Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue 02/2023
Contents of Issue 02/2023
History of law and state
Veliev A.E. - Criminal liability for suicide in the law of pre-Petrine Russia pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.2.37587

EDN: HNQPJW

Abstract: This study is devoted to the criminal law regulation of issues related to suicide in pre-Petrine Russia. This period of development of domestic law is characterized by a rather weak, compared with the later stages of the history of criminal legal counteraction to suicide, study. The work presents the testimonies of contemporaries, as well as the monuments of law that were not previously considered in publications devoted to a similar topic. The prescriptions of the norms of positive law affecting suicidal behavior, as well as the sanctions that threatened suicides under the church and customary law of the period under review, are described. Special attention is paid to the popular opinion about the identity of murder and suicide in ancient Russian criminal law. Based on the analysis of normative legal acts of the era in question, it is concluded that although there was no legal responsibility directly for committing suicide in pre-Petrine Russia, the condemnation of suicide by the state authorities still found expression in other forms, in particular, by mentioning this phenomenon in a negative context. At the same time, on the example of a number of normative legal acts of the period under review, the inconsistency of the statement common in Russian science that the term "murder" included not only murder, but also suicide is shown.
Regions of the world in the global historical process
Peshkin V.M. - Problems in the Relations of the Visegrad Group States with the European Union in 2014-2022. pp. 10-26

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.2.39783

EDN: HLFOEO

Abstract: The subject of the study is the historical conditions in which the disloyal attitude of the Visegrad Group towards the solutions proposed by the EU began to grow during the specified period of time. The analysis of the migration crisis, which has aggravated political, economic, financial, social, and religious problems in the EU countries, is carried out. The EU's efforts to overcome it have become the basis for strengthening the role of right-wing parties in the Quartet. The role of Hungary, which represents itself as a defender of "Europe as a continent for Europeans", which has pursued the most active restrictive migration policy, is considered. The plans of the leadership of Germany and Austria for the management of migration flows, reflecting the ambitions of Berlin and Vienna for the transit and reception of refugees, are presented. The "central" line of Brussels on overcoming the migration crisis is being studied. The tools used by V4 to overcome the migration crisis caused by the vulnerability of the Quartet countries to refugee flows are considered. The article also examines criticism from the "quartet" of the process of overcoming the migration crisis, which saw in the measures proposed by Brussels a threat to the national identity of its small states and a sign of disrespect for the interests of small states in the EU. In general, the migration crisis has resulted in the strengthening of far-right parties in Hungary and Poland, the radicalization of public opinion, which contradicts the main goals of European integration. Thus, the internal political development in some countries of the "Visegrad Four" has actually become a new noticeable element of confrontation with the European Union. Hungary and Poland reacted extremely painfully to criticism of the EU, appealing for support to partners in the Visegrad Group, to other countries where right-wing and conservative parties are also popular (Italy, Austria). As a counteraction, the EU leadership raised the issue of a threat to EU values in Poland and Hungary and considered the possibility of using a mechanism to influence countries that do not respect the values of the European Union.
History of political and legal doctrines
Dmitriev A. - Reasoning about the Masons' support of the monarchical power in Russia in 1817: source analysis pp. 27-54

