Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue 03/2024
Contents of Issue 03/2024
History of regions of Russia
Samedova N.E. - The process of formation of medical education in the Voronezh province and its impact on the stuff problem in the region in the second half of the XIX early XX century pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2024.3.70189

EDN: ARHAXI

Abstract: The object of the study is the medical education system of the Voronezh province in the second half of the XIX early XX century. The subject of the study is medical educational institutions and their impact on the personnel problem in the healthcare sector of the region. The regional aspect of the study, involving a set of sources from the local archive of the Voronezh region, allows for a deeper study of the history of the development of certain types of professional educational institutions of the Russian Empire and the problems to which their quantitative deficiency in a particular region has introduced. Based on the materials of archival documents of the State Archive of the Voronezh Region, the most important medical educational institutions for the Voronezh province in the second half of the XIX early XX century were identified: the Zemsky paramedic school and the obstetric school, which tried to solve the problem of shortage of qualified medical personnel in the region.The methodological basis of this work includes the principles of historicism, consistency and objectivity. The analysis of a wide range of sources allowed us to build a logical chain of interrelations between the development of professional medical education and the state of healthcare in the Voronezh province. The formation of medical education led to an increase in human resources in this area already in the 1880s, the educational institutions of the province trained from 70 to 100 specialists in the field of medicine. By the beginning of the 20th century, there was an increase in the average standard of living of the population, both in the region and throughout the country. The author concludes that the improvement of the health care in the region became possible due to an increase in the number of medical personnel trained in professional educational institutions of the Voronezh province, as well as educational and explanatory work on sanitary and hygienic issues, which was carried out by prominent public figures, doctors, teachers among the entire population. The novelty of the research lies in the introduction of new archival materials into scientific circulation and a more detailed study of the issue of the relationship between vocational education and personnel policy in the region.
Personality in history
Roshchevskaya L.P. - Research of plant resources of the European North of the USSR in the first half of the twentieth century. pp. 10-30

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2024.3.40423

EDN: DDEOQK

Abstract: The problem of providing the European north of Russia with food and fodder worsened after the civil War in the process of a significant increase in the population when solving national economic tasks for the development of the territory. The article aims to show the main directions of research and pedagogical activity of corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR geobotanist Alexander Petrovich Shennikov on the study of plant resources of the modern Komi Republic, the creation of the herbarium of the Institute of Biology of the Komi Scientific Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the education of highly qualified specialists. The object of the study is the personality of the scientist, the subject is the representation of personality through the analysis of the content of the documents of the Scientific Archive of the Federal Research Center "Komi Scientific Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences" introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. The appearance in Syktyvkar of the reporting documents of Shennikov and his young colleagues on geobotanical expeditions of the 1920s-1930s was explained by the evacuation of the Northern Base of the USSR Academy of Sciences from Arkhangelsk to Syktyvkar at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War. The documents testify to the established scientific and organizational authority of Shennikov by the time of participation in the Pechora Brigade of the Polar Commission of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1933) and the formation of the scientific community of geobotanists under his leadership. The post-war letters of the scientific consultant of the Komi branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences A.P. Shennikov and his wife Maria Mikhailovna reflect the pedagogical and scientific principles of the professor as an educator of researchers; show how the herbarium of the modern Institute of Biology of the Komi Scientific Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences was formed; prove the long-term creative cooperation with the botanists of Syktyvkar.
History of science and technology
Simakova S.A. - The formation of research in the field of chemical technology of ceramic and composite materials in Komi Scientific Research Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1980-1990-ies) pp. 31-42

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2024.3.70197

EDN: FBSCFM

Abstract: The work is devoted to the history of the formation of one of the scientific directions currently developing at the Institute of Chemistry of the Federal Research Center "Komi Scientific Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences". The subject of the study is the process of formation and development of research in the field of materials science and chemical technology of ceramic and composite materials in the Laboratory of Chemistry and Solid State Physics of the Department of Chemistry of the Komi Scientific Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the 1980s and 1990s. The main attention is paid to the study of the prerequisites for the creation, conditions and main stages of the laboratory, the mechanisms of interaction between a research institution and industrial enterprises of the republic, the analysis of the influence of external factors on the choice of subjects and the development of scientific research, the role of the personality of a scientist in the history of science.The methodological basis of the research is the principle of historicism, a problem-chronological approach, according to which the formation of a scientific direction in an academic institution was studied in the context of the history of industrial development of the region. Based on the documents stored in the funds of the Scientific Archive of the Komi Scientific Research Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences and published works, the history of the organization and operation of the laboratory of chemistry and solid state physics was reconstructed for the first time. It is established that one of the main factors that determined the process of formation and development of research in the laboratory during this period was the availability in the republic of promising reserves of mineral raw materials suitable for use in obtaining functional ceramic and composite materials; the necessary research base; the development of high-tech industries in the Komi ASSR. Scientists have been working on the creation of physico-chemical bases for the production of high-tech materials with special properties (magnetic, electrophysical, etc.) based on the mineral raw materials of the republic. New materials with special physical and chemical characteristics obtained in the laboratory were introduced into production, which contributed to the development of the region's industry.
Personality in history
Borisov A.A. - Yakut Prince Mazary Bozekov in historiography: the experience of biographical reconstruction pp. 43-56

