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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Space Research" > Contents of Issue є 01/2019
Contents of Issue є 01/2019
Space Economics and Business
Yanik A.A. - Space Transformation of the Economy: Harbingers and Trends pp. 1-14

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2019.1.31049

Abstract: The subject of the research is the problems of analysis and monitoring of a new economic phenomenon - the global space economy. Russian economics and official documents do not use the concept of "space economy." However, internationally, it has become firmly established in public discourse; the space economy is the object of systematic observations, cross-country comparisons, and evaluation. The paper shows that the evolution of the space economy and the growth of its influence on "earthly life" are ahead of scientific understanding. But attention to this object is necessary because, according to various signs, we can state the beginning of the "space transformation" of the world economy.The paper develops theoretical ideas about the phenomenon of the space economy and analyses the difficulties associated with monitoring this phenomenon. The author concludes that the vision of a space economy transformative role is increasingly spreading in the international context. However, as with digital transformation, the scientific understanding of this process is still lagging behind the rapidly changing realities.
Payson D. - Space Dichotomies: On Binary Divisions of the Space Activities pp. 15-21

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2019.1.31039

Abstract: The article is dealing with the identification and analysis of various variants of binary division (dichotomy) of the international space activity that is considered as a set of implemented projects or market sales. The key aspects of the modern development of space activities influence not only the technological, but mainly the institutional, organizational and economic features of interaction between participants in space activities and the effectiveness measurement. Such binary divisions of space activities as "applied vs.non-applied", "commercial vs.non-profit", "public vs.private", "budget vs.non-budget " are considered. In addition, an important aspect of the separation of the results of space activities into products/services and projects is considered. Further directions of research in this area are shown, including the development of model indicators and criteria for the effectiveness of space activities in their various forms and types.
Shubin P.S. - On the history and problems of Russian participation in the market of launch services to geostationary orbit pp. 22-35

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2019.1.31105

Abstract: The subject of the study is the history of the global market for placing satellites into geostationary orbit from the 1990s to the present. The author analyses various reasons (economic, technological, political, etc.), which helped the Russian Federation take a leading position in this market at the end of the XX centuries and lose them now. Special attention is paid to the American policy of sanctions and prohibitions used as a tool for regulating the global space market. Also, the actions of the rocket and space industry of China in the conditions of sanctions by the United States are considered. The paper provides the forecast of possible acts of Russia in a similar situation. For the first time, the paper presents the milestones in the economic history of the Russian launch vehicles in the global space market. The study of this topic allowed us to analyze the origins of Russia's successes and problems in the international market of launch services, as well as to assess the prospective availability of this market segment for Russian players.
Space Law
Lavrenova E.A. - Mechanisms of monetary compensation in international space law pp. 36-44

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2019.1.30010

Abstract: Usually, the main interest of an injured state that suffered damage lays in monetary compensation for the damage caused. Therefore, the issues related to the legal basis of compensational claims are of particular practical importance. In this context, space law can be regarded as a unique branch of international law, as it contains several legal regimes that can serve as a legal basis for compensational claims. Currently, there exists no universal and comprehensive approach in relation to legal instruments that can be used by an injured state in different factual circumstances. Thus, the subject of this article is the analysis of problems in the field of liability and responsibility regimes in international space law for the creation of a comprehensive legal scheme of the mechanisms that can be invoked to obtain monetary compensation for the damage caused within the framework of space activities.Methods used for the purposes of the article: system-structural method, comparative legal method, deduction, induction, analogy, analysis, synthesis.In the article, the problems associated with the functioning of liability and responsibility regimes of space law, as well as legal instruments that can be invoked by an injured state in order to put forward compensational claim are examined. The author also considers mechanisms to which it is possible to resort to in unconventional practical situations.
Timokhin K.V. - The Hague Space Resources Governance Working Group as an Example of the General Approach to the Development of the International Space Law pp. 45-55

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2019.1.29227

Abstract: The article dwells on the establishment and development of the Hague Space Resources Governance Working Group. The Group's goal is to elaborate main elements of the potential framework for the exploration, exploitation and utilization of space resources. After analyzing the work of the Group, the author concludes that its establishment is the direct outcome of the contemporary stalemate situation in the area of international space law. Correspondingly, it can be supposed that the results, which are to be presented by the Group, will not be eagerly endorsed by the international community. But at the same time it is noted that the Legal Subcommittee of the UN Committee on Peaceful Uses of the Outer Space could benefit from the work already done by the Group.
Alekseev M.A. - Perspectives of the space resources international legal regime coordination pp. 56-66

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2019.1.30558

Abstract: This paper is devoted to the research of the existing space resources legal regime. The author also analyzes the most presently topical tendencies in the sphere. Special attention is paid to the different possible ways of coordination of such a regime on the level of international law.Study results show the international legal regime of space resources remains unclear and requires further development. The national laws of the USA and Luxembourg, adopted to overcome the existing legal gaps, have received quite different estimates, varying from the approval of such initiatives to declaring them to be contrary to the basic principles of international law.On the level of international law, the different ways exist to create a discussed regime: starting from the adoption of a brand new space treaty to finishing by the intervention of the International Court of Justice in the problem solution.Also, one of the main issues is the practical mechanisms of coordination of the interests of all states. The author argues that most effective way is the official proposition of the Russian Federation to coordinate the space resources legal regime creation within the Legal Subcommittee of the UN COPOUS, with the maximum possible number of the stakeholders taking part in this process.
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