Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue 09/2022
Contents of Issue 09/2022
History of public institutions
Pishchuk M.D. - Approaches of the USSR and the RSFSR to the Institutionalization of Ethnic Policy on the Example of the Creation of the Goskomnats of the USSR and the Goskomnats of the RSFSR in 1989-1991 pp. 1-17

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.9.38693

EDN: TXYWXQ

Abstract: The article deals with the problem of institutionalization of ethnic policy in the USSR and the RSFSR, namely, the process of creating state institutions for its implementation in 1989-1991. The main purpose of the work is to identify the reasons for the creation of the Goskomnats of the USSR and the Goskomnats of the RSFSR, as well as to analyze the specific features of their further status. The main research methods are historical-genetic and historical-systemic, the use of which allows analyzing the information received from historical-institutional positions. The research is based on the provisions of institutional theory, according to which the process of institutionalization reflects important features of the development of the public administration system as a whole. The relevance of the study is explained by the fact that the study of the process of institutionalization of ethnic policy in the USSR and the RSFSR allows us to obtain new information about the measures taken by the leadership of the USSR and the RSFSR in the field of ethnic policy. The novelty of the study is based on the fact that the Goskomnats of the USSR and the Goskomnats of the RSFSR have not previously acted as an independent subject of research. The main conclusion of the study indicates that the process of creating the Goskomnats of the USSR and the Goskomnats of the RSFSR reflects different approaches to the institutionalization of ethnic policy. If the Goskomnats of the USSR could not become an effective state institute of ethnic policy of the USSR, then the Goskomnats of the RSFSR became such, having survived the collapse of the USSR and having existed until the beginning. In the 2000s, while participating in solving many problems of regulating interethnic relations in the RSFSR (Russia). Such a difference in the fate of the two state institutions is due to the fact that the leadership of the USSR reacted to the creation of the Goskomnats of the USSR very formally, showing little interest in its future fate, and the leadership of the RSFSR was able to realize the importance of creating the Goskomnats of the RSFSR, as a result of which it supported him in his future activities.
Anthroposociogenesis and historical anthropology
Danilov A.A. - Social Aspects of Stylitism in the Late Antiquity pp. 18-26

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.9.38745

EDN: TRQLQE

Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the tradition of stylitism, which originated in the V century in Syria. This practice is poorly studied in Western historiography and practically not studied in Russian historical science. Stylitism was an ascetic practice, which consisted in the fact that stylites spent their lives being on a high stone pillar. The tradition of stylites lasted for a long time and enjoyed great respect. The beginning of this tradition can be associated with Simeon Stylites, who climbed the pillar for the first time in 415 A.D. As a phenomenon, stylitism developed over many centuries, starting from the V century and up to the XI century, with some interruptions, especially after 900 A.D. In historical science, when studying stylitism, the emphasis is traditionally placed on the extremity of this type asceticism. At the same time, almost no attention is paid to the fact that stylites conducted their practice publicly, openly, taking an active part in the life of the society around them. This article uses the approach of considering stylitismas a social phenomenon, showing the connection of the origin and existence of stylitism with social changes. Stylitismis presented as an original phenomenon reflecting the reaction of society to social crises. Based on the existing research, an attempt is being made to show that thanks to the publicity of their harsh practices, stylites were able to perform important administrative functions so necessary for the development of a late Antique society.
History of regions of Russia
Dotsenko S.V., Dotsenko A.S. - About the dates of foundation of old-age settlements on the territory of the Maslyaninsky district of the Novosibirsk region pp. 27-40