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.2.33168

EDN: EANSQW

Abstract: The object of the study is the text of the manuscript, and the subject of the study is its historical and legal characteristics. Research objectives: 1) establishing the reliability of the source and the accuracy of the information contained therein; 2) establishing the year, author, purpose, completeness and meaning of the source. The article introduces into scientific circulation a monument of political and legal culture of the first quarter of the XIX century, promotes the initial publication of the manuscript belonging to the Russian Freemasons of the first quarter of the XIX century. Based on the original source, the study shows what legal and political ideas were actually spread among Russian Freemasons. The reasoning demonstrates the continuity of the state-legal ideas of the domestic political and legal thought of the XVIII and XIX centuries. Within the framework of the study, a manuscript of the first quarter of the XIX century is published for the first time and the attribution of the manuscript is given for the first time: the establishment of the author, year, authenticity and meaning of the work - "Arguments about the support of the monarchical power in Russia by Masons". The reasoning was recorded by S.P. Fonvizin (1783-1860) from the words of the author Joseph Alekseevich Pozdeev (1742-1820) in 1817. The reasoning is aimed at supporting the estate monarchy among the Masonic brothers in Russia in the first quarter of the XIX century .The reasoning demonstrates a commitment to social peace based on "good morals" and conscientious performance of class duties. The reasoning is rich in elements of the organic theory of the state and natural-legal argumentation.
Culture and cultures in historical context
Stepanova I. - "Epancha Was Made in that Wool": Felt Clothes in the Upper Volga Region and Neighboring Territories in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Time. pp. 55-64

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.2.39699

EDN: GBKBCY

Abstract: The article considers felt clothing, widely used by the Russian population during the Middle Ages and early Modern times. The data of written sources of the XV-XVII centuries are analyzed scribal descriptions and assembly material, including documents of the patrimony of monasteries and secular landowners. The data of the archeology of an earlier period are involved. In written sources there is information about woolworkers, felters, halftimbers and epaulettes - artisans who specialized in the production of felt products. Among them, the clothing manufacturers were epanechniki. Evidence is given that in the XVI-XVII centuries. The epancha was felt clothing. It was a cape with a rounded neckline, without sleeves. There are archaeological finds of the Old Russian period corresponding to this form of clothing. This form of clothing existed from the early Middle Ages to Modern times. Written sources of the late XV XVII centuries reflect the spread of the craft of making felt and epanches. There is a development of specialization in the manufacture of felt products in the western part of the Upper Volga and Upper Podvinye during the late Middle Ages and early Modern times - in the cities of Staritsa, Toropets and the village of Knyazh Vladimirovo Gorodishche - the former patrimony center of the Princes Mikulinsky. For the production of felt, local raw materials were used products of universally developed sheep breeding. At the end of the XV XVII century in the structure of a large patrimonial economy, the volume of income from wool allowed the production of felt products from raw materials collected in different parts of the patrimony.
History of regions of Russia
Taktasheva F.A. - Demographic factor of integration of the territories of the deported peoples (on the example of the Volga Germans and Kalmyk ASSR) pp. 65-73

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.2.37479

EDN: KLLRAG

Abstract: The article is devoted to the problem of economic and economic strengthening of territories disbanded as a result of ethnic deportations of the Kalmyk ASSR and the ASSR of Volga Germans in the 1940s. Based on the extensive historical literature on the problems of deportations, it is proved that the topic of integration of the territories of deported peoples has been little studied. The author shows the administrative and territorial changes that occurred in the Stalingrad region in connection with the annexation of the districts of the former republics. It is proved that the successful integration of the territories of the former republics into the economy of the Stalingrad region was based on the demographic factor. Based on the documents of the archives, the dynamics of the population, as well as the activities of regional authorities to replenish the human potential of these territories are analyzed. The novelty of the study is determined by the lack of a comprehensive study of the problems of integration of the territories of the Volga and Kalmykia German republics, most of whose population were deported, into the economic system of the Stalingrad region in the 1940s. For the first time, unpublished historical sources are introduced into scientific circulation, including statistical information and documents of the Stalingrad Regional Party Committee. As the main conclusion, it was established that by the beginning of the 1950s, the restoration of the pre-war population level did not occur, as a result of which the territories of the former republics remained economically inefficient.
World history: Eras and seasons
Tatlioglu E. - Geopolitics of the Black Sea after the Cold War: State and Prospects pp. 74-85

