based on definition analysis and cross-disciplinary analysis of scientific sources on the subject of provocation. The findings have enabled the researcher to formulate a more precise definition of provocation than those suggested before in sociology and to make conclusions regarding the social essence of provocations. The results of the study showed that provocation is primarily a multi-stage process which is driven by an actor concealing his intentions, frequently corrupting moral standards and damaging the object of the provocation. The obtained results enable social scientists to pursue further research of the phenomenon of social provocation and may assist in resolving conflict situations.
Tsvetkova M. - Reflection in term of the selection of respondents in public opinion research pp. 14-21


Abstract: This article reveals the aspects of correctness of sociological research and the importance of reflexive mechanisms in this matter. Sociological research in the way how it is conducted and how it is treated by the institutions of public opinion, do not explain the logic of selection of individual respondents' opinion and explain the logic of aggregating individual opinions (preferences) in the public opinion. Therefore, the methodology of sociological research should be the search and definition of the populations that are at least intuitively have analytical knowledge about the studied issue.The author proposes to use the reflexivity of respondents which imply the ability of the subjective reflection of the object as a criterion for the selection of respondents in the model of sociological studies. Reflexivity is the primary and most specific parameter of the actor in terms of ensuring the adequacy of subjective images of the environment.Thus, the interviewed group of respondents shall be selected by the highest value of the coefficient of reflexivity, as a fundamental capacity of the individual correctly and fully construct external world.
Martianov V.S. - Expansion of trust as a background condition of the late modernity pp. 16-22


Abstract: The subject of this article is the analysis of the noneconomic conditions of transition of communities from modernity to late modernity. In the conditions of late modernity among important noneconomic factors of further progress of society there is a great increase of the role of the noneconomic factors of development, first and foremost, of individual and institutional trust. The value of trust in the process of its expansion and institutionalization allows lowering the transactional costs in all important spheres of life of the society. Nevertheless, despite all the advantages of such transition, the paradox lies the fact that within the practical (semi-) peripheral capitalist societies we can observe stability of individual and institutional strategies of mistrust. In the course of the conducted research, using the theories of cooperation games in the conditions of incomplete information it is revealed that the economic advantages of expanded trust for the sphere of market exchange that dominates the post-modern societies, are theoretically proven and empirically verifiable. In this context, on the example of modern Russia, the article examines the situation of leveling of the previously achieved value-institutional stages of trust.  
Tsvetkova M. - Issues of the reflexive choice of the actors of social policy pp. 23-29


Abstract: This article focuses attention on the issues of scientifically substantiated establishment of the actors of social policy. In the author’s opinion, the effective development requires the reflexive mechanism of choosing the actors of social policy based on the models of the inner world of an actor, which will allow planning the actors’ relations from the sociopolitical conflicts towards the manageable confrontation and compromise. The author demonstrates that the positions of algebraic theory of reflection of an actor play a key role on the establishment of the actors of social policy, not as much by the rational qualities, as by the types of reflection. The algebraic theory of reflection of an actor allows examining the social subjectivity from the algorithmic point of view, in other words, we can discuss what type of subjectivity of social policy should be formed. The main conclusion consists in the fact that the analysis of the reflexive structure of the actors of administration will allow choosing the actors of social policy, which possess a reflection on compromise as a framework instrument of the group compatibility and an instrument of actors’ responsibility of social policy. The author proposes to view the reflexive model as the model of managing the social subjectivity, the main concept of which is the reflection on responsible cooperation and conscious compromise of the actor’s relations in the society.   
Nikulin V.V. - Bolsheviks and Party Ethics: Standards of Behavior, Social Control and Inter-Party Everyday LIfe (the 1920th) pp. 26-82


Abstract: Object of research is the problem of a moral condition of Bolshevik party in the 1920th years and attempt of the guide of Bolsheviks to develop behavioural norms of party members in various life and political situations united in a peculiar party behavioural doctrine under the general name "party ethics".It is claimed that the necessity of development of behavioural norms was caused by active moral degradation of party which began during civil war. In the years of war at party members, especially in a key element, the feeling of exclusiveness and indispensability and as a result - permissiveness arose and became stronger, and the bulk of the population which was exposed to violence from all directions, in turn has a complex of subordination, indifference, fear of party functionaries. In such social and psychological situation, the authority of party promptly fell. Already in the early twenties in the management came to a conclusion that it is necessary to stop "liberties" of the first postrevolutionary years development and deployment in life of the laws of behavior including set of a ban for party members in their introduction on party Wednesday and a strict requirement of performance.In 1924 the morals are finally approved as party category and become a form of social control over party members of Bolsheviks, and subsequently and over all society. Process of development and deployment of behavioural norms in everyday life, the attitudes towards them of rank-and-file members of party and citizens is analyzed. It is proved that practice of development and application in the 20th years of standards of party ethics showed all their artificiality and remoteness from real life. Former moral values were replaced with the tough materialistic theory, narrow and materialistic political realism, Bolsheviks a little that offered new that would be perceived by the people at once and unconditionally. The neglect to heritage of ancestors, culture of the past was available. Rigid confrontational stereotypes took root. There was a devaluation of the ethical standards, because of loss controlling behavior of the person of many norms. On the practical level introduction of standards of party ethics in everyday life wasn't led to essential change of behavioural stereotypes in everyday life. Growth of corruption, lawlessness, household hooliganism observed for 1920 years among party members were the certificate to that.
Pavenkov O., Pavenkov V.G., Rubtcova M. - The place of religiosity in establishment of spiritual and moral value orientations of youth in Saint Petersburg pp. 29-39