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2024.3.69902

EDN: OTSJYY

Abstract: The subject of the study is the historiography of the personality of the Yakut Prince Mazary Bozekov (1633-1703). The object of the study is the biography of Mazary Bozekov, which, according to the author of the article, received a one-sided interpretation due to its ideologization in Soviet times. For the first time, the author considered the problem from the point of view of analyzing the research approaches of scientists who turned to the study of the personality of the Yakut prince. The author sought to rely on such methodological principles as careful selection of quotations to illustrate the author's approach and style to the topic under study. Another principle was to take into account the main historical trends of the era in which Mazary Bozekov lived. There were no special scientific publications devoted to the personality of the Bozekov, with the exception of some articles of a popular scientific nature. The greatest successes were achieved by S.V. Bakhrushin and S.A. Tokarev. The latter managed to introduce into scientific circulation many documents, including those on the early and late period in the life of Mazary Bozekov. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that the author has outlined promising areas for further research. He believes that modern theoretical and methodological approaches allow us to take a fresh look at the personality of Mazary Bozekov. In particular, this can be seen in the latest work of V.N. Ivanov, in which he introduced new archival materials from the arhihe into scientific circulation and in which he proposed to consider the Yakut princes who participated in the trips as ethnic leaders. The study of the problem requires new research in terms of not only finding additional sources, but also in terms of its modern scientific understanding.
Memorable date in history
Magadeev I.E. - The Ruhr Crisis of 1923 and the International Transition in Europe after the WWI pp. 57-75

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2024.3.40374

EDN: AJJYZZ

Abstract: Article aims to analyze the impact of the Ruhr crisis 1923 on the history of the international relations in Europe after the WWI. This crisis, which began by the occupation of the Ruhr region by the French and Belgian troops and ended by the approval of the new reparation plan (Dawes plan) in 1924, played the crucial role in the transformation of the international order (so-called Versailles order), envisaged by the Paris peace conference of 19191920. Author scrutinizes such aspects, as the links between the Ruhr crisis and the specifics of the WWI ending, he discerns the crisis' consequences in the Western and Eastern Europe, the role of the Anglo-American mediation in the regulation of the Franco-German conflict, according to the British and US interests. The essay concludes that the Ruhr crisis made critical impact on the consolidation of the Versailles order. The events unfolded in 1923, created the conditions for the "international turn" of 19241925, including the formation of the Anglo-Franco-German "European concert" instead of the Entente disintegrated during the crisis. Author demonstrates the direct link between the events of 1923 and the further stabilization of Europe negotiated during the London (1924) and Locarno conferences (1925), though this link sometimes remains "under shadow" in the major studies of the international relations in Europe after WWI. Besides this, the novelty of the article is explained by the rarely used documents from the British and French archives analyzed by the author.
History of law and state
Stashkov R.S. - The beginning of ensuring the safety of water transport (based on the materials of acts of Ancient Russia) pp. 76-86

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2024.3.40392

EDN: ABBGNJ

Abstract: The relevance of the theme of the study is due to the fact that an objective study of the history of formation of legal norms governing the provision of transport safety on water in ancient Russia in the period from the IX XII centuries, allows to understand the practical significance of this problem to improve the safety of people on water transport. To find out in which documents legal norms regulating safety on water first appeared. The purpose of research is carrying out of the complex analysis of occurrence of the legal norms regulating maintenance of transport safety on water in Ancient Russia, on the basis of objective studying of documentary, archival and scientific materials, using a principle of objectivity and historicism. Object of research are legal documents of Ancient Russia. Subject of research are the legal norms regulating maintenance of transport safety on water in Ancient Russia. When writing the article historical, ideographic, comparative-legal methods have been used. Scientific novelty of article consists in occurrence in Ancient Russia written normative documents containing the norms regulating questions of transport safety on water. For the first time in Russia the written legal document in the form of the international contract regulating various aspects of public relations of Ancient Russia and Byzantium in which the norm regulating transport safety on water objects contains. In addition, the collection of legal norms, Russkaya Pravda, enshrines in writing requirements that did not exist before concerning the need to observe safety on water transport.
History of regions of Russia
Shabalina S.S. - Daily leisure activities of provincial townspeople of Kazan and Vyatka provinces at the turn of the XIX early XX century: balls, masquerades, dance evenings pp. 87-93