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.9.35926

EDN: TEOBMQ

Abstract: The subject of the study is the dates of the founding of old-age settlements in the Maslyaninsky district of the Novosibirsk region. The goal set by the authors is to clarify the dates of the settlements. The relevance lies in solving the problem of erroneous dating of old-time settlements. The scientific novelty is due to the fact that this topic is poorly studied. There are popular science books, literary collections of local lore, anniversary albums and newspaper publications on the history of the district, but they only give the dates of the founding of settlements without any indication of the source. No special works on the research topic were found. The main methods used in the work are information collection and comparative analysis. The materials of the State Archive of the Altai Territory, the data of the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts and the work of Russian scientists were used: D. N. Belikov, Y. S. Bulygin, N. A. Minenko, A. H. Elert. The authors studied the currently known dates of the founding of old-time settlements and determined the causes of their occurrence and spread. Based on archival documents, it was possible to determine the dates of occurrence of a number of settlements. The conclusion reached by the authors is that the settlement of the territory of the modern Maslyaninsky district of the Novosibirsk region begins no earlier than the middle of the XVII century. In the course of the study, it was confirmed that the foundation of a number of settlements belongs to a later period than is commonly believed. It was possible to determine the dates of the foundation of the first settlements. The data obtained will be interesting and useful to museums, libraries, teachers and anyone interested in the history of the development of Siberia.
Historical facts, events, phenomena
Lazarev A.B. - Modern Russian Feldegers, who are they? Russian State' Courier Communication at the Present Stage pp. 41-64

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.9.38610

EDN: SEVKTX

Abstract: The subject of the article is the following issues: the legal status and tasks of modern special state couriers, their differences from special communications staff, the requirements for candidates entering the service of federal courier communications, social guarantees of special couriers, the role of federal courier communications in the national security system of Russia at the present time. The object of the research of the article is the scientific domestic literature, legal documents related to the research topic. The purpose of the article is to disclose the issues that make up the subject of the study, to popularize the service in the bodies of the federal courier service. The relevance of the article is caused by the lack of works in Russian science devoted to the issues considered in the article, the interest of society and the state in the history of the formation and development of the federal courier service, the activities of its subjects special messengers and bodies of the federal courier service, which is confirmed by thematic requests of Russian citizens and organizations (requests related to the provision of biographical information, the issuance of archival certificates and documents, the provision of information about the activities of the SFS of Russia and its services, service in the federal courier service). The novelty of the article for Russian historical science is the very issues identified in the subject of the article, since they were not previously considered by Russian historical science, Russian citizens of organizations. The practical significance of the article lies in the possibility for Russian citizens and organizations to use the information contained in it both in theoretical and practical activities (when writing scientific literature, lecturing, conducting coursework, studying the history of Russian courier communications, improving legislation in the field of federal courier communications, work related to the selection of new personnel, patriotic education). The article uses general scientific techniques and methods of logical cognition: historical and legal analysis and synthesis, system-structural, functional and formal-logical approaches.
Beliefs, religions, churches
Tauber V. - Religion and Politics in Early Modern Royal Travels: Queen Elizabeth's Progress to Kent in 1573 pp. 65-78

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.9.38728

EDN: QCRRZP

Abstract: The article is devoted to the consideration of the summer travels of the English royal court of early Modern times. This practice, originating from the traveling courts of the Middle Ages, flourished in England in the second half of the XVI century. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth Tudor, summer progresses became an integral part of the court ceremonial, an important means of representing the monarch and a mechanism for implementing royal policy. The article focuses on one of these trips, namely, a summer trip to Kent in 1573, whose central episode was a reception hosted for the Queen by Archbishop of Canterbury Matthew Parker. The author examines the preparation and course of this reception, analyzes the motives and expectations of all participants in the events and fits the royal visit into the context of church history and religious policy of England in the second half of the XVI century. The scientific novelty of the work lies in a detailed, based on a wide range of sources, consideration of the royal visit of 1573, which had not previously attracted special attention of researchers. The main conclusion of the study is the observation about the peculiar nature of the reception in Canterbury, due to the increased attention of all participants to the religious and political content of this event. For Elizabeth, this reception was an occasion to emphasize her image of a pious monarch and defender of the true faith. On the other hand, such a visit in the first half of the 1570s, during a harsh period for the Church of England, was on its part a gesture of support for the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom the latter sorely needed. Parker, in turn, made considerable efforts to extract the maximum benefits for himself from this reception. Thus, the conducted research shows how the royal progress could be used for the purposes of religious policy and complements our understanding of the methods and mechanisms of its implementation in early Modern England.
Social history
Burdina D.A. - Measures of social Support and Protection of Motherhood and Childhood in the Irkutsk Region and B-MASSR (1936-1953) pp. 79-89