Abstract: In absence of the unified value system within the modern Russian society, the spiritual and moral value orientations, which define the behavioral system, represent the axiological basis necessary for adaptation of youth in the modern world.  This article is dedicate to analysis of the role of religiosity in establishment pf the spiritual and moral values and behavioral orientations of young people. The authors present a quinary structure of a religious personality. The object of this research is defined by attitude of the modern youth to religion. The article provides the results of applied sociological study on the topic “Possibilities of implementation of the ideation principle of relation of the Russian modern youth to religion within the applied sociological study (using the materials of higher educational facilities of Saint Petersburg)”.  The students of the faculty of Arts of St. Petersburg State University (at the stage of approbation), students of the faculty of Philosophy, Theology, Religious Studies, and students of the faculty of Psychology of the Russian Christian Humanitarian Academy took place in the aforementioned study. After the 40 interviews were completed, there followed a conclusion that within the structure of spiritual and moral value orientations, religiosity holds rather low positions, which correlated with the dominance of fragmentary-eclectic mentality. The level of religiosity and morality of the majority of young people is not yet at the point described by P. A. Sorokin as “altruistic transformation”.
Korolev A.A., ., . - On the Question About Stages of the Dissident Movement in the USSR pp. 43-49


Abstract: The authors of the article analyze various options of the foreign ("Dissidents in the Soviet Union: policy, ideology and people") and domestic (A.A. Danilov, I.A. Romankina, M.R. Melnik, V. N. Sergeyev) classifications of stages of the dissident movement in the USSR. Authors connect a start of motion with the post-war period or Khruschev's "thaw"; allocate a turning point - crisis of oppositional movement in 1964-1965; recognize the "Helsinki" period (an exit to the international level; a final boundary of movement carry to 1985-1987. The Teoretiko-metodologichesky basis of research is made by the principles of: a) objectivity; b) historicism; c) systemaсity, d) the full account social and subjective in an object of research and the greatest possible neutralization of the prejudiced relation of the scientist at interpretation and an assessment of the facts. Owing to opportunities, the principles of social and psychological approach and the principle of a correctness and sensitivity in an assessment of the actual material as feature of movement of dissidents I was strong moral and ethical a component of its participants were used.Besides the methodological principles in research the special and historical principles were applied: updating, diachrony, comparative-historical, problem and chronological; and also general scientific principles such as the principles of classification, statistical, structural and systems principles. Scientific novelty consists actually in statement of a question of the analysis of various options of a periodization of dissident movement in the USSR. The epoch-making dates in all periodizations are post-war years or the Khrushchev's "thaw" when the dissident movement only started to form; in 1964-1965 - crisis in opposition development; "Helsinki" period and gaining access to the western society; and  the end of the movement in 1985-1987. 
Kananykina E.S. - Legislative Environment of Teaching Individuals with Disabilities in the French and USA Systems of Education pp. 74-103


Abstract: One of the aspects of humanization of a modern Western school is equal rights for children with disabilities and retardation, in other words, elimination of so called special schools for abnormal children. This refers to creation of an integrated school for children with different abilities and educational opportunities. Traditionally, special education has been oriented at education and teaching not only disabled children but also talented, gifted children (i.e. all groups of 'special' children). Throughout the history of development of special education, the main issue has remained the differentiation between physical and mental disability. The given article offers the reader to learn about legal requirements for education of disabled children in countries with different systems of law - USA and France. 
Borisenkov A.A. - About Politics, its Essence and Forms pp. 82-110


Abstract: The article is devoted to politics as a particular administrative phenomenon. The author of the article studies the essence and forms of politics. Noteworthy that there is a great diversity of policies at different levels of the system of social administration which once again shows the essence of politics as the phenomenon of public administration. Such diversity proves that politics is a widely spread phenomenon and plays a very significant role in the sphere of public and social administration. Special attention is paid to the state policy. The author of the artile shows that the state policy of a democratic state is the most complex and developed form of politics. It reveals not only the nature of all policies but also peculiarities and rules of political environment. The state policy is becoming one of the leading forms of social life and it is also a very interesting subject to be researched. In conclusion, the author offers an essential definition of politics as the administrative phenomenon shown in resolutions and determining the directions of executive activities. 
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