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2024.3.69978

EDN: AHWHBA

Abstract: Everyday life is a problem that requires detailed study. It is in the way people's leisure activities were organized that the prerequisites for the formation of the worldview and worldview of the people are revealed. Women's daily life at the turn of the XIX early XX century is worthy of a separate study, because during this period there is a rethinking of the gender issue, which allowed a woman to be on an equal footing with a man in a difficult period of national history. The purpose of the research is to study the leisure everyday life of provincial townspeople at the turn of the XIX early XX century on the example of archival materials of the Kazan and Vyatka provinces. Leisure activities are often determined by how representatives of the upper classes spend their free time. They are the ones who lay the foundations of etiquette, fashion, rules of summing up, places to visit and much more.The following methods were used in the study: analysis of historical literature in the aspect of the problem under study; comparative method, which is an analysis of various sources from the point of view of their comprehensive consideration; selective method used for a more detailed study of the issue under consideration. Scope of the results: the research material can be used for a more in-depth study of women's everyday life, the study of the evolution of the gender issue, in the process of a comprehensive study of the history of the Kazan and Vyatka provinces, as well as the history of Russia as a whole. The daily life of the townspeople of the Kazan and Vyatka provinces is an issue that has not been fully studied, a lot of archival materials were out of the field of view of researchers. The author focuses on how girls occupied themselves at the turn of the century. It is noted that balls, dance evenings and masquerades were a favorite form of leisure. During these events, an unspoken hierarchy in society was established, deals were made, etc. Women had to carefully select their toilet when attending such events, which took place in various clubs. Clubs have become the center of public life not only in the capital, but also in provincial cities.
Ryabova O.V., Kochkurova E.A., Zykova T.V. - Nizhny Novgorod Provincial Peasant's House in the 1920s. pp. 94-103

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2024.3.70018

EDN: ORCXXF

Abstract: After the end of the Civil War, a new type of hotel enterprise appeared in Soviet Russia the Peasant's House. The first Peasant's House was opened in 1922 in Moscow. The experience of its operation was recognized as successful and regional Peasant Houses began to open throughout the country. In Nizhny Novgorod, the Provincial Peasant's House began its work in 1925. His task was to serve the peasants coming to the city. They were provided with a hostel and meals. The peasants received legal assistance, various references and advice on various issues. Political and educational activities were also provided for peasant walkers: excursions, radio broadcasts, visits to the library. Lectures, reports, debates, question and answer evenings, as well as individual conversations were held in the Peasant's House. From the first years of the Peasant's Houses, the Soviet government sought their transition to full self-financing. The paper provides an analysis of the main directions of development of the Nizhny Novgorod Provincial Peasant House in the 1920s. The article is based on the materials of the Central Archive of the Nizhny Novgorod Region Regional Archive (TSANO), periodicals, scientific literature. The article uses historical-systemic and historical-comparative methods, as well as general scientific methods such as description and comparison. The conducted research showed that the Nizhny Novgorod Provincial Peasant's House was in a difficult situation in the 1920s. Like any new business, the organization and activity of the Peasant's House faced considerable difficulties. The normal activities of the Peasant's House were hampered by material problems. The residential premises provided by the government needed major repairs. The subsidies allocated for political and educational work were not enough. The situation changed only in the early 1930s, when the government decided to build new buildings for peasant Homes.
Knyazeva A.S. - Non-political propaganda directions of the Stalingrad (Volgograd) regional branch of the All-Union Society "Znanie" (1948-1980) pp. 104-113

