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Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue є 09/2023
Contents of Issue є 09/2023
History of law and state
Savvinov P.O. - Judicial complaints about the activities of magistrates of the Yakut region in the late XIX Ч early XX centuries pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.9.44055

EDN: YGXIMJ

Abstract: The subject of the study is Judicial complaints about the activities of magistrates of the Yakut region in the communicative space of the Yakut District Court at the end of the XIX − beginning of the XX century. The object of the study is the communicative practice associated with the development of legal proceedings in the Yakut region above the specified period. In the article, the author analyzed judicial complaints against the activities of magistrates and their consideration in the Yakutsk District Court. The study is based on the methodological principles of the frontier modernization approach of I.V. Berezhnikov, which is used to analyze the peripheral regions of the Russian Empire. As a tool of cognition, the comparative historical method is used, which allows to reveal the cause-and-effect relationships and patterns of the historical process. For the first time, the article undertakes a special study of judicial complaints against the activities of magistrates in the communicative space of the Yakut District Court, which is understood as a system of diverse communicative connections arising between various communication participants. The author comes to the conclusion that complaints about the activities of magistrates played an important role in the communicative space of the Yakut District Court during the period under review as a channel of communication between society and the judiciary, which was regulated by the Judicial Statutes of 1864. Appeals of the accused, defendants to the judiciary acted as a communicative channel through which feedback was carried out, through which the Yakut the district court could supervise the activities of magistrates. The Yakutsk District Court considered incoming complaints against magistrates regardless of the severity of the accused's crime.
Regions of the world in the global historical process
Usatiuk D. - Fundamentals and factors of deployment in the United States in 1913-1917 Naval construction pp. 10-21

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.9.43895

EDN: YHTBYH

Abstract: The article examines the rationale and practical content of measures to increase the US Navy in 1913-1917. The main attention is focused on the ideological and organizational foundations of the strategy of the American leadership regarding the role of naval power as a factor in ensuring national interests. The design and implementation of the strategy are considered in the context of the reaction of the administration of President W. Wilson to the course and nature of the block confrontation in Europe, to the development of the international situation during the period of US neutrality in the First World War. The research is based on the application of the principles of historicism and scientific objectivity. The theoretical and methodological basis of the study was a systematic approach. On the basis of a comprehensive study of legislative acts, statistical data, official accounting documents and sources of personal origin, along with the materials of well-known historical research, the totality of factors that caused the deployment of naval construction in 1913-1917 was identified, the content and scale of measures to increase the US Navy were determined and evaluated. As a result, it is concluded that by the time the United States entered the war against Germany, the role of the Navy in ensuring the implementation of foreign policy tasks was determined, but the goals of the quantitative and qualitative state of the US Navy for real participation in the resolution of the conflict were not achieved.
History of political and legal doctrines
Mikhailov A.M. - Formation and Development of the Doctrine of Rule of Law in English Legal Thought pp. 22-44

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.9.38833

EDN: ZXEQEP

Abstract: The subject of the study is the English constitutional doctrine of the rule of law, taken in the historical evolution of its understanding by leading authoritative lawyers and thinkers starting with H. de Bracton and ending with A.V. Dicey and modern British constitutional law jurists. The article presents both positivist and non-positivist interpretations of the doctrine. Particular attention is paid to the classical interpretation of the doctrine of the rule of law in the work of A.V. Dicey "Introduction to the Study of Constitutional Law" (1885): the main meanings of the concept are revealed and critical remarks set out in the British legal thought of the XX century are presented. The article concludes with a brief summary of the modern understanding of the doctrine of the rule of law in the contemporary legal literature. † The novelty of the research is that for the first time in Russian jurisprudence, the historical reconstruction of the formation and development of ideas that make up the content of the doctrine of the rule of law is revealed. Special attention is paid to the contribution to the development of this legal doctrine by such jurists as J. Fortescue, E. Coke, S. Rutherford, J. Locke, A.V. Dicey. In addition, attention is paid to the distinction between interpretations of the concept by lawyers of the positivist and non-positivist legal thought. Critical understanding of A.V. Dicey's teaching on the rule of law and modern interpretations of the concept are presented for the first time in the Russian legal literature.
Historical sources and artifacts
Borovkov D. - The effect of "memory aberration" in M.T. Kalashnikov's memoirs about the Great Patriotic War. pp. 45-56

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.9.44017

EDN: YIEBLM

Abstract: The object of the work is the memoirs of the famous Russian designer-gunsmith M. T. Kalashnikov about his participation in the battles of the Great Patriotic War in 1941. The author subjects fragments of M. T. Kalashnikov's memoirs of various publications to comparative analysis. The key publications are "Notes of the designer-gunsmith" in 1992 and "Kalashnikov: the Trajectory of Fate", published in 2007. In addition, the text of the designer's memoirs is compared with documentary sources: combat documents of the 108 tank division, in which M.T. Kalashnikov served at the time of his participation in the battles. The author also provides a review of literature and research on the military biography of M.T. Kalashnikov. The author concludes about the serious chronological distortion that M. T. Kalashnikov made when describing his participation in the battles. The designer himself clearly indicated in his memoirs that he spent at least several weeks at the front in September and October 1941. The analysis of the documents clearly shows that the participation of M.T. Kalashnikov in the battles was actually reduced to two days of fighting: August 30 and 31, 1941. In addition, a comparison of the texts of memoirs of different publications revealed noticeable discrepancies between them. Some of these discrepancies could only have been made deliberately. In addition, the historiographical review revealed the following: the authors who worked on the biography of M.T. Kalashnikov earlier were aware of this phenomenon. However, no one carried out a detailed source analysis of the designer's memoirs, and no attempts were made to explain these distortions. At the same time, the author of the work notes that a detailed analysis of the memoirs of M.T. Kalashnikov has yet to be carried out and the information potential of this source cannot be considered exhausted.
Issues of war and peace
Ilyichev A.V. - The Russian Army on the Eve of the Crimean War: Between Myth and Reality pp. 57-78

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.9.38690

EDN: ZXNDFN

Abstract: The article is devoted to the problems of the military system of the Russian Empire in the years of the reign of Nicholas I. The subject of the study is the military organization of the Russian Empire in the middle of the XIX century. The object of the study is the Russian army in the Crimean War (1853-1856). The focus is on the organization of the armed forces of the Empire, the training of enlisted and officers, logistics and pensions, as well as military production in the middle of the XIX century. Traditionally, in Russian historiography, the main drawbacks of the military system were called the technical lag of the Russian Empire from the European armies and the serfdom structure of the domestic power. During the study of the topic, it was revealed that the issue of armament was not the fundamental reason for the defeat of the empire in the conflict. Soldiers recruited according to the recruitment system could not equivalently resist European armies based on a system of consription or voluntary recruitment. The difficult conditions of service in the army of the Russian Empire in the XIX century, led to the complete depletion of the reserve stock, which was clearly manifested in the years. The Crimean War (1853-1856). In combination with significant shortcomings in the training of private and officer, this led to the absolute hegemony of the Allied army in field battles. Many of these problems were known to the highest military and political leadership of the country, which initiated a number of military reforms to correct them. Nicholas I failed to implement these changes before the outbreak of the Crimean War. Already after the conflict, under the leadership of the Minister of War Milyutin D.A., within the framework of the "Great Reforms of the 1860s", many of these problems were resolved to one degree or another. The study is of a general nature, and this topic requires further detailed study of each of the aspects mentioned in the work.
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