Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue 10/2023
Contents of Issue 10/2023
History of law and state
Koloskov E.A. - The image of Russian Pan-Slavism in the last third of the XIX century: historiography of the issue and the assessment issue pp. 1-10

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.10.44203

EDN: YEWENY

Abstract: The article is devoted to the image of Russian Pan-Slavism in the last third of the XIX century. The subject of the study is the explanation of the phenomenon of Russian Pan-Slavism in the main works of domestic and foreign historiography of the XX-XXI centuries. An attempt has been made to trace the change in the assessment of the relationship between Russian Pan-Slavism in the last third of the XIX century with the later idea of Slavic reciprocity through the prism of perception of Russian/USSR foreign policy. In the framework of this study, the author distanced himself from attempts to compare it with the idea of Slavic (or Orthodox reciprocity) as vectors of foreign policy. The main conclusions of this study are the affirmation that domestic tradition remains a desire to separate Pan-Slavism, Slavophilism, the idea of Slavic and Orthodox reciprocity; in the foreign tradition, authors tend to trace the continuous genesis from the middle of the XIX century and to this day, they often associate very different political and social views in their structure within the framework of the single term Pan-Slavism.
History of public institutions
Bondarev S.V. - "The council was a conflict commission, not a governing body".
Activities of the Council of Curators of Suburban Palaces and Museums.
pp. 11-24

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.10.54688

EDN: XYXIWH

Abstract: The subject of the study is the Council of Curators of Suburban Palace Museums. In mid-1918, under the People's Commissariat of Education, the Council of Suburban Leaders was created in order to consolidate efforts to transform the royal residences into museums. The guardians of Peterhof, Tsarskoe Selo, Gatchina, and Pavlovsk palaces decided at meetings numerous issues regarding the future of the royal palaces. The author examines in detail such aspects as the problems of the daily activities of the suburbs, reforms in the management of palace-museums. Particular attention is paid to the following areas of the Council's activities: the authorities' claims to the property of former residences, personnel issues, problems of financing, security, etc. The methodological basis of the study is the principles of historicism, objectivism and systematic scientific analysis. The main conclusion of the study is the determining role of the Council in relation to state policy to create a unified management body for palaces and museums. The Council was a platform for expressing the public position of representatives of the intelligentsia. The curators openly discussed with cultural officials about the future structure of the palace-museums. The novelty of the study lies in the fact that for the first time an attempt has been made to analyze the activities of the Council of Curators of Suburban Palaces and Museums. Despite the lack of authority to make independent decisions, the Council was able to prove to the authorities the need to separate palace-museums into a separate group of art-historical organizations. And also achieve the creation of a separate government body to centralize the management of the suburbs.
Historical time and space
Yarmolich F.K. - Leningrad's Transport Infrastructure and Socio-economic Changes in the Life of the City in the 1950s 1960s. pp. 25-31

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.10.38975

EDN: PTFMTP

Abstract: The article considers urban road infrastructure as one of the factors of socio-economic everyday life of a person. Based on the materials of Leningrad in the 1950s 1960s, it is studied how the city's transport system was influenced by the settlement of the city center, the reform of working hours and population growth, the problems faced by the city's transport network and the mechanisms for their solution are demonstrated. The degree of effectiveness of overcoming the existing problems in the road and logistics infrastructure of the city is being clarified. Historical-genetic, historical-comparative and retrospective methods are used to solve the tasks set in the article. The analysis carried out in the article demonstrated that despite the considerable efforts of the city authorities, they failed to create an efficient road transport network. The desire of the federal and municipal authorities of Russia to resolve this issue, quite often in cities with a million population does not lead to the desired result. Conducted on the materials of Leningrad 1950 1960s, historical analysis shows that, in solving this problem, it is necessary to take into account many factors, both demographic and social. But even under these conditions, as the historical experience of Leningrad showed, when the city authorities made significant efforts to create an extensive road and transport network, logistical problems were not overcome. Therefore, historical experience and modern realities indicate the need to develop new, more effective theoretical models for organizing the movement of the city's population.
History of regions of Russia
Stepanova I. - Volosts of Belaya in 16th-17th centuries: historical-geographical characteristic of the region on the Western border of The Russian State pp. 32-40