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2024.3.70117

EDN: NSKOYV

Abstract: The object of the study is the non-political propaganda of the Volgograd (Stalingrad) branch of the All-Union Society "Znanie" (Knowledge) during the Soviet period of the organization's existence (1948 to the end of the 1980s). The subject of the study was such areas of work of the regional branch of the society "Knowledge" as propaganda in the field of education, pedagogy, disease control, healthy lifestyle. The source base for this study was archival documents of the Center for Documentation of the Modern History of the Volgograd region (CDNIVO), namely, minutes of meetings of the organizing committee of the regional branch, annual reports on the main activities of the regional branch, minutes of the work of various sections within the department, minutes of the meeting of the Presidium of the Board of the regional branch, minutes of meetings of the Plenum of the Board of the regional branch, lecture plans, etc. These documents are of particular value, since today they are the only sources that cover the work of the Volgograd branch of the All-Union Society "Znanie". The principles of historicism, subjectivism, and system analysis of regional archival sources of the Center for Documentation of the Modern History of the Volgograd Region were applied in the methodology of the work. The novelty lies in the fact that for the first time an analysis of the work of the regional office is being carried out, especially since the narrower and non-core areas of work of the Znanie society are affected. The results of the study allow us to conclude that the Volgograd regional branch of the Znanie Society has implemented quite important tasks in matters of education, disease prevention, organization of cultural leisure for city residents, for this the society used various methods of work: parent lectures, radio lectures, national universities, meeting evenings, printing articles in periodicals, etc. Attention to the sections of pedagogy and psychology, medical knowledge, literature and art increased. The audience coverage of the above sections also grew, thousands of residents of the city passively or actively participated in the life of these sections.
History of political and legal doctrines
Wang J. - The Divine right of the Tsar and the "unity of Heaven and the Emperor" the concept of the "Holy Sovereign" in Russian and Chinese political cultures pp. 114-125

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2024.3.69406

EDN: NWKJRS

Abstract: The image of the sovereign reflects the attitude of the people towards the ruler of the country, which is an important aspect of the study of political culture. This article is devoted to a comprehensive study of the sanctity of the image of the ruler in Russian and Chinese political cultures. The analysis of the origin and specificity of the holy image of the sovereign in the mentalities of both peoples is carried out. The main differences in the process of consecration of the ruler in Russian and Chinese stories are highlighted. In the autocratic Russian and Chinese states, a common understanding of the indisputable authority of the sovereign was at the center of ideology. To ensure the legitimacy and competence of his rights, the Russian tsar turned to Orthodox Christianity for support, and the Chinese emperor turned to Heaven. As a result, since the history of Russia, the power of the sovereign from the very beginning to the end has been limited by the powers of the deity and the authority of the Orthodox Church. In ancient China, the sovereign had "absolute power", since there had never been a so-called "official religion" in Chinese history. Although the monarchical period in both countries has already ended, its duration and stability indicate that the concept of "holy sovereign" as one of the main features of the Russian and Chinese mentality can regulate relations between social groups in the countries. Although the monarchical period in both countries has already ended, its duration and stability indicate that the concept of "holy sovereign" as one of the main features of the Russian and Chinese mentality can regulate relations between social groups in the countries. Such power is of great importance in the modern era.
History and Politics
Solovev K.A. - The Concept of "Freedom" in Political Texts by Russian Authors of the 18th Century pp. 126-143

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2024.3.39998

EDN: OAGYZQ

Abstract: The concept of "freedom" is one of the pillars for identifying ideas about the social ideal and one of the guidelines in attempts at social construction of the modern era. The object of this study is the political thought of Russia in the 18th century. The subject of the research is the formation and evolution of the concept of freedom in the socio-political texts of Russian authors of the 18th century. The purpose of this article was to identify the specifics of the concept of "freedom", presented in the texts of statesmen and politicians of the 18th century, in relation to the texts created in the pre-Petrine tradition and the texts of the European Enlightenment. The basic research method is the textual analysis of the works of Russian political authors of the 18th century, in its various versions: semantic (including hermeneutics), genetic, comparative. The main conclusion is that the reception of the concept of "freedom" from the texts of the European Enlightenment and the formation, on this basis, of the political concept of "freedom", began in the second third of the 18th century, as evidenced by the texts of V.N. Tatishcheva. This reception ended in the 1780s in the form of three basic interpretations of the concept of "freedom" liberal (texts by N.I. Panin and his associates), conservative (texts by M.M. Shcherbatov) and democratic (texts by A.N. Radishchev).
Philosophy of history, historiography, chronology/source studies
Kostrikov S.P. - The socio-political situation in Greece according to the report of the Swedish diplomatic mission from Constantinople (August 1916) pp. 144-151