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.2.39682

EDN: IAQSDO

Abstract: The paper considers the geopolitical situation of the Black Sea after the end of the Cold War. The main stages of changing the geopolitical situation are highlighted: from attempts by new regional actors to build their own course in the 1990s to falling into the sphere of influence of the United States and the EU. The interests of both the Black Sea and non-Black Sea powers in the region, their strengths and weaknesses are analyzed. The growing aggravation of relations between Russia and Western powers in the light of their penetration into the Black Sea region was noted. The ambiguous position of Turkey, its distance from the common Western course towards Russia was noted. It is concluded that without changing the positions of the main actors, stabilization of the situation in the region is problematic. It is noted that the conduct of ITS on the territory of Ukraine will seriously affect the preponderance of forces in the region and will have far-reaching consequences for Russia. The prospects of further cooperation of the countries in the Black Sea region are considered, taking into account the difficulties that arise due to their Prospects for the strategic and economic development of Russia are determined, taking into account the forecast of further developments in the area of the SVO. The author comes to the conclusion that the prospects for the further geopolitical situation in the Black Sea region will directly depend on how the SVO in Ukraine will end.
History of economy and business
Mohamed Abdalla A.E. - Trade and economic cooperation between the USSR and Sudan in 1960 -1980. pp. 86-92

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.2.37543

EDN: IBZNTZ

Abstract: The article is devoted to the main stages of the formation and development of foreign economic relations between Sudan and the USSR, starting with the establishment of Soviet-Sudanese diplomatic relations in 1956 and up to the end of the 1980s. The purpose of this article is to study the main directions of Soviet-Sudanese economic and scientific-technical cooperation in the context of political relations between the two countries in the period under study. The author relies on the principles of modern historical science: reliability, scientific objectivity and historicism, as well as a number of general scientific and special historical methods, in particular, chronological and historical-comparative. The object of the study is the Soviet-Sudanese economic relations in the 1960s-1980s. The subject of the study is the forms, directions and mechanisms of interaction between Sudan and the USSR in the economic sphere. It is shown how the unstable internal political situation in the country, the constant struggle for power between the military and civilians had a direct impact on the level of bilateral relations. The main directions of trade and economic cooperation between the Sudan and the USSR are revealed, which concerned, among other things, the sphere of geological exploration, construction, personnel training, and the exchange of specialists. Special attention is paid to military-technical bilateral cooperation, which was most actively developed during the presidency of Jafar Mohammed Nimeiri. The conclusion is made about the role of the USSR in the diversification of Sudan's industrial production, the restructuring of its monocultural economy and, in general, in the development and strengthening of the state sector of the country's economy.
Social history
Sugaipova R.A., Yanadamov A.M. - Dynamics of the Number of Chechens and Ingush on the Basis of the First General Population Census of 1897. pp. 93-99

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.2.38925

EDN: IDIJHP

Abstract: The subject of the study is the dynamics of the number of Chechen Ingush in the late XIX-early XX century. The source on which the author of the article relies are the materials of the first General Population Census of the Russian Empire in 1897 and the reports of the ataman of the Tersk region for the years 1900-1905. The methodological basis of the research is a set of theoretical and methodological principles and approaches: objectivity and historicism. The relevance of the topic is determined by the fact that the issues of demographic and ethnic development of the North Caucasus have been in the focus of attention of researchers for many years and are of interest not only to historians, but also to representatives of other specialties. The relevance is also determined by the fact that from the end of the XIX century to the present, the ethnic map has undergone certain changes, but at the same time, the area of compact residence of the peoples of the region has remained without significant changes. The materials of the first General Population Census of the Russian Empire are unique, they make up a huge layer of statistical data and their qualified analysis can help in studying many issues related not only to the number and language, but also to the economy. The scientific novelty of the reviewed article is manifested in the introduction into scientific circulation of the reports of the Ataman of the Tersk region for the years 1900-1905 and the analysis of the materials of the first General Population Census of the Russian Empire in 1897. The territorial scope of the study covers the Tersk region. The purpose of the article emerges from the content of the article to show the dynamics of changes in the number of Chechens and Ingush in the late XIX- early XX century. Based on the materials of the first General Population Census of 1897 and the reports of the Ataman of the Tersk region for 1900-1905, as well as the districts in which Chechens and Ingush lived, the number of urban population, etc. The article is an overview based on the conclusions made earlier by other authors.
History and Ideology
Kyrchanoff M.W. - Problems of the Status of the Macedonian Orthodox Church in the Contemporary Bulgarian Politics of Historical Memory pp. 100-112

