Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue 08/2023
Contents of Issue 08/2023
Issues of war and peace
Andriainen S.V. - Mechanisms of the emergence and formation of guard units in the Russian Imperial Army pp. 1-14

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.8.38586

EDN: UBMLQO

Abstract: The article analyzes the causes and patterns of the emergence of new guard units in the Russian Imperial Army. The author has identified six periods in this process. The author proposed his own methodology for determining why some regiments of the Russian army received the status of guards. According to the theory of the author of the article, only those regiments that met certain criteria had a chance to become guards. The process of transition of army units to guards was a long one. The author has identified several models for the formation of new guards military units. The reasons for the creation of new military units of the Guard were both military and political. In the era of palace coups, political reasons for the creation of new guard formations dominated. They were created to protect the ruler. During the Napoleonic Wars, a large number of new guard units were created to solve combat tasks. According to the author of the article, by the end of the XIX century, the potential for creating new guards military units was almost exhausted and the process of consolidating the status of guards units began. At the same time, there was a curtailment of the national units that Emperor Nicholas I created as part of the guard. By the end of the XIX century, the division into Old and Young was abolished in the Russian Guard.
History and Politics
Wangraoua W. - The terrorist crisis in Burkina Faso and the change of foreign policy priorities 2012-2022 pp. 15-26

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.8.43559

EDN: UKEMKM

Abstract: In the article, the author examines the main directions in the development of Burkina Faso's foreign policy, which consist in building international relations beneficial to the state, solving political and economic issues. Over the past few years, the terrorist index in Burkina Faso has increased, which has led to a crisis and the emergence of negative relations between the authorities and the people. This causes the state to abandon the French benchmark in foreign policy and prioritize cooperation with Russia, the United States, China and Ghana. In addition, the political instability of neighboring States has also affected Burkina Faso on issues affecting the problem of terrorism - it seems that the exchange of information, coordination of actions and common efforts at the regional and international levels help to improve security and protect the borders of Burkina Faso. Cooperation with other States allows Burkina Faso to contribute to solving common global problems, such as climate change, international terrorism, poverty and migration. Joining efforts and working together with other States can improve efficiency and achieve agreed solutions. We will also pay attention to the opportunity to exchange experience, knowledge and best practices in various fields, such as education, healthcare, agriculture, etc. This can help improve the quality of life and development of the country.
History of regions of Russia
Ryabova O.V., Efremova M.V., Shimin N.A. - Foreign tourism in the Nizhny Novgorod region in the late 1920s1930s. pp. 27-35

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.8.43717

EDN: WKDYIZ

Abstract: The subject of the study is the formation and development of foreign tourism in the Nizhny Novgorod (Gorky) region in the first decades of Soviet power. The purpose of the paper is to describe the problems faced by the tourism industry in organizing work to attract foreign tourists. With the beginning of the "Stalinist modernization", the flow of foreign tourists is increasing. But the material and technical base of the tourism industry turned out to be completely unprepared for this. There was also a catastrophic lack of trained personnel to work with intourists. To get out of this situation, the government creates the GAO "Intourist", which becomes a monopolist in the organization and reception of foreign tourists. The methodology of the work is based on the principles of historicism and objectivity, as well as a systematic approach that allows a comprehensive examination of the subject under study. The novelty of the scientific work lies in the identification and generalization of historical sources, the involvement in scientific circulation of archival data showing the activities of the Gorky Regional Department in the period under study. The conducted research has shown that the need to open representative offices of GAO "Intourist" abroad, the organization of work with intourists already on the territory of the USSR faced an acute shortage of highly qualified personnel. The solution to this problem was the organization of courses for the training of tour guides with knowledge of foreign languages. Problems with the accommodation of intourists in hotels, poor transport provision were the result of chronic underfunding of the industry. The explanation for this is the need for industrialization in the USSR. Therefore, the tourism industry was provided on a residual basis.
History of political and legal doctrines
Zubarev I.Y. - Underground and terrorist activities of anarchists during the establishment of Soviet power in Russia: the emergence and activities of the "anarchist underground". pp. 36-43

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.8.43780

EDN: WKVGGU

Abstract: The article deals with the causes and history of the emergence and activities of the "All-Russian Organization of Underground Anarchists" (VOAP), which began its activities after the deterioration of relations between anarchists and Bolsheviks. This paper reveals the reasons for the emergence of the organization, the motives of its terrorist activities. The author has researched and analyzed the literary heritage of the underground anarchists, studied the works devoted to the activities of this organization. All this made it possible to form an objective opinion about the activities, goals and objectives of this organization. The object of the study is the activity of the VOAP. The subject of the study is the history of the organization's formation, its propaganda and terrorist activities. According to the author, the VOAP originated from among the most radical anarchists who were dissatisfied and offended by the Bolsheviks, and their motives were revenge rather than revolutionary struggle. The roots of the motives of the "underground workers" lay in the events of the disarmament and defeat of anarchist groups by the Bolsheviks in the spring of 1918 and the subsequent repression of representatives of the left opposition. The terrorist attack carried out by the Moscow group VOAPA and its consequences not only did not become the beginning of the "third revolution", but on the contrary, alienated some sympathizers. The transition of the "underground" to individual terror was caused by revenge motives.
History and Economics
Veselov S.I. - Construction of the TobolskYuzhny Balyk highway: the emergence and overcoming of state-departmental and interdepartmental conflicts (19801991) pp. 44-62

