Статья 'К вопросу о сущности понятия "этнический анклав"' - журнал 'Вопросы безопасности' - NotaBene.ru
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Reference:

A Note on the Definition of Ethnic Enclave

Ul'yanov Mikhail Vladimirovich

PhD in Law

Senior Research Associate, National Research Institute of the University of Prosecutor’s Office of the Russian Federation

123022, Russia, Moscow, 2nd zvenigorodskaya str., 15

m.ulyanov2@yandex.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 

DOI:

10.25136/2409-7543.2023.4.68753

EDN:

OLKXPG

Received:

19-10-2023


Published:

30-10-2023


Abstract: The author considers in detail the main approaches to the definition of ethnic enclave and enclavization. Taking into account the degree of elaboration of this problem due to the peculiarities of historical development, special attention is focused on the approaches reflected in foreign English-language publications on the economy of the enclave and social modeling. The author also addresses the problem of the formation of ethnic enclaves in the Russian Federation, acting as an obvious threat to public security. The methodological basis of the research is presented by the general dialectical method of scientific cognition. The prospects of enclavization are illustrated by official statistical data on the number of people registered for migration and who have received citizenship. Based on the analysis, it is concluded that the main features of an ethnic (polyethnic) enclave are the presence of a special economic structure and socio-cultural environment that exclude the processes of assimilation into society. In order to identify the enclave, it is advisable to use sociological methods (questionnaires, surveys of the local population) and a survey of the territory. Considering that migration processes are related to the determinants of crime, it is necessary to study the phenomenon of ethnic enclaves in a criminal aspect. Moreover, with the growth of external migration, the prospects of enclavization seem quite real. The negative consequences of enclavization are the growth of social exclusion, tension, an increase in crime, including migration and organized ethnic crime.


Keywords:

ethnic enclave, threshold value, migration, economy, assimilation theory, enclave hypothesis, segregation model, enclavization, ethnic quarter, migration registration

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

        The negative consequences of uncontrolled migration flows to the Russian Federation are once again becoming the subject of public attention. Due to the significant volume of migration, the formation of ethnic enclaves in large cities ceases to be only a speculative construct. While the focus on segregation of diasporic groups has never been in doubt, the formation of enclaves similar to European ethnic neighborhoods has been hindered to a certain extent by the nature of the housing and real estate market. Currently, this factor is losing its importance.

          The prospects of enclavization are assessed as possible. E.B. Bedrina, for example, came to a similar conclusion based on the analysis of some criteria for assessing residential neighborhoods in Yekaterinburg (housing cost, proximity to a transport hub, the presence of religious centers, etc.). Studying the number of children of foreign citizens in schools allowed her to characterize the sectoral model of urban space development [1, pp. 451-464].

         The processes of consolidation and enclavization of immigration ethnic communities are inseparable both from the scale of migration inflow to the Russian Federation and the unevenness of their distribution across the country. The increase due to external migration is significantly higher in terms of its indicators than in previous years.

           The instability of the current migration situation is indicated by official statistics. In 2022, 16,870,094 foreign citizens were registered for migration. Over the past five years, the largest number of foreign citizens have been registered in the territories of the Moscow region, St. Petersburg, the Republic of Tatarstan, Krasnodar and Primorsky Territories, Irkutsk, Kaluga, Leningrad, Novosibirsk, Rostov, Samara and Sverdlovsk regions (see Table 1). About a third of the migration increase in the country was given by the Central Federal District.

Table 1

Selective information on the number of facts of migration registration of foreign citizens and stateless persons (Hereinafter: Statistical information on the migration situation // URL: https://мвд.рф/dejatelnost/statistics/migracionnaya (accessed: 10.08.2023)

 

2018

2019

2020

2021

2022

6 months 2023

Total for the Russian Federation

13 618 136

19 518 304

9 802 448

13 392 897

16 870 094

5 132 595

Moscow

2 512 649

4 485 874

2 421 956

3 481 789

3 785 945

924 911

St. Petersburg and Leningrad region.

2 640 988

3 622 862

1 040 524

1 550 328

2 066 548

575 961

Moscow region.

1 213 239

1 716 586

1 131 547

1 579 706

2 216 334

1 044 863

Krasnodarskiy kray

539 630

656 685

371 425

467 174

561 886

184 837

Irkutsk region .

427 678

593 462

216 835

249 569

326 717

79 163

Sverdlovsk region .