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.2.39723

EDN: IBXOBW

Abstract: The purpose of the article is to analyse the perception of the problems of the history of the status of the Macedonian Orthodox Church in the politics of memory of modern Bulgaria. The author analyses the role and place of Macedonian church narratives in historical politics and the development of Bulgarian memorial culture. The novelty of the study lies in the analysis of the features of the religious level of the politics of memory in modern Bulgarian society as a secular state. The article analyses the perception of church issues in contemporary Bulgarian memorial culture. The article also shows that the politics of memory promoting the perception of the history of the Church in the Bulgarian ethnic coordinate system develop as a part of Bulgarian nationalism based on the denial of the Macedonian identity as different from the Bulgarian one. It is assumed that the mass media and the political elites of modern Bulgaria, as the main agents of historical politics, actively use the problems of the history of the Church on the territory of Macedonia to consolidate national identity and conduct a policy of memory. The results of the study suggest that the memorial culture of modern Bulgarian society in contexts of the perception of the history of the Church on the territory of Macedonia is distinguished by a nationalistic character, and the perception of church history in the collective memory of Bulgaria develops as a part of memorial wars with Macedonia, which promotes its own memorial canon and the culture of historical memory, denied in Bulgaria.
Auxiliary historical disciplines
Nilogov A.S. - Genetic and genealogical (genealogical) study of the genus Nilogovoi (based on the DNA of autosomes) pp. 113-131

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.2.37301

EDN: JRDVAX

Abstract: The article deals with the problem of genetic and genealogical (genealogical) verification of the documentary pedigree of the Nilogovs, reconstructed by the methods of classical genealogy. Thanks to the testing of male and female representatives of the genus Nilogov on the DNA of autosomes, it was possible to genealogically confirm the documentary pedigree of the author of the article to his direct ancestor Semyon Danilovich Nilogov, who lived in the XVIII century. The object of study is the biological pedigree of the Nilogovs, and the subject is the archival and documentary reconstruction of the pedigree of the Nilogovs before the XVIII century. The source base of the work was the collections of such archives as: the State Archive of the Perm Territory, the Komi-Permyatsky District State Archive, the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts, the archive of the city of Minusinsk; personal archives of several Nilogov families were also used. The novelty of the work is the application of modern genetic and genealogical methodology for the objectification of a specific documentary pedigree by certifying biological kinship in the "descendant ancestor" chain. Specifically, the genetic relationship of two distant relatives N. A. Nelogov and R. A. Arinicheva was studied at the level of the sixth degree. Thanks to testing of autosomal DNA of these donors, it was possible to identify their common nucleotide segments (text sequences in the form of nitrogenous bases), after which, using the statistical database of genetic kinship, The Shared cM Project 4.0., it was possible to confirm the documented reconstructed pedigree. The introduction of modern methods of molecular genetics (biological science) into scientific genealogy (historical science) is an actual trend of systemic (interdisciplinary) research.
Ethnography and ethnology
Konovalov A.A., Zhurtova A.A., Podgainyi V.N. - The system of power and subordination in the family of Kabardians and Balkars in the XIX early XX century pp. 132-141