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.8.43877

EDN: WKYEDC

Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the historical experience of the construction of the Tobolsk Yuzhny Balyk highway, which connected the North and South of the Tyumen region in the context of the departmental nature of the transport development of the territory. The purpose of this article is to analyze the conditions for the emergence and overcoming of state-departmental and interdepartmental conflicts on the construction of the Tobolsk Yuzhny Balyk highway. The object of the study is the development of the regional road network of the Tyumen North, its design, construction and operation in the conditions of oil and gas development. The subject of the study is the process of construction of the Tobolsk Yuzhny Balyk departmental highway and its inclusion in the regional network of public roads and the unified transport network of the RSFSR/Of the Russian Federation. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that the author of the article comprehends the horizontal ties of the party-Soviet authorities from the perspective of D. Hough's concept, and the vertical ties of the general contractor and subcontractors within the framework of the approach of Sh. Fitzpatrick. The main conclusions of the study include the identification of two opposing interest groups for the construction of a highway. On the one hand, it is the Ministry of Oil Industry of the USSR, which is periodically in opposition to the regional elite and their ally, the contractor for the construction of the highway Minavtodor of the RSFSR. On the other hand, the opponents of financing the highway are Mingeologiya and Mingazprom of the USSR. A special contribution of the author to the study of the topic is the introduction into circulation of new sources that reveal the features of the functioning of departmental world-economies of the West Siberian oil and gas complex.
Social history
Kattsina T.A., Mezit L.E., Tishkina K.A. - Everyday life of orphanages of the Yenisei province in the Early Soviet period pp. 63-72

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.8.40651

EDN: WLHGTC

Abstract: The subject of the study is housing conditions, diet, organization of life in orphanages of the Yenisei province after the end of the Civil War. In the conditions of mass homelessness and juvenile delinquency, the state sought to take care of all children in need, to re-socialize them and make them useful citizens of the new state. On the basis of archival materials, the living conditions of minors in orphanages in the early Soviet period are analyzed. Of all the institutions of social and legal protection of childhood operating during the study period, orphanages were selected as the most widespread institutions. The leading method of research was historical and anthropological. The article emphasizes the desire of the young Soviet state to make orphans and street children useful citizens of society. The authors come to the conclusion that the network of children's social institutions in the province, dispersed across different people's commissariats, did not cover all children in need of care and assistance, the operating orphanages could not cope with the tasks assigned to them, contributed little to the preparation of pupils for future independent life, but helped them survive in the difficult conditions of the period under study. The work of institutions was primarily affected by financial difficulties, budget deficit, lack of teaching staff, lack of systematic interaction in the activities of state bodies and public organizations involved in solving the "children's issue" in one way or another.
Ethnography and ethnology
Bravina R. - Archeology of Folklore: Ancient inhabitants of the East Siberian Arctic pp. 73-82

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.8.39818

EDN: WLLPMZ

Abstract: The subject of the study is the aboriginal tribes of the Yakut Arctic based on the folklore of the indigenous peoples of Northeast Asia. Mythological plots and folklore texts include images from mythical characters the host spirits of ichchi and kuchun of peripheral border territories and wild "half-human, half-animal" chuchun/suchun, to representatives of alien Omuk tribes with their unusual appearance and habits: "hairy" giants, tiny men and people "falling asleep for the winter". The purpose and objectives of the article are to generalize, systematize and analyze folklore texts about the ancient inhabitants of the Yakut Arctic using materials from mythology, toponymy, ethnography and archeology. In the genres of Yakut folklore, although a cycle of legends and legends about non-Yakut tribes stands out, nevertheless there is no special article dedicated to the ancient inhabitants of the Arctic coast and the islands of the northern seas of Yakutia. Folklore texts contain diverse, including deeply archaic layers of mythological ideas and folk knowledge inherent in both Yakuts and Tungus-Manchurian, Paleoasiatic, Samoyed and Finno-Ugric peoples. At the same time, the plots of legends and legends were constantly developing, absorbing both mythological representations and real features of the life of Arctic hunters and reindeer herders, as well as fragments of Early Russian folklore. Such a wide areal distribution can be explained by a single historical and cultural heritage, including folklore traditions, of Northern Eurasia.
Culture and cultures in historical context
Maksimenko E.P. - The great russian composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky in the context of Western barbarism: pages of history (on the 130th anniversary of the composer's death) pp. 83-94

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.8.43645

EDN: WVSSAM

Abstract: Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky has long gained fame as one of the most performed composers in the world. Since the end of 1887, with his first European tour, Tchaikovsky confidently gained fame in the West, which he considered fundamentally important for himself. Nevertheless, the real attitude to Tchaikovsky's cultural heritage outside our country cannot be considered unambiguously positive. This article examines the manifestations of the essentially barbaric attitude of the Western world to places and events associated with the personality and name of the great Russian composer, as well as his musical works. In particular, the well-known fact of the defensive period of the Battle for Moscow the shameful vandalism of the German occupiers in Tchaikovsky's House in Klin (November-December 1941) is considered for the first time against the background of the high level of development of the general musical culture that Germany achieved after the First World War. It also explores the destructive attitude of the World Federation of International Music Competitions to the International Tchaikovsky Competition in our days, provides eloquent facts of the cultural policy of cancellation in relation to the composer's work. The considered plots allow us to conclude that the destructive forms of behavior inherent in the West are used, aimed at ousting Russian culture from the world cultural space.
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