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.10.68730

EDN: PUDMJN

Abstract: The article presents the results of a historical and geographical study of the townships of Belaya in the XVI-XVII centuries. The objectives of the study included mapping the Belsky volosts and borders of the Belsky district on a modern geographical basis, studying their transformation in the XVI-XVII centuries. The main sources of the study are the materials of scribal descriptions of the Belsky and adjacent Toropetsky and Rzhevsky counties of the XVI-XVII centuries. The work was carried out using geoinformation technologies. A complete localization of the toponymy of the censuses of the Belsky, Rzhevsky, Toropetsky counties of the XVI-XVII centuries was made, which made it possible to map in detail the volosts of the county and its territory as a whole. Scribal descriptions allowed us to get an idea of the transformation of the territory of the Belsky Uyezd. The idea of the territory of the Belsky volosts in the period after their entry into the Russian state at the beginning of the XVI century was obtained. In the first half of the XVI century, the Toropets volosts of Rozhnya and Bibirevo were transferred to Belaya. In the second half of the 1560s, part of the Belsky Uyezd became part of the Rzhev Volodimerov Uyezd in connection with the formation of oprichnoi land ownership. After the Time of Troubles, the Polish-Russian border was established along the border of Toropetsky, Rzhevsky and Zubtsov counties with Belsky volosts. After the annexation of Belaya to the Russian state and the transfer to Rzheva Volodimerova of the former possession of the Catholic Church in the Zhukopov parish, the Belsky district acquired the outlines preserved in the XVIII century. Part of the territory of the county, as a result of confiscations from the Catholic Church and secular landowners, passed into the category of palace lands. However, the largest share of the territory of the county remained in the possession of the Smolensk and Belsky gentry.
Bovaev N.B. - On the Kalmyk cattle census of the late XIX early XX century: based on the materials of the instructions of the cattle census pp. 41-49

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.10.40908

EDN: PVARUQ

Abstract: The subject of the article is the rules of the census of livestock among the Kalmyks of the Astrakhan province, in accordance with the established instructions. The chronological framework covers the late XIX early XX centuries. The object of the study was the Kalmyk cattle census program. The purpose of the study is to disclose the main provisions of the instructions for the registration of pets on the territory of the Kalmyk steppe, based on previously unused archival materials. The methodology of the work applied the principles of historicism, system analysis of available sources. Of particular value are archival materials from the fund of the Astrakhan Civil Governor's Office, which are currently the only source covering the rules of the Kalmyk cattle census. Earlier, in scientific circles studying regional history, the issue of livestock census was not considered. Usually, in historical science, issues of the general state of cattle breeding and statistical data obtained as a result of the livestock census were touched upon, but the process of the livestock census itself was not studied. The scientific novelty of this study lies in the first description of a detailed algorithm for accounting Kalmyk cattle of the post-reform period. The results of the study, in addition to the introduction of new archival materials into scientific circulation, revealed: the role of each representative of the Kalmyks' social groups in the production of the livestock census, the chronological framework of the census itself and additional conditions for its production.
Bovaev N.B. - The problem of the position of magistrates in the social life of the Kalmyks of the second half of the XIX century pp. 50-58

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.10.40937

EDN: QANZWY

Abstract: The object of the research focuses on the formation of the Kalmyks' legal institution during the integration of the Kalmyk ethnos into the Russian Empire. The subject of the article is the most problematic aspects of the situation of magistrates and world congresses of the Kalmyk steppe in the Astrakhan province. The chronological framework of the work covers the second half of the XIX century. The purpose of the study is to analyze the main provisions of the transformation of magistrates' courts in the social environment of the Kalmyks, review the historiographical base on this topic and assess the Kalmyk judicial system of the XIX century in the process of integration of the Kalmyk society of Astrakhan province into the Russian state. The paper uses theoretical research methods, such as system analysis of available sources, deduction and historicism. The research is based on materials from the State Archive of the Astrakhan region and the Russian State Historical Archive. Modern legal science is actively studying the historical experience of the formation and evolution of the Russian multinational state. An important task of scientific knowledge is the study of the genesis of legal institutions in the history of various ethnic groups and ethnic groups, as well as the development of optimal models of their management. The scientific novelty of this study lies in the initial study of the problem of the transformation of magistrates' courts in Kalmykia. The results of the study make a significant contribution to the history of national suburbs, allow us to better understand the importance of reforming management mechanisms in them and emphasize the main features of national legal policy that can be applied in modern social development.
Bovaev N.B. - On the question of natural duties and the design of tracts in the Social Life of the Inner Horde of the late XIX - early XX century pp. 59-69