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.9.38554

EDN: QGONPS

Abstract: The article examines the legal framework of the USSR of the period 1936-1953, regulating the sphere of family relations, the institution of marriage, motherhood and childhood. The consistent emergence of new measures of support and protection of families in the pre-war, war and post-war period in the state is analyzed. Based on the materials of regional archives and periodicals, ideas were formed about the implementation of social support measures in the Irkutsk region and the BMASSR, the main directions of social policy and the effectiveness of their implementation on the ground were determined. The author presents an analysis of the main measures to support families with children, as well as the distinctive features of the implementation of these measures in the regional aspect. The author's special contribution to the study is the analysis of unpublished sources, including archival documents and data from local newspapers covering the problems of motherhood and childhood in the region. The scientific novelty lies in the author's use of a regional source base, which allowed him to draw conclusions about the peculiarities of the implementation of social policy in relation to the Soviet family during the period under study. The conducted research allowed us to conclude that the experience of Soviet social policy has become a vivid example of how the foundation of social support measures laid down by the USSR Constitution of 1936 made it possible to create a bulwark for the further development of the country.
History and historical science
Turhan O. - Transdisciplinarity in world-system analysis pp. 90-102

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.9.38789

EDN: RYIIOC

Abstract: This paper examines the relation of world-system analysis to the social sciences. The world-systems analysis is skeptical about the current state of the social sciences. In his view, disciplines as such have no place in the future. This is due to the crisis in the modern prevailing liberal ideology and the division of social sciences into an infinite number of new disciplines. In these circumstances, the world-systemists, as a way of survival, propose to combine the social sciences and create a single "historical social science". The work consists of two parts and a conclusion: the first part describes the history of the emergence of social sciences from the point of view of world-system analysis, and the second part examines three fundamental pillars of the transdisciplinary nature of world-system social science. The world-system analysis challenges the idiographic and nomotetic sciences, arguing that the concept of time is often interpreted incorrectly by them. The world-systemists abandon the principles of determinism and indeterminism, and rely on a probabilistic model. Also, within the framework of this approach, the principle of reversibility of time is denied and the "arrow of time" is promoted. An unconventional approach to time in world-system analysis is the basis for the formation of the need for transdisciplinary research. World-system analysis pays special attention to the concept of longue durée, which emphasizes patterns and structures, and is not limited to events. Accordingly, there is a need to study history on the principle of integrity, which in the terminology of the school of "Annals" is designated as total history. A holistic approach leads to the application of a variety of methods from different disciplines. In conclusion, the main critics of the current state of the social sciences are listed and the "historical social science" of world-system analysis is evaluated as an alternative to the "closed" disciplines of the humanities, social sciences and natural sciences.
Melkonyan L. - Nationalism in Japanese Historiography of the 1990-2010s pp. 103-110

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.9.37903

EDN: OAQQPS

Abstract: The object of the study is the phenomenon of Japanese nationalism in foreign historiography of the 1990-2010's. The subject of the study are the factors that historically formed the concept of Japanese nationalism and its modern perception by researchers. The Japanese political model and its components, including nationalism, are often subject to biased interpretation. Western approaches to Japanese nationalism almost always boil down to the fact that Japanese individualism is considered not as a kind of individualism, but as nationalism. The author examines the works of nationalism researchers who have used various methods and approaches to the analysis of this topic in order to compare the main models of nationalism in Japan and Western states. The author uses problem-chronological and comparative research methods. The novelty of the research lies in the author's comparison and study of the concepts of national identity and nationalism used in Japan by political elites to solve the problem of consolidating power, establishing state control over all aspects of the life of Japanese society, as well as combating external threats. The study of a country with a non-Western political culture demonstrates that if in Western approaches "nationalism" is usually defined as a phenomenon, a sense of solidarity arising from a common historical experience, then nationalism in the Japanese sense is an ideological mixture of militaristic, industrial and reformist aspects of the national idea and contains many complex factors. In addition to Japanese researchers, the author also studied the works of Russian and Western researchers.
History and Economics
Badmaeva E.N., Erdneeva B.A. - Natural and Climatic Conditions of the Territory and Agriculture in Kalmykia (1917-1925) pp. 111-122