309 852

381 501

208 678

288 565

389 181

160 440

Primorsky Krai

372 103

580 987

160 753

203 228

256 984

74 620

R. Tatarstan

271 741

335 576

195 859

267 133

337 386

114 181

Novosibirsk region .

238 869

332 919

152 658

227 446

262 949

89 864

Samara region .

248 941

275 258

169 253

224 121

282 088

66 860

Kaluga Region .

196 636

247 259

159 041

201 230

242 929

80 185

Rostov region .

215 606

240 312

134 422

162 091

279 958

54 031

Krasnoyarsk Territory

165 590

244 486

154 996

195 951

241 554

63 370

Nizhny Novgorod region .

199 623

227 265

131 866

181 463

225 299

89 711

Chelyabinsk region .

157 445

215 881

135 419

180 721

236 664

76 507

 

Over the past five years, the number of issued citizenships of the Russian Federation in the context of all countries has increased significantly.

Acquisition of citizenship by former citizens of Ukraine is characterized as an objective process and is conditioned by the current situation. At the same time, it should be noted that, excluding Ukraine, the acquisition of citizenship by immigrants from other states has almost tripled. So, if in 2018 they received 131,947 citizenship, then in 2022 – already 394,144, and in 6 months 2023 – 165,935 (2019 – 198,395, 2020 – 246,798, 2021 - 359,396) (see Table 2). Such a trend can be called unprecedented.

Table 2

Selective information on the number of persons in respect of whom a decision has been made to acquire citizenship of the Russian Federation

Column1

2018

2019

2020

2021

2022

6 months 2023

Total by country

192 270

497 817

656 347

735 385

691 045

204 988

Of these

Ukraine

60 323

299 422

409 549

375 989

296 901

39 053

R. Tajikistan

24 892

44 707

63 389

103 681

173 634

86 964

R. Armenia

19 936

24 024

30 538

46 931

45 086

17 921

R. Kazakhstan

31 938

50 492

43 404

49 862

42 010

13 876

R. Uzbekistan

14 707

19 388

23 131

31 867

27 220

9340

R. Azerbaijan

8591

13 521

21 853

30 791

23 688

7457

Kirghizskaya R.

6485

9371

11 865

19 241

23 496

10 506

R. Moldova

12 203

15 791

20 606

23 697

15 171

6857

R. Belarus

3236

5043

10 359

24 539

15 137

4557

Georgia

1822

2625

3722

5076

3437

1182

 

The processes of enclavization, therefore, may worsen due to the high rate of changes in the ethnic composition of the population. In this connection, there are questions about the content of the concept of "enclave", as well as the establishment of criteria that make it possible to distinguish an enclave.

The concept of "enclave" in a narrow sense, namely, as a place of compact residence of people of a single ethnic and religious affiliation, is used in a number of strategic planning documents of the Russian Federation.

Paragraph 14 of the Strategy of the State National Policy of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2025 (approved by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation dated 19.12.2012 No. 1666) indicates an "ethnic enclave", paragraph 26 of the Concept of the State Migration Policy of the Russian Federation for 2019-2025 (approved by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation dated 31.10.2018 No. 622) – "ethnic (polyethnic) enclave", item 27 of the National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation (Decree of the President of the Russian Federation dated 02.07.2021 No. 400) – "ethnic and religious enclave".

The problems of enclave formation are also noted in the strategic planning documents of federal state authorities, state authorities of the subjects of the Russian Federation and at the level of municipalities [2, pp. 48-53].

At the same time, the listed definitions are not fixed in the legislation of the Russian Federation.

The issues of conflictogenicity of ethnic enclaves and migration processes were considered in the works of such scientists as O.A. Evlanova [3], A.S. Klementyev [4], P.N. Kobets [5], V.V. Merkuryev [6], I.V. Nikitenko [7], etc.

At the same time, the study of domestic scientific literature allows us to conclude that the topic of ethnic enclaves and enclavization does not have sufficient elaboration.

This is confirmed by the data of E.A. Trushkova, who, based on a bibliometric analysis of 365 scientific publications on the topic of ethnic enclaves dated 2000 – 2018, came to the conclusion that the main problems raised by the authors are mainly of a general nature, while regional aspects of enclavization are not covered. The majority of scientific publications relate to political sciences (24%), followed by sociology (19%), economic sciences (18%), the field of historical knowledge (11%), state and legal disciplines (10%), the rest - to the field of philosophy, culture and demography [8, p. 384].

Among the few definitions, one can single out the definition of A.A. Iontsev, who interprets an enclave as a territory of compact residence of immigrants, constantly replenished as a result of the influx of new immigrants-compatriots (for example, Brighton Beach in New York) [9, p. 97; 10, p. 9].

