Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue ¹ 10/2022
Contents of Issue ¹ 10/2022
Issues of war and peace
Lozin D.I., Bolotova E.Y. - The Problem of Providing Industrial Enterprises of Stalingrad with Technical Personnel during the Reconstruction Period (1943 – 1950). pp. 1-12



Abstract: The purpose of the study is to identify the system of recruitment of industrial enterprises of Stalingrad by engineering and technical workers during the recovery period of 1943 – 1950. With the help of data from the State Archive of the Volgograd region and scientific literature, the reasons for the active activity of factories and the local administration in building a system of training and attracting technical personnel to industrial enterprises are revealed. Therefore, the subject of the study is engineering and technical personnel who were involved in the industrial enterprises of Stalingrad during the reconstruction period. The research is based on a systematic approach that allows us to consider the solution of the personnel problem of Stalingrad industrial enterprises as a system, as well as a functional and structural approach that allows us to consider the activities of various organizations for the formation of personnel support for Stalingrad industry. The novelty of the research is the involvement of archival data that had not been previously introduced into scientific circulation, as well as consideration of the problem of staffing the city affected by the fighting as a system of organizations engaged in personnel training. The results of the study are: the reason for the active formation of the Stalingrad technical personnel training system during the recovery period was the need to restore and launch the industrial production of the city in conditions of severe destruction of factories during the fighting; the personnel training system included three elements, namely, the training of practical engineers directly at enterprises, correspondence training of technical specialists, as well as full-time education in Stalingrad educational institutions. At the same time, if at the beginning of the recovery period – 1943-1945 the training of practical engineers directly at the factories plays an important role, then during the second period more and more specialists graduate from educational organizations of Stalingrad; by the end of 1950 the developed system made it possible to somewhat improve the situation with a shortage of qualified engineering and technical personnel.
Culture and cultures in historical context
Bezrodnaya A. - The Formation of the «Russian world» Network Structure in Germany in 1991-2020 pp. 13-22



Abstract: The article analyzes the main periods in the development of the «Russian world» network structure in Germany at the present stage. The work refers to the concept of «network structure» from the point of view of cultural studies. The subject of the research is cultural institutions abroad, which are the elements of the «Russian world» network structure in Germany. These institutions were actively developing in the 1990s, which was due to a significant influx of Russian speakers into Germany, and as part of their activities, they were guided by the socio-cultural needs of the Russian-speaking Germans arriving in the country and permanently residing in it, also belonging to the target audience of the «Russian world» institutions. Based on the analysis of data from the official websites of 33 institutions of the «Russian world» in Germany and the application of the cultural classification method, the author presents a typology of the institutions of the «Russian world» in Germany according to three criteria: founder, place of action and function. The article shows the influence of the sociocultural needs of the target audience on the formation of the «Russian world» network structure: it affects the structure’s functions, features of development and the language of functioning. The author's special contribution is the use of publications of some "Russian world" institutions as sources that have not previously been used by researchers as a basis for the analysis of cultural institutions and the "Russian world" network structure. The results obtained can be applied in the development of strategies for interaction with compatriots living abroad and the cultural policy of the state.
Memorable date in history
Yartsev S.V. - The Last Years of the Reign of the Bosporan King Fofors in the Context of the Internal Political Struggle in the Roman Empire during the Tetrarchy pp. 23-33



Abstract: The object of the study is the history of the ancient civilization of the Northern Black Sea region, as part of the Roman world during the early dominant period. The subject of the study is the history of the Bosporan Kingdom in the last years of the reign of King Fofors in 303/304–309/310, in the context of relations with the Roman Empire during the new system of government – tetrarchy. The author examines in detail such an aspect of the topic as the internal political struggle in the Roman Empire of that time and its impact on the events that took place on the Bosporus. Particular attention is paid to the political struggle of two opposing factions for supreme power in the Bosporan Kingdom at the specified time. The main conclusions of the study are related to the factors of the strengthening of the influence of the Roman Empire on the northern periphery of the ancient world in the last years of the Bosporan king Fofors. It is obvious that during this period, virtually any conflict in the internal life of the empire, to one degree or another, exerted its influence on the course of the history of the Bosporan state. Thus, the fall of the power of Fofors on the Bosporus became possible only after the Bosporan king lost Roman support, first Diocletian, and then Galerius. In 309/310, Fofors was replaced by a new tsar, Radamsad, who may have been a protege of Maximin II Daza, who was actively preparing a plot to seize supreme power in the empire just during these years. The main contribution of the author to the study of the topic is the first revealed pattern of the history of Bosporus during the reign of Fofors. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that for the first time in historiography, this tense moment of Bosporan history is viewed through the prism of the internal political struggle in the Roman Empire during the tetrarchy (293-313).
History of ethnicities, peoples, nations
Kotliar E.R., Khlevnoi V.A. - Ethnic Cultural Codes in the Visual Semiosis of Crimea pp. 34-48