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.9.38680

EDN: OUFARG

Abstract: The object of research is agriculture of Kalmykia in 1917-1925. The subject of the study is the development of this branch of agriculture in the specified period. The purpose of the work is to identify the influence of natural and climatic conditions of the territory on farming in the region. To this end, the article: analyzes the development of the agricultural sector of Kalmykia in the early years of Soviet power; characterizes the natural and climatic conditions of the territory, soil features of various natural zones of the region. The novelty of the study is an attempt to identify and analyze the influence of climatic factors, soil characteristics of the territory on the development of agriculture, the quality and quantity of grain products produced in the region. The novelty of the study is an attempt to identify and analyze the influence of climatic factors, soil characteristics of the territory on the development of agriculture, the quality and quantity of grain products produced in the region. The relevance of the article lies in the fact that on the basis of the study, positive and negative experiences of farming on land in extreme conditions of nature and climate of Kalmykia have been identified, which can be used today, since the current agrarians of the region face almost the same problems as their distant ancestors a hundred years ago: drought, degradation and desertification of lands, etc. Taking into account the accumulated experience will certainly help to effectively solve the modern problems of agriculture in the Republic of Kalmykia. The main conclusion made in the article based on the results of the analysis of agriculture of the KAO in the 1920s: the development of this branch of agriculture in the region during this period largely depended on difficult climatic conditions, soil characteristics of the territory. The results of the study can be used in the comparative study of the agrarian development of the regions of the USSR during the period of "war communism" and the NEP.
Interdisciplinary research
Mankovskaya O.V. - Material and Technical Base of Secondary Schools of the Khakass Autonomous Region in 1946-1964 pp. 123-130

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.9.38828

EDN: OQPZZC

Abstract: The article is devoted to the review of the material and technical condition of secondary schools in the Khakass Autonomous Region in the mid-1940s - mid1960s. The author traces the dynamics of the development of such elements of the material base of schools as school grounds, buildings and classrooms, equipment of classrooms, educational and methodological literature, visual teaching aids, as well as educational equipment and educational supplies. In addition, the living conditions of school boarding schools in the region are considered in dynamics. Considerable attention is paid in the article to the equipment of specialized classrooms (chemical, home economics, labor training and industrial training), taking into account the 1958 reform. The author introduced into scientific circulation the results of the analysis and processing of materials of archival funds. It is noted that the problem of low economic and household provision of boarding schools by the mid-1960s was not solved, which in conditions of a large radius of school service was one of the reasons for the failure of the universal education plan. It is concluded that the level of the material and technical base of schools did not correspond to the objectives of the Law on strengthening the connection of schools with life and on the further development of the public education system in the USSR. At the same time, the author points out that the provision of textbooks and teaching aids, stationery, was achieved before the end of the fifth five-year plan.
Issues of war and peace
Osipov Y.A. - Submarine forces of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet on the eve of the Great Patriotic War pp. 131-146

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.9.36453

EDN: OJOXBL

Abstract: The subject of the study is the state of the submarine forces of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet on the eve of the Great Patriotic War, in particular, the issues of the operational and tactical situation in the theater, combat and political training of personnel, the level of organization of supplies and medical and sanitary support, as well as military discipline of the Red Navy and commanders. The purpose of the work is to determine the level of combat readiness of the submarine forces of the fleet at the time of the outbreak of the Great Patriotic War. On the basis of archival documents, sources of personal origin, as well as specialized literature, the author analyzes the peculiarities of the activities of Baltic submariners in 1940 the first half of 1941. For the first time within the framework of this topic, along with the analysis of the capabilities of warships, the most important criteria for the combat readiness of large naval formations are considered the issues of moral and psychological state, as well as its factors formations. This approach determines the scientific novelty of the research. When developing the question, the author resorted to the use of a set of methods of historical research. The historical and systematic method allowed us to present the structure of the submarine forces of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet, its organizational and combat capabilities. The historical-comparative method made it possible to identify the features of general processes and their impact on the combat training of brigades and a division of submarines of the fleet. The quantitative method also played an important role in the study of the issue, which made it possible to generate statistics on a number of important issues: disciplinary practice, medical and sanitary provision, numerical characteristics of personnel. In conclusion, a conclusion was made about maintaining a high level of combat readiness of submarine brigades, however, a number of negative phenomena were identified, such as a low level of military discipline, significant difficulties in organizing supplies, the need to develop new operational areas, which somewhat reduced the combat readiness of the submarine forces of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet in the conditions of a possible confrontation between Germany and the USSR.
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