The Demographic Encyclopedia edited by A.A. Tkachenko focuses on the isolation of the ethnic enclave in cultural and socio-economic terms [11, p. 31].

A.S. Melnikova, citing the main features, speaks of an ethnic enclave as a part of immigrants forming compact places of residence of an ethnically homogeneous population with the creation of a characteristic cultural and economic environment forming cohesive stable national groups [12, p. 329].

Another definition is given by V.I. Mukomel, who understands by "enclave" such a community within a broader community, where self-organization by differentiating features is stronger than self-organization by integrating features, regardless of the place of these latter in the hierarchy of significance. At the same time, the differentiating features can be both ethnic and any other related to the concept of "alien" [13, p. 16].

It is common for domestic researchers that quantitative indicators are not used when constructing enclave definitions.

Western studies, due to the peculiarities of historical development, differ in a much greater degree of elaboration of the studied problems. The basis of the long-term discussion was an article by Wilson and Portes in 1980 based on empirical data on the socio-economic situation of Cuban immigrants [14]. The paper talked about the "enclave economy", a characteristic feature of which is the formation of a labor market by enterprises belonging to migrants, replenished by new migrants.

Thus, an ethnic enclave is a group of immigrants concentrated in a certain territory, whose enterprises serve their own ethnic market or the population as a whole, while a significant part of the immigrant workforce works at these enterprises [15; 16, p. 68].

It is important to say that researchers pay attention to the fact that the "enclave hypothesis" exists outside the framework of the assimilation theory, which assumes the inclusion of arriving migrants in the economic activities of the state. It is believed that assimilation has long ceased to be the main topic of immigration studies [17, p. 444].

Another debated issue in Western sociology is the ethnic composition of the enclave, which rarely consists of only one ethnic group. For example, in the conditional chinatown there are people from different Asian countries [18].

Thus, we note the obligatory sign of the existence of a special economic structure in the enclave, which excludes the processes of assimilation of migrants.

Another aspect is applied approaches to the identification of an ethnic enclave. For example, Yu.F. Kelman, based on the analysis of modern American studies, indicates the following approaches:

the first approach is related to the use of the quantitative principle, when the key parameter is the share of the "titular" group in the population of the district (for example, at least 20% of the population);

the second approach involves using the share of a certain group in the population of the district compared to the population of the city as a whole;

the third approach does not take into account statistical data and is based on the history, toponymy, image and appearance of the district [19, p. 127].

In addition, the dissertation used the field method of geographical research of ethnic enclaves in major cities of the United States, which is of considerable interest. Thus, a list of visual indicators or external signs of an ethnic enclave was derived (specific educational institutions, shops, monuments, graffiti, restaurants of national cuisine, elements of national clothing, language of communication, and others), which is the basis for the methodology of field research of ethnic areas, including walking inspection of the territory, photographing and fixing external signs on the district plan, an assessment of the degree of their severity [19, pp. 130-131].

The use of the quantitative principle is connected with the question of the presence or absence of a certain threshold value, upon reaching which the segregation of the population and the subsequent emergence of an enclave occurs.

One of the first mathematical models in the field of social modeling is called the Schelling segregation model [20], published in 1971. Using the example of the interaction of two racial groups, the author gave various options for their clustering both within a separate territory and within a community. Changes in factors such as the number of representatives of another race in the environment, their overall ratio, tolerance threshold and others were taken into account [21, p. 9].

At the same time, in contrast to the early statements that there is a threshold value or a "turning point" in 20% of a new minority in the area, after which an ethnic racial or other majority begins to leave it [22], Schelling's work assumed different options depending on changes in the specified factors.

To date, a large number of variations of the model have been proposed, including using special software. Russian researchers also offer their own variants [23; 24].

Thus, it should be noted that negative consequences can occur even with a relatively small proportion of the arrived minority, and the enclave is characterized primarily by the presence of stable socio-economic ties that exclude the processes of assimilation of ethnic and religious communities.

Among the negative consequences of enclavization and related migration processes, it is necessary to highlight the growth of crime in general, as well as the number of extremist manifestations both on the part of local residents and representatives of diaspora groups, social resistance in the behavior of the diaspora group [25], criminalization of economic activity. The most serious threats are related to the activities of organized criminal groups. Ethnic criminal groups located on the same territory tend to unite, which creates conditions for the formation of ethnic criminal communities [26, p. 175].