Abstract: The subject of the study is ethnic cultural codes that are broadcast in the visual semiosis of decorative and applied art and architecture of the Crimea. The object of the study is architecture and decorative and applied art of various ethnic groups of the Crimea. The research uses methods of semantic, semiotic and artistic analysis of traditional images, the method of analysis of previous studies, the method of synthesis in conclusions regarding the formation of a unified Crimean style in visual semiosis. In the study, the author considers aspects of the topic: morphology and semantics of the elements of the visual semiosis of the Crimea and their belonging to a particular code of ethnic cultures; polyethnicity in the formation of the Crimean style of architectural and subject decor. The emphasis is placed on the multiculturality of the Crimea in the process of forming a semiotic universe in the visual semiosis. The main conclusions of the study are: 1. Crimea is a multicultural ecumene due to its geographical location, the interaction of ethnic groups on its territory generated various cultural processes, ranging from reception to integration, which led to the formation of a unique Crimean style in the visual arts. The elements of this style were the details of the ethnic art of various peoples who inhabited the Crimea from the first centuries of our era to the present. 2. Ethnic cultural codes defining the identification of the presence of a certain national artistic culture in the unified Crimean semiosis of architecture and decorative and applied art are elements and symbols characteristic of the traditional semiosis of a particular ethnic group. Over time, they have changed and experienced mutual influence, but the most persistent of them are still identified as belonging to a certain national and/or religious culture. 3. The scientific novelty of the research consists in the fact that the author for the first time conducts a semantic analysis of pictorial symbols in the visual semiosis of Crimea, identifies individual ethnic cultural codes, analyzes their genesis, commonality and differences of elements as part of a single Crimean stylistics.
History of regions of Russia
Tatarnikova A.I. - Tomsk Villages in the 1900s-1920s: Dynamics of Population and Size pp. 49-58



Abstract: The article gives a comparative description of the development of the rural settlement network of the Tomsk county/district in three time slices: for 1904, 1911 and 1926. The object of the study is a network of rural settlements of the named sub–region, the subject is their number, typical structure and size in terms of the number of yards and the number of inhabitants. The author uses historical-comparative, historical-typological and problem methods of research, as well as the method of graphical visualization of the statistical data obtained on the development of the Tomsk settlement network. The influence of political, socio-economic and other factors on the state of the network of rural settlements is traced. On the basis of a comparative analysis of the "Lists of Populated places", which have become the main source for studying rural settlements of the county/district under consideration, the dynamics of their number, number and population are investigated, qualitative changes in the structure of the settlement network are revealed. The conclusion is made about the gradual expansion of the scale of the rural settlement network in the Tomsk subregion, the reduction of the yard and the population of the Tomsk village by 1926, its unbundling. Attention is focused on structural changes in the settlement network caused by the new agrarian and resettlement policy of the state, as well as the economic and socio-cultural modernization of the country and its individual territories.
Tesaev Z.A. - Epigraphic Monuments of Chechnya (on the Example of Tombstones of the Middle of the 19th – the First Third of the 20th Century) pp. 59-70