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2024.3.70075

EDN: OARVBN

Abstract: The subject of the study is a report from the Swedish diplomatic mission in Constantinople, transmitted to the envoy of the Swedish Kingdom in St. Petersburg, considered as an important source on the socio-political situation in Greece with an assessment of possible prospects for its development. The report contains information concerning the most serious disagreements and irreconcilable contradictions between supporters of the Germanophile position led by King Constantine and supporters of the prominent liberal politician E. Venizelos, who repeatedly headed the Greek government. The latter openly advocated cooperation with the Entente countries, primarily Great Britain, for the landing of a contingent of allied troops in Greece to help the Serbian army and prevent the troops of the central powers. The period of the beginning of a series of uprisings in continental Greece and on the Greek islands of the king's policy is described.Based on the methods of historicism and systematic research, the issues of the very complicated situation around Greece as one of the most important players in the Balkans, the problems of the Thessaloniki Front, the military and diplomatic actions of the Entente allies in the region, the assessment of the situation by Swedish diplomats and their forecasts are considered. The analysis of the considered source allows us to draw the following conclusions. The materials of the report under study, together with other information, created a three-dimensional picture of events in Greece for the Swedish government in order to take any measures and take the necessary position from the point of view of the country's interests. This report was also important for our military and diplomatic authorities to understand the Swedish side's reaction to the events in Greece, to see their objective assessment of the outcome of this situation, and of the entire world war as a whole. The information obtained from this source gave Russian diplomacy the opportunity to use them in its relations with partners and have an idea of the prospects for the development of the situation in the Balkans.
History and Computer Science
Mikheeva V.V. - The use of Internet resources in historical research pp. 152-165

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2024.3.70031

EDN: ODQHDY

Abstract: Computer technology has long been an integral part of our lives. The information resource of mankind is constantly growing, being updated and replenished, and benefits professionals of any specialization. Currently, the Internet has turned into a vast information space, into an immeasurable repository. In this repository, information of various kinds (scientific, business, educational, text, audio and video information) is publicly available and is constantly being enriched, there are virtual archives, libraries, and news feeds. The worldwide information network has connected not only individual researchers, but also numerous scientific organizations around the world. The object of the research is the analysis of Internet resources and the application of their potential in the field of historical knowledge. The subject of the research is the analysis of the Internet as a modern information environment of historical science, the use of Internet capabilities in historical research, as well as in historical education.The following methods were used in writing the work: historicism, historical-comparative, historical-genetic. This made it possible to discover potential Internet resources in the field of historical research. When writing the work, the author conducted a study, during which more than 300 sites and Web pages on the history of Russia and world history, located on various servers, were analyzed. The author gave a description of the main groups of sources represented on the Internet, and proposed his own classification of professional resources. He also focused on the characteristics of resources created by Academic organizations, the search for special articles and books, historical multimedia resources, collections of encyclopedias and dictionaries, anthologies, the use of blogs and forums, as well as file-sharing networks to search for historical information. Internet bibliographic resources, electronic catalogs, and meta-search bibliographic systems are also highlighted. Special attention is paid to the methods of more effective search for historical information, a new search concept is proposed.
Social history
Basov I.M. - Markers of social status in Polish printers' signatures (1501-1545) pp. 166-176

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2024.3.70000

EDN: PKHPOR

Abstract: The article raises the problem of status representation in the signatures of book printers of the Kingdom of Poland. First of all, the study concerns the identified features in the publications of I. Vietor and J. Haller; to a lesser extent - S. Giber, K. Hochfeder, F. Ungler and M. Scharfenberg. Although the publisher's signature form did not undergo significant changes during the 1st half of the 16th century, we find specific markers of social status among the listed printers. These markers are not characteristic of previous and subsequent Polish book publishers, but are characteristic, firstly, of a certain circle of printers outside the Kingdom of Poland, and secondly, of the social environment that existed at that time, in which certain epithets conveyed information about a persons place in the hierarchy. The focus on the readership demand of intellectuals and connections with the University of Krakow were also reflected in the publishing signatures: printers classified their activities in the field of sciences and arts ("ars"), and also presented themselves in terms accepted in the scientific community ("egregius vir", "spectabilis vir dominus"). This part of the self-representation of entrepreneurs once again testifies to their involvement in the structure of European humanist printers, who, like their Polish colleagues, sought to declare in their signatures their connections with the scientific community and Renaissance culture. At the same time, the appearance of the epithets identified in the structure of the publisher's signature has not only a linguistic connection, but also a chronological one: the concepts under study disappear in the middle of the 16th century from Polish publications and is reduced to a minimum in publications of other European lands.
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