Taking into account this experience, it should be concluded that when designing the definition of an enclave, taking into account the peculiarities of migration registration in the Russian Federation, it is inappropriate to refer to quantitative indicators. Acceptable in this case would be a descriptive definition containing the main external features of the enclave.

Thus, an ethnic (polyethnic) enclave can be understood as the territory of the presence of cohesive ethnic minorities, the differentiating feature of which is the presence of a special economic structure and socio-cultural environment that exclude the processes of assimilation into society. When selecting an enclave, sociological methods are used, namely, questionnaires and surveys of the local population, as well as methods of geographical survey with the identification of external signs.

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First Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

The subject of the research in the article submitted for review is, as its name implies, the definition of the concept of "ethnic enclave" and the criteria for identifying this enclave (in fact, its signs). The stated boundaries of the study are observed by the author, but the name of the work needs to be clarified (for example, "On the question of the definition of the concept of "ethnic enclave" or "On the question of the essence of the concept of "ethnic enclave", etc.). The methodology of the research is not disclosed in the text of the article, but it is obvious that the scientists used a universal dialectical, logical, statistical, formal-legal, hermeneutical research methods. The relevance of the research topic chosen by the author is undeniable: "The negative consequences of uncontrolled migration flows to the Russian Federation are once again becoming the subject of public attention. Due to the significant volume of migration, the formation of ethnic enclaves in large cities ceases to be just a speculative construct. While the focus on segregation of diasporic groups has never been in doubt, the formation of enclaves similar to European ethnic neighborhoods has been hindered to a certain extent by the nature of the housing and real estate market. Currently, this factor is losing its importance. The prospects for enclavization are assessed as possible"; "The processes of enclavization, therefore, may worsen due to the high rate of changes in the ethnic composition of the population. In this connection, there are questions about the content of the concept of "enclave", as well as the establishment of criteria for distinguishing an enclave." Additionally, the scientist needs to list the names of the leading experts involved in the study of the problems raised in the article. The degree of their study is revealed: "The study of domestic scientific literature allows us to conclude that the topic of ethnic enclaves and enclavization does not have sufficient elaboration. This is confirmed by the data of E.A. Trushkova, who, based on a bibliometric analysis of 365 scientific publications on the topic of ethnic enclaves dated 2000-2018, came to the conclusion that the main problems raised by the authors are mainly of a general nature, while the regional aspects of enclavization are not covered. The majority of scientific publications relate to political sciences (24%), followed by sociology (19%), economics (18%), the field of historical knowledge (11%), public law disciplines (10%), the rest - to the field of philosophy, culture and demography [3, p. 384]". The scientific novelty of the work is manifested in a number of the author's conclusions: "... it should be concluded that when designing the definition of an enclave, taking into account the peculiarities of migration registration in the Russian Federation, it is inappropriate to refer to quantitative indicators. In this case, a descriptive definition containing the main external features of the enclave will be acceptable. Under an ethnic (multiethnic) enclave... It can be understood as the territory of the presence of cohesive ethnic minorities, the differentiating feature of which is the presence of a special economic structure and socio-cultural environment that exclude the processes of assimilation into society." Thus, the article makes a definite contribution to the development of domestic legal science and deserves the attention of the readership. The scientific style of the research is fully sustained by the author. The structure of the work is quite logical. In the introductory part of the article, the author substantiates the relevance of his chosen research topic. In the main part of the work, the scientist formulates the definition of the concept of "ethnic (polyethnic) enclave" based on the study of normative and theoretical material and the identification of signs of the phenomenon under study. The final part of the article contains conclusions based on the results of the study. The content of the article corresponds to its title, but is not without some drawbacks. So, the author writes: "It seems that the quantitative principle in identifying the enclave can be used for the purposes of a specific study. In this regard, one more aspect should be addressed, namely the presence or absence of a certain threshold value, after which the segregation of the population and the subsequent emergence of an enclave occur," after which he gives relevant examples. In the final part of the article, on the contrary, it is argued that "... when designing the definition of an enclave, taking into account the peculiarities of migration registration in the Russian Federation, it is impractical to refer to quantitative indicators." Thus, it is necessary to clarify whether it is still possible to use the quantitative principle in the qualification of an enclave or not, and if so, in what cases? The bibliography of the research is presented by 21 sources (dissertations, scientific articles, a textbook, an encyclopedia, dictionaries), including in English. From a formal and factual point of view, this is quite enough. The nature and number of sources used in writing the article allowed the author to reveal the research topic with the necessary depth and completeness. There is an appeal to opponents, both general and private (T. C. Schelling, V. V. Breer), and it is quite sufficient. The scientific discussion is conducted by the author correctly. The provisions of the work are justified to the necessary extent and illustrated with examples, analytical and statistical data. Conclusions based on the results of the study are available ("... it should be concluded that when designing the definition of an enclave, taking into account the peculiarities of migration registration in the Russian Federation, it is inappropriate to refer to quantitative indicators. In this case, a descriptive definition containing the main external features of the enclave will be acceptable. Thus, an ethnic (multiethnic) enclave can be understood as the territory of the presence of cohesive ethnic minorities, the differentiating feature of which is the presence of a special economic structure and socio-cultural environment that exclude the processes of assimilation into society. In identifying the enclave, sociological methods are used, namely, questionnaires and surveys of the local population, as well as methods of geographical survey with the identification of external signs"), have the properties of reliability and validity, and deserve the attention of potential readers. The interest of the readership in the article submitted for review can be shown primarily by specialists in the field of constitutional law, migration law, administrative law, criminal law, provided that it is finalized: clarifying the title of the work, disclosing the research methodology, additional justification of its relevance, clarifying some provisions of the work.