Abstract: The article considers thirteen memorial gravestone stele-churts as epigraphic sources of Chechnya. The author's task is to introduce these sources into scientific circulation with the subsequent introduction of the revealed information into secondary historical research. The list of works devoted to epigraphic monuments of the Chechen Republic is considered; the weakness of the existing base on the topic under study and the need for a wider study of the surviving objects and their epitaphs are noted. The evolution of the burial culture is briefly noted, which is also expressed by the change of accompanying the deceased with objects of weapons, worship and everyday life to their display on the funeral tombstone. The role of cruciform tombstone in early Muslim single burials is noted according to those monuments that have survived to the 20–21th centuries. Translations of the epitaphs of the considered tombstone are introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. The results of the work show that Chechen churts (tombstones) are often used not only to depict texts of epitaphs dedicated to the buried, but also to reflect their genealogical tree, social status and memorable events. At this stage of the study, we can only talk about preliminary conclusions, which, however, allow us to conditionally divide the Chechen stelae-churts (in terms of functionality) into tombstones, border, memorial and cult ones. The review also reflects the need for a careful attitude to the cruciform tombstone of Chechnya, which do not always (and not necessarily) indicate the religious affiliation of the buried, although they may reflect the likely continuity and transitional "dual faith" during the period of Islamization of the region.
Aksarin V.V. - Settlements of the Ostyako-Vogulsky National District in the 1930s : Number and Typology. pp. 71-81



Abstract: The subject of the study is the settlement network of the Ostyako-Vogul National District of the Omsk region, the object is spatial placement, number, typology, size (by the number of inhabitants) its localities. In addition, the influence of natural-geographical, socio-economic and other conditions for the development of the network of settlements was taken into account. The sources for the study of the settlement network were the documents of the Russian State Archive of Economics (RGAE) introduced into scientific circulation for the first time: materials of the Central Statistical Office under the Council of Ministers of the USSR, lists of populated places indicating the population according to the All-Union Census of 1939 in the Ostyako-Vogul National District. The work used historical-comparative, historical-typological, statistical research methods, as well as methods of graphical representation of the data obtained. Analysis, comparison and critical approach allowed us to consider the process of development of the settlement network in the studied district. Reference to the historical experience of the settlement network of the national district will contribute to the replenishment of data on the history of the regional settlement system. For the first time, a quantitative analysis of the structure of settlements showed the predominance in the typology of the settlement network of yurts, villages, settlements, the presence of a small number of villages. The size of villages of different types in the district is determined. Thus, the number of inhabitants of yurts averaged 35 people, villages – 85, settlements – 482, villages – 892.
Evolution, reform, revolution
Naumov A.O. - The role of the "Ukraine without Kuchma" campaign in the growing socio-political crisis in Ukraine at the beginning of the XXI century pp. 82-90



Abstract: The article examines the campaign "Ukraine without Kuchma", which the Ukrainian opposition conducted from late 2000 to mid-2001 with the aim of resigning the current President of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma and his government. The author examines in detail such aspects of the topic as the causes of the protest movement, the main events of the "Ukraine without Kuchma" campaign, the role of various actors in it and the response of government structures. Particular attention is paid to the technologies of nonviolent struggle used by the opposition in attempts to force the President of Ukraine to leave his post, as well as the reasons for the failure of this campaign. In Russian historiography, a detailed analysis of the "Ukraine without Kuchma" campaign is being conducted for the first time. A special contribution of the author to the research of the topic is the introduction into scientific circulation of new sources, including documents of the Archive of Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation and materials in Ukrainian. The author comes to the conclusion that the campaign "Ukraine without Kuchma" played an important role in the growing socio-political crisis in Ukraine at the beginning of the XXI century. Despite the final defeat of the protesters, the events of 2000-2001 became the prologue to the "Orange Revolution" of 2004, during which the opposition managed to seize power.
History of science and technology
Vladzymyrskyy A.V. - Biotelemetric Experiment in the Radiotelegraphic Bureau of the Maritime Department (1912). A New Episode from the History of the Development of Russian Science pp. 91-99