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.10.41010

EDN: QGKZMR

Abstract: The subject of the study is the system of natural duties among the Kazakh population of the Inner (Bukeevskaya) Horde as part of the Astrakhan province in the period from 1893 to 1909. The object of this study is to analyze the issue of replacing the existing natural duties of the Kazakhs of the Horde with monetary service.The purpose of the study is to reveal the main provisions of the issue of replacing natural duties and designing a system of paths on the territory of the Inner Horde, based on previously unused archival materials. When writing the work, the problem-chronological method and the system analysis of available archival sources were used. Of particular value is the archival material from the fund of the Office of the Astrakhan Civil Governor, which is the only source of data revealing the problems of replacing natural duties among the Kazakhs of the Inner Horde. An important research material was the revision note of State Councilor Kraft, a former official of special assignments at the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Earlier in the scientific circles studying regional history, the issues of the replacement of duties among the Kazakhs did not receive sufficient coverage, since in historical science the issues of the general state of the Internal Horde, statistical information, the state of the economy, social life were touched upon. This study is the first comprehensive study of the problems of replacing natural duties and designing a system of paths among the Kazakhs of the Inner Horde in the post-reform period. It introduces scientific novelty based on the analysis of new archival materials, and also allows us to identify the need to revise and change the existing natural duties, taking into account the principles of justice, the real needs and capabilities of the population of the Inner Horde.
History and Politics
Nurislamov R.R. - The enlightenment committee Hamburg-Bremen and covert Propaganda of Weimar Germany abroad, 1923-1932 pp. 70-80

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.10.38990

EDN: QGPFZT

Abstract: The subject of the study is the activity of the enlightenment committee Hamburg-Bremen, an organization created after the outbreak of the Ruhr crisis in 1923 by the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce to conduct export propaganda abroad. The article analyzes documents from the funds of the Russian State Military Archive and the German Federal Archives related to the functioning of this structure in 1923-1932. The purpose of the study is to determine how the Hamburg organization managed to deploy large-scale propaganda activity that spread to almost all countries of the world and acquired national significance in Weimar Germany. Special attention is paid to the characteristics of various areas of work, interaction with official departments and the impact of the world economic crisis of 1929-1933 on the activities of the enlightenment committee Hamburg-Bremen. Based on the study, it was revealed that the organization formed in Hamburg published various printed products, an information service was created abroad, and the key direction was covert penetration into the foreign press. The article shows that the reason for such activity lay in the interest of the economic circles of the region in improving the image of the country abroad in order to normalize foreign trade relations, and the possibility of its implementation in the presence of the necessary connections for propaganda in foreign countries. One of the results of the study is the conclusion that the activities of the enlightenment committee Hamburg-Bremen affected not only export, but also cultural and political propaganda and was supported by the government interested in carrying out propaganda activities in a hidden form and through private structures. Over the years, the Hamburg-based organization has increasingly come under the influence of the state, whose assistance has become especially urgent after the global economic crisis of 1929-1933.
History and Economics
Shumakov M.D. - The Significance of the Defense of Tsaritsyn in 1918. Economic and Military-strategic Aspects. pp. 81-95

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.10.38840

EDN: QJTJQL

Abstract: The object of the study is the defense of the city of Tsaritsyn by the Red Army troops in 1918. The subject of the study is the economic and military-strategic importance of this city for the warring parties. The significance of revealing the significance of the defense of this city is due to the fact that I.V. Stalin took active steps to organize the defense of Tsaritsyn in the summer and autumn of 1918. In the following years, this issue acquired special political significance, including in connection with the confrontation between I.V. Stalin and L.D. Trotsky. Their confrontation also concerned the question of the expediency of Stalin's activities in Tsaritsyn and, more broadly, the importance of the defense of this city in general. In this study, the author tried to show that the defense of Tsaritsyn was of great economic and military-strategic importance at the time of the summer-autumn of 1918. Based on the sources associated with food supplies from the outskirts of Russia to its centers, the author emphasizes the food importance of the South of Russia and Tsaritsyn in particular, as the food and industrial center of this region. A separate aspect of the significance of Tsaritsyn is the factor of railways - Tsaritsyn was an important railway junction connecting three branches of railroads. This was important both in the light of the centralization and delivery of food supplies, and from the point of view of the transfer of armed forces. Finally, the author tried to combine economic and strategic importance in the framework of the study. The latter is represented by feedback from participants of various belligerents of the Civil War about the significance of Tsaritsyn.
Historical sources and artifacts
Savenko E.N., Troyak I.S., Minakov A.G. - Letters of a Siberian soldier - a source on the history of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 pp. 96-106

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.10.48503

EDN: QOLFNG

Abstract: The subject of the study is 1941-1944 letters of participant of the Great Patriotic War, Novosibirsk historian Fyodor Sergeyevich Merkuryev. The object of research is frontline letters as a historical source. The purpose of the work is to determine the scientific and cognitive value of F. S. Merkuryev's letters as a source on the history of the Great Patriotic War. In the course of the research, the comparative historical method, the method of causal analysis between events, as well as the method of source studies were used. The informational component of F. S. Merkuryev's letters was determined using the method of textual analysis, and the problem-chronological method allowed to identify the features of letters depending on the time of their writing. As a result of the analysis of almost 300 front-line letters that were not previously introduced into scientific circulation, valuable information was obtained that reveals various aspects of life at the front and in the rear, as well as allowing to trace the combat path of the 49th Cavalry Division formed in Siberia, as well as to get an idea of the specifics of military field living conditions and other details of front-line everyday life. Conclusions are drawn about the significant informational value of the presented epistolary source for the study of certain aspects of the history of the Great Patriotic War, as well as the need for further work on the introduction of such ego documents into scientific circulation.
Philosophy of history, historiography, chronology/source studies
Malai V.V., Pazhvak S.B. - Problems of the initial stage of the Greek Civil War (1946-1949) on the pages of the British press pp. 107-119

