Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue 02/2022
Contents of Issue 02/2022
Factors of historical development
Bugaev D.S. - Transport inaccessibility of Georgia in the 1770s 1860s pp. 1-13

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.2.34691

Abstract: Based on the source study of the publications of the travelers’ diary entries, this article examines the transport inaccessibility of Eastern Georgia during the 1770s – 1860s. The goal lies in determining the impact of transport inaccessibility upon the implementation of pro-Russian goals. The author aims to determine the level of transport inaccessibility of Eastern Georgia on the imperial and local levels as the negative factors for the travelers in this region. The article employs the methods of the archeology of knowledge in the classical tradition of M. Foucault and discourse analysis of micro-historical scale in the classical interpretation of C. Ginzburg. Traditionally, the attention of researchers is focused on the positive integration processes, while the isolationist anti-globalist practices that contradict these ideas and their justifications are not reflected by the researchers. A non-biased account of anti-globalist practices significantly complements the known historical facts, and allows providing a new interpretation that is relevant against the background of the ongoing in the region ethno-national "renaissance". The scientific novelty lies in articulation of the problem: based on the travelers’ diaries, the author characterizes the impact of transport inaccessibility upon the implementation of pro-Russian tasks in the 1770s – 1860s. The mechanism for integration of the Georgian population lies in the development of land routes, which the Russian Empire regarded as the most effective way to establish its presence in the region, allowing it to quickly transfer resources and attract local producers of goods to the Russian markets. The article discusses a popular scientific opinion that Russia through interaction with the Russian and obtaining practical benefits by the Georgian, intended to arouse the interest of the latter to the model of social structure and culture of metropole. The conclusion is made that the centripetal policy faced negative factors of inaccessibility of Eastern Georgia on the imperial and local levels.
History of science and technology
Prischepa A.S. - Restoration and development of Leningrad machine building in the second half of the 1940s - 1960s. pp. 14-23

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.2.37519

Abstract: The subject of the study is the process of restoration and development of Leningrad machine building in the post-war period, which was characterized by important socio-economic and industrial transformations. The starting point in this is the lifting of the siege of Leningrad and the beginning of the restoration process in the city's industry. The machine-building industry, as well as the entire production environment of the city as a whole, needed restructuring. The equipment had to be replaced or thoroughly improved. Labor cadres actively participated not only in the revival of the lost industrial potential, but also helped to update and modernize existing production, and in the future to make changes in technological methods of work and management on them. The scientific novelty of the research lies in the fact that the author attempted to demonstrate a set of measures aimed at the restoration and development of Leningrad machine building in the mid–1940s – mid–1960s. At the same time, special attention is paid to key projects and joint labor activity of representatives of the working personnel, engineering and technical staff and scientists of the city for the further development of technological operations that were carried out during the study period. Separately, the article provides examples illustrating the process of development of scientific and technological progress in the Leningrad machine-building industry, including the improvement of technological methods and techniques.
Historical time and space
Tokmurzayev B., Meirbekov M. - Actors of agrarian colonization of Asian Russia in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries in the scientific and journalistic discourse of the Siberian regionalism pp. 24-31

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.2.37553

Abstract: The authors pay special attention to the problem of inclusion and identification of the colonization potential of the peasantry, the Cossacks and the indigenous population of Asian Russia in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries. in the views of the Siberian oblasts. The object of the work is the socio-political thought of Russia in the post-reform period. The subject of the research is the representation of the actors of agrarian colonization of Asian Russia in the scientific and journalistic discourse of the Siberian oblastnichestvo. The purpose of this article is to reveal the content of the ideas of Siberian oblasts about the status and opportunities of social groups and ethnic communities in the colonization of the eastern outskirts of the Russian Empire. In the context of this article, it is important to understand how the community of Siberian oblasts "imagined" the actors of agrarian colonization, developing the foundations of the ideology of the movement and constructing, on this basis, projects for the incorporation of Asian territories into the national space.    Methodologically, the course and results of the research are provided by research practices and approaches developed in the field of new cultural and intellectual history, appealing to the special role of language and narrative in the reflection of any forms of mental activity. The article makes a conclusion, according to which, in the representations of the texts of the Siberian oblasts, the specifics of the lifestyle, economic and cultural interests of the Cossacks, indigenous peoples and Russian settlers in the colonization process were taken into account. In general, representatives of the Siberian oblastnichestvo came to the conclusion about the gradual decline in the potential and socio-cultural role of the Cossacks in the colonization process and the decisive importance of joint farming practices of Russian settlers and settled representatives of indigenous peoples.
History of law and state
Shamak S.A. - Senator E. N. Berendts on the work of the Governing Senate in the conditions of the revolutionary transformations of 1917 pp. 32-39