Abstract: The minutes of the meeting of the Society of Marine Physicians in St. Petersburg dated October 30, 1912, which describes an experiment on the transmission of biomedical data via telecommunications, are published. The head of the workshop of the Radiotelegraph depot A.K. Nikiforov developed a device for remote transmission of the sound picture of the heart, using his own designs of amplifiers and microphones. The experiment was conducted with the participation of doctor A.G. Makarov. The results indicated insufficient broadcast quality and required technical refinement of the device. Comparison with the effectiveness of similar experiments in other countries shows that in the studied period of time, the general level of technical development did not fundamentally allow solving the problem of high-quality transmission of biomedical data over a distance. The fact of the experiment revealed by the author, which occurred against the background of institutionalization of scientific research in the Radiotelegraph Depot, is extremely important from the point of view of systematization of the history of domestic scientific research in the field of biotelemetry. When studying archival materials, the processes of institutionalization of scientific work in the Radiotelegraph Depot were revealed, including regulatory support, creation of organizational structures, distribution of goals and objectives, financing, and resource provision. The formal structuring of scientific activity formed the context for scaling research into other fields of knowledge, which created the basis for A.K. Nikiforov's scientific and design activities in the field of biomedicine. The scientist-engineer made a contribution to the accumulation of knowledge and the future formation of dynamic biotelemetry as a separate scientific direction.
Interdisciplinary research
Aliev A., Bashirov S., Volkov Y., Asadov I., Rajabov R. - The origin of the Qajar Shah dynasty according to their Y-DNA pp. 100-107



Abstract: The subject of the study was the genealogy of the Qajar dynasty, which ruled Iran in 1795-1925. Documentary sources indicate Gara Piri bey Qajar (XV century – 1513), the first beglyarbek of Karabakh with the center in Ganja (now Azerbaijan) as the earliest ancestor of the dynasty. At the end of the XVI century, the great–grandson of Gar Piri bey was appointed Shah Abbas I beglyarbek of Astrabad (now Gorgan, Iran), from whose descendant - Agha Muhammad Khan Qajar (1741-1797), the shah dynasty began. Agha-Mohammed Khan himself traced his family back to a legendary ancestor named Qajar, the son of Sartak-noyon from the Mongolian Jalai tribe, the mentor of Genghisid Argun Khan (1284-1291). According to other sources, the Qajars are a Turkoman tribe that settled in Transcaucasia during the Mongol period. These data on the early history point to the Qajar dynasty as having originally Central Asian origin.   In 2007, a study of the Y-DNA of two modern representatives of different lines of the Qajar dynasty was conducted. Tests have shown that both lines really originate from a recent common paternal ancestor and belong to haplogroup J1-M267, widespread in the Middle East. However, apart from the genetic confirmation of the common paternal origin of these two lines and the declaration of the marginality of the ancestral legend, there is virtually no analysis in the work that gives a definitive answer to the question of the origin of the dynasty itself. In the development of this work, a more in-depth study of Y-DNA by new generation sequencing methods was carried out. The paternal origin of the Qajar dynasty from the indigenous population of the northern regions of Azerbaijan has been revealed.
Historical sources and artifacts
Kyzlasova I.S., Smurova O.V. - The Informative Potential of "Reference Books about the Persons of the St. Petersburg [Petrograd] Merchants ... [1865-1916]" for the Study of the Entrepreneurs of the Waste pp. 108-122



Abstract: The author examines the "Reference books on persons of the St. Petersburg [Petrograd] merchants and other ranks, joint-stock and unit companies and trading houses ... [1865-1916]" published by merchant councils, whose appearance was associated with the procedure for obtaining certificates and tickets for conducting trade and fishing activities. They are a unique source for studying the Russian business class. The features of the structure and the specifics of the presentation of information in the "Reference Books" allow to present it in the form of Excel tables and form a prosopographic data bank, which serves as an effective tool for working with a large array of data. As a result of the source analysis, their subject-thematic content was revealed. The authors show that the materials of the "Reference Books" allow us to study the sources of recruitment and the composition of the bourgeoisie of St. Petersburg, the prevailing areas of capital application, strategies for the development of entrepreneurial activity, including various types of diversification. The use of the prosopographic method makes it possible to reconstruct the social appearance of individual age cohorts of out—of-towners and migrants - immigrants from peasants and burghers, trends in intergenerational social mobility and identity transformation, marriage and career strategies. In addition, the ways of regional and local (within St. Petersburg) movements are traced. Thus, the strategies of behavior of the most passionate part of the peasantry for a long time are reconstructed. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the analysis of the structure of "Reference books" and their potential to obtain a more objective picture of the main patterns and features of the formation of the Russian business class in the imperial period.
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