Second Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

The subject of the study. In the peer-reviewed article "On the essence of the concept of "ethnic enclave"", the subject of the study is the norms of law governing migration registration in the Russian Federation, as well as the provisions of the migration policy of our state. The article pays special attention to the problems of the formation of "ethnic enclaves" on the territory of the Russian Federation and the lack of proper legal regulation of existing public relations: "Due to the significant volume of migration, the formation of ethnic enclaves in large cities ceases to be only a speculative construct." Research methodology. The methodological apparatus consists of the following dialectical techniques and methods of scientific cognition: analysis, abstraction, induction, deduction, hypothesis, analogy, synthesis, typology, classification, systematization and generalization. When writing the article, such methods as historical, statistical, theoretical and prognostic, formal legal, system-structural and legal modeling were used. The use of modern methods made it possible to study the established approaches, views on the subject of research, develop an author's position and argue it. The relevance of the study is due to the fact that "the negative consequences of uncontrolled migration flows to the Russian Federation are once again becoming the subject of public attention." The author of the article notes that "... the focus on segregation of diasporic groups has never been in doubt, the formation of enclaves similar to European ethnic neighborhoods was to some extent hindered by the nature of the housing and real estate market. Currently, this factor is losing its importance." The author of this article is particularly concerned about the negative consequences of enclavization and related migration processes ("an increase in crime in general", an increase in the number of "extremist manifestations both on the part of local residents and representatives of diaspora groups, social resistance in the behavior of a diaspora group, criminalization of economic activity"). The author of the article associates the most serious threats with the activities of organized criminal groups on Russian territory. It seems that the problems identified by the author indicate the need for doctrinal developments that may be of practical importance for both rulemaking and law enforcement. Scientific novelty. Without questioning the importance of previous scientific research, which served as the theoretical basis for this article, nevertheless, it can be noted that this publication for the first time formulated noteworthy provisions, for example: "Given this experience, it should be concluded that when designing the definition of an enclave, taking into account the peculiarities of migration accounting in the Russian Federation, it is inappropriate to refer to quantitative indicators. In this case, a descriptive definition containing the main external features of the enclave will be acceptable," etc. Based on the results of writing the article, the author has made a number of theoretical conclusions and suggestions, which indicates not only the importance of this study for legal science, but also determines its practical significance. Style, structure, content. The article is written in a scientific style, using special legal terminology. In general, the material is presented consistently, competently and clearly. The article is structured. Although, perhaps, the introduction to the article needs to be finalized, since it does not meet the requirements for this part of the scientific article. The topic has been revealed. The content of the article corresponds to its title. Bibliography. The author has used a sufficient number of doctrinal sources. References to these sources are designed in compliance with the requirements of the bibliographic GOST. Appeal to opponents. The article presents a scientific discussion, and appeals to opponents are correct. All borrowings are decorated with links to the author and the source of the publication. Conclusions, the interest of the readership. The article "On the essence of the concept of "ethnic enclave"" is recommended for publication, because it meets the requirements for scientific publications and complies with the editorial policy of the journal "Security Issues". The article is written on an urgent topic, has practical significance and is characterized by scientific novelty. A comment on the revision of the introduction to the article is disposable. This article may be of interest to a wide readership, primarily specialists in the field of general theory of law, state law, administrative law, and will also be useful for teachers and students of law schools and faculties.
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