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.10.43934

EDN: QPFOUR

Abstract: The subject of the study is the reflection of the problems of the initial stage (1945-1947) of the Greek Civil War of 1946-1949 in the publications of the British media on the example of the central British publications: the Daily Herald (a newspaper that supported the Labour Party), The Times and The Daily Mirror (a supporter of the British Labour Party) and the Yorkshire Observer (a British publication of liberal views). The questions raised are considered in a problem-chronological plan. The article analyzes the topics of articles and problems on Greece raised by these publications, their attitude to the events in this country and the conflicting parties, the depth of coverage of the topic. The main conclusions of the research conducted for the first time in Russian science are that in the British press, in the face of selected publications, when covering issues of the Greek internal political conflict, objectivity and impartiality were not present in all cases. Sometimes the ascertaining side prevailed over the analytical one. In some cases, publications ignored the most important issues for Greece at that time. The reflection of the international aspects of the Greek war in the context of the "cold war" ("promotion" of anti-communist, anti-Soviet motives) was traced. The research materials can be used for further study of the Greek Civil War of 1946-1946, the propaganda aspect of the Cold War and regional conflicts of the postwar period.
Nad'kin T.D., Martynenko A.V., Mal'chenkov D.P. - On the Historiography of the Stalinist Modernization of the Regional Peasant Society in the USSR (based on the materials of Mordovia) pp. 120-127

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.10.68774

EDN: QTBTOK

Abstract: The object of the study is the historiographical aspects of the modernization of the peasant society of Russia during Stalinism, which is usually identified with the continuous collectivization and dispossession of the late 1920s early 1930s. The subject of the study is the corpus of scientific works on Stalinist agrarian modernization in the Mordovian region during the first five-year plans, the first of which appeared in the second half of the 1950s, analyzed taking into account the change of ideological paradigms in Russian historical science in the early 1990s. Within the framework of this study, the authors tried to trace the transformation of assessments of Stalin's agrarian modernization in the scientific community of regional historians on the historiographical material of Mordovia. The main conclusions of this study concern sufficiently high degree of elaboration of the issues under consideration in the regional historiography of the Republic of Mordovia. At the same time, despite the growing attention to the pre-war agrarian modernization in the post-Soviet period, a number of problematic issues have been identified that require more in-depth study. Among them: the economic efficiency of collective farms and state farms organized in the late 1920s the first half of the 1930s, the degree of mechanization of agricultural production, solving the problem of providing the growing urban population with food, changes in the socio-cultural appearance and public attitudes of the multinational and multi-confessional peasantry of the Mordovian Region.
Personality in history
Ivlev N.N. - The life and work of an artist-teacher in the Southern Urals as a manifestation of Social and Professional Heroism (based on biographical data about Victoria Mukhametovna Pitirimova) pp. 128-145

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.10.48484

EDN: QTKPMX

Abstract: The relevance of this study is due to the fact that the images of heroes reflect the values of society and realize the function of transmitting these values from generation to generation. The images contribute to the formation of ideological attitudes of society, and are a of spiritual support for both an individual and entire multiethnic nation. Outstanding artists are not only masters, but also teachers, mentors who convey not only knowledge, but also a worldview, national consciousness and ideals, the position of a citizen, educate spiritual and moral principles. The purpose of the study is the life and creative path of V. M. Pitirimova as a manifestation of the professional and social heroism of the artist-teacher in the difficult socio-economic conditions of life in Russia at the end of the XX-beginning of the XXI century. The object of research is the biography, the path of creative and professional development of Victoria Mukhametovna Pitirimova. The subject of the research is artistic and pedagogical techniques and methods used by Pitirimova Victoria Mukhametovna, her moral guidelines. The research is based on an interview with the main character of the study V. M. Pitirimova, in which she gives an interpretation of her key creative and pedagogical achievements. In the course of the study, historical-systemic, historical-genetic, historical-biographical and diachronic methods were applied. Based on the materials obtained in the course of the study, an attempt is made to present the main milestones of the life and work of the artist and teacher Pitirimova Victoria Mukhametovna in the most complete and consistent way.The scientific novelty of the research lies in the introduction into scientific circulation of previously unexplored and unpublished information about the creative and professional achievements of Victoria Mukhametovna.
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