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.2.37555

EDN: IVCNBD

Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of power family relations in the traditional society of Kabarda and Balkaria in the XIX early XX century. Its purpose is to study the system of gender-role relations between men and women and the functioning of the "power-subordination" mechanism among Kabardians and Balkars during this period. The study analyzes the traditional model of the family in Kabardian and Balkar societies, its structural organization and historical types that existed at the time under consideration. Much attention is paid to the study of the status of the head of the family, the contradictory position of women, children, gender ideology, which constructed stereotypical behaviors. The developed dual structure of power relations is shown, where interaction on the female half of the family according to the formula "power/subordination" was formed, similar to the male hierarchy, i.e. the wife of the older man acquired the status of the head of her female part and controlled various forms of social practice. On the basis of the studied material, it is concluded that the idea of the slavish or oppressed position of women, as well as the despotic power of the father among Kabardians and Balkars has no sufficient grounds. The father's large amount of power was compensated by the democratic beginnings of family life, and a woman in a formally subordinate position had a set of opportunities for explicit and implicit influence on decision-making. The novelty of the article is to create a more complete picture of the system of power relations in the traditional societies of Kabarda and Balkaria. The main research model was the structural-functional approach developed by T. Parsons and J. Murdoch. The field of application of this research can be social and cultural policy in our country, which allows us to harmoniously combine traditions and innovations, as well as teaching humanities in universities.
Umgaev S.A., Dzhalsanova E.S., Kyukenov D.V., Vasyarkieva T.O., Chudutova A.M. - The Body in Historical Space: from Tradition to Postmodernity pp. 142-149

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.2.39692

EDN: JNOIEF

Abstract: The article is devoted to the changes in the perception of the body and the corporeal that occurred in the twentieth century, when traditional society was replaced by modern society, the society of modernity. Another transition takes place in the second half of the century, when humanity takes a step towards the situation of postmodernity, postmodernity, which also brings a variety of changes in the idea of the corporeal. The body is a socio-cultural construct, it is produced and reproduced in different ways depending on both the historical epoch and ethnic differences. The purpose of the article is to reveal these changes in the context of a principled approach to the body and physicality.The article uses the method of historical and ethnological analysis of historiography, as well as field sources obtained by the author during field studies of the practice of oriental martial arts in modern halls of Moscow and Elista. The result of the study is the conclusion about the essential nature of changes in attitude to the body. In traditional European culture, the body is thought of in opposition to the spirit, as a vessel containing it, as, for example, the body of a king is equated in the political theology of the Middle Ages to the whole state apparatus. In the industrial world of modernity, the body is thought of as a mechanism, and in a work situation as an appendage to machine production. In a postmodern situation, the discourse of the body splits into transhumanistic and nontraditional - there is a kind of rollback to the old meanings, but in a new reading. The conclusions made by the author are, perhaps, a step towards a comprehensive understanding of the already double transformation that physicality undertook in the XX century.
Monograph peer reviews
Guliaeva T.B. - Review of the monograph by Yu.Yu. Gartseva "Legal regulation of interpersonal relations in the Russian Empire of the XVIII early XX century." pp. 150-155

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.2.37589

EDN: ITXOMB

Abstract: The subject of the study is a monographic work by Yulia Yurievna Gartseva "Legal regulation of interpersonal relations in the Russian Empire of the XVIII early XX century." The monograph analyzes the concepts and types of interpersonal relations from the point of view of various scientific views, establishes the threshold of interpersonal relations potentially subject to the norms of law, identifies the circle of subjects on whose initiative interpersonal relations passed into the legal plane, and also identifies historical sources that, by examples, reflected the transition of interpersonal relations under the law. For the first time in the monograph, from the point of view of the science of the history of state and law, the circle of interpersonal relations within the legal field is considered. The scientific novelty of the work is manifested: Firstly, in using a wide range of scientific publications and sources to conduct a comprehensive study.Secondly, in determining the features of the legal regulation of interpersonal relations between spouses, parents and children in the imperial period of Russian history.Third, in the analysis of the features of historiography of the problem of legal regulation of interpersonal relations in the Russian Empire. The practical significance of the results of the work as a whole lies in the fact that the material presented in it can be used to improve domestic legislation in the relevant field. The work is written in a competent scientific language, its content demonstrates the author's ability to build a competent scientific discussion, formalize the results obtained and draw logically sound conclusions.
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