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.2.35338

Abstract: The subject of the study was the updated part of the theoretical and legal heritage of the outstanding Russian lawyer of the late XIX - early XX century, professor, senator of the I Department of the Governing Senate Eduard Nikolaevich Berendts (1860-1930). In this article, the main attention was paid to the memoirs of E. N. Berendts about the work of the Governing Senate in the conditions of the revolutionary transformations of 1917, about the change in the system of public administration, about the transformations in the mechanism of the state in general and the state apparatus in particular, about the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II for himself and for the heir, about the legality of coming to power The Provisional Government. When writing the article, universal, general scientific (primarily systemic, structural and functional, modeling, forecasting methods), special (primarily sociological) and private (primarily formal legal, comparative legal, reconstruction and interpretation of legal ideas) methods were used. The scientific novelty is determined by the absence of comprehensive studies in domestic and foreign legal science devoted to the theoretical legacy of E. N. Berendts. The works of E. N. Berendts, which were not translated into Russian earlier, archival materials, which are being introduced into scientific circulation for the first time, are used. For the first time in historical and legal science, the analysis of E. N. Berendts' views on the role and place of the Governing Senate of the Russian Empire in the mechanism of the state, on the problems of the revolutionary transformations of 1917 and the subsequent changes in the work and functional purpose of the Governing Senate, on the formation and activities of the Provisional Government was carried out
History and Politics
Nikitin D. - The Indian National Congress in the Memoirs of the British missionary G. Lunn pp. 40-46

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.2.35137

Abstract: The subject of this article is the memoirs of the British Methodist missionary Henry Lunn about his stay in India and the activities of the Indian National Congress (INC) in 1887-1888. On the basis of G. Lanna's letters from the Madras presidency, his memoirs and newspaper publications, the ideas of a metropolitan resident about the socio-political life of India and the participation of the Christian community in it, the role and place of the INC in the national movement, the weaknesses and advantages of ideas and demands, the formation of oppositional INC currents are revealed. The composition and features of the social development of the Christian population of South India are considered.   The main conclusion of the study is that the British rule in India entailed significant changes in the spiritual sphere of Indian society, which resulted in an increase in the Christian population in the country and a wide spread of missionary activity. The Christian community, relatively small in comparison with others, was socially active, its representatives played a significant role in the formation of the INC and its activities in the early years of its existence. This was reflected in the memoirs of G. Lannes, who considered the emergence of the INC as a consequence of the progress brought to India by British rule and defended the idea of the need for the INC to cooperate with the colonial administration.
Comparative history research
Averyanova M.I. - The right to social security of State civil servants from the standpoint of chronodiscret monogeographic comparative jurisprudence (HMP) pp. 47-64

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.2.34991

Abstract: The article examines the features of the legal regulation of social security of state civil servants from the standpoint of the methodology of chronodiscret monogeographic comparative jurisprudence. Within the framework of this methodology, various aspects of the formation and implementation of the right to social security by state civil servants have been studied since the period of the XVIII century. The object of the study was public relations on pension and medical provision of civil servants and their family members, as well as social services for civil servants. The subject of the study is the legal norms regulating these relations, as well as scientific research conducted in the field of social security of civil servants. The scientific novelty of the study is to identify the features of the current state of legal regulation of social security of civil servants, taking into account the history of its development in the conditions of legislative consolidation of guarantees of social security of civil servants, decrees of the President of the Russian Federation on the further development of social guarantees of civil service. The paradox of the modern stage of social security of civil servants is the fact that most of the provisions of the Law on Civil Servants establishing guarantees of social security of civil servants have not yet been implemented in practice and are essentially declarative. Thus, the norms on state pension provision for family members of civil servants, on mandatory state social insurance in case of illness or disability during the period of civil service, on mandatory state insurance, as well as on special medical insurance for civil servants and their family members have not been implemented.
Historical sources and artifacts
Zatseva N.V. - Secular etiquette and the "art of liking" in French moralistic literature of the XVII-XVIII centuries. pp. 65-77

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.2.34998

Abstract: The subject of the study is the French moralistic literature of the XVII - first half of the XVIII century. The author examines the period of the formation of the monarchy of the classical model, the time of the change of the heroic chivalrous ideal by the ideal of a noble, and then a gallant man. This transition was due to the need for the coexistence of a large number of courtiers in a small space of the courtyard and occurred through the introduction to essentially humanistic concepts such as "civilit", "politesse" and a rationalistic model of thinking. This brought to life a flood of literature about life at court, the upbringing of a nobleman, courtesy, the art of being liked in the light, which swept the book market. A special contribution of the author to the study of the topic is the analysis of numerous sources of the XVII - first half of the XVIII century on etiquette, demeanor and the art of being liked in the light. As a result, the author came to the conclusion that all this literature was of a practical nature. The manner of behavior, etiquette were not considered as a set of frozen rules. All these rules were aimed at educating and forming a society of noble people, which is based on respect for all participants in communication. The relevance of this topic is that the analysis of French moralistic literature may be interesting for socio-cultural research. Since the new court ethos was embedded in the monarchical model and cemented by the ideology of the "noble" and then the "gallant" person. In addition, the value system, etiquette and behavioral model that emerged in this era, reflected in the moralistic literature, formed the basis of communication, aesthetic assessments and value attitudes of the ruling elites not only of the XVII, but of the entire XVIII century. The principle of "the art of liking" developed in secular society extends not only to the sphere of communication, but also passes into the sphere of literature and art in general.
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