Philosophical Thought - rubric Fates and outlines of civilizations
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "Fates and outlines of civilizations"
Fates and outlines of civilizations
Zhernosenko I.A. - Altai cultural landscape as the noosphere resource pp. 1-24


Abstract: This article examines the problem of choosing the optimal civilized strategy in the conditions of postmodernism – the noosphere model.  Altai is belongs to the basic (model) territories that possess the noosphere resource. This research is based on the idea of development of the cultural philosophical binary opposition “culture-civilization” in the context of post-neoclassical mentality pertaining to the values of traditional and ethnic cultures. The subject of this work is the fundamental for the Altai traditional culture concept – sacral center – a specific type of cultural landscape, which includes a number of qualities that allow characterizing Altai as the noosphere resource. The author’s special contribution consists into this topic consists in the determination of phenomenology of the meaningful concept for the Altai people traditional culture – the “sacral center” and its place in the originated within the region model of noosphere civilized development. This work also presents certain practical solutions aimed at the establishment of noosphere model, executed on the territory of the Altai region.
Gashkov S.A. - The problem of interpretation of the Ancient Greek civilization. Castoriadis and Mamardashvili: between structuralism and hermeneutics. pp. 8-20


Abstract: Modern philosophers often not only refer to the classical studies, but also are impacted by the philosophers of Classical Antiquity. At the same time, the two strategies are possible: hermeneutic that recognizes the fundamental importance of classical civilization revealed through interpretation of its leading texts, and structural-anthropological that aspires to elucidate the succession of civilization. The subject of this research is examination of the presence of both strategies in comparison of interpretation of the classical (Ancient Greek) civilization in the works of two distinct philosophers of the XX century:  Cornelius Castoriadis (1922-1997) and Merab Mamardashvili (1930-1990). The basis for such comparison serves the attention of the Greek-Frencj and Soviet-Georgian thinkers to the fundamental questions of studying the Ancient Greek civilization: shift from myth to logos, emergence of philosophy and democratic institutions, role of tragedy, religion, and civil valor and laws of self-consciousness and self-determination of the Ancient Greeks. The following conclusions were made: 1) philosophy of the XX century, particularly Castoriadis and Mamardashvili, denies to see in Classical Antiquity a naïve and contemplative stage of European civilization, referring to the ancients as an independent source of social cognition and ontological inquiry; 2) for both thinkers is became impossible to analyze only the rational aspect of classical philosophy, not taking into account the mythology and tragic worldview of the Ancient Greeks, as well as the specificity of their society; 3) examining the phenomenon of “Greek miracle”, Castoriadis focuses on the collective symbolic mechanisms of the emergence of Ancient Greek democratic institutions, while Mamardashvili is interested in the individual symbolism of the Ancient Greek philosophical reasoning. The author underlines that the reconstruction of the Ancient Greek mentality unambiguously contributed to the formation of professional and sociocultural identity of the modern intellectuals.
Ugrin I.M. - The problem of development of Russian civilization in terms of globalization pp. 9-22


Abstract: This research examines the problem of existence of the Russian civilization; however not from the usual perspective of the debates whether or not Russian is a separate civilization and its relationship with the European civilization, but rather from the perspective of the question about its evolution and transformation as a factor of such development. On one hand, the author demonstrate the scientific purposefulness of the use of civilizational approach for analyzing the current state of Russian society and state. On the other hand, civilizational approach is inseparably associated with the problem of historical development, which manifests in this article as a value imperative. Civilizational paradigm is not opposed to the idea of historical renewal, but couples with it; the historical development is understood as a process inscribed into the existential forms of local civilization, although not limited by them. The author comes to a conclusion that the only way out for Russia’s self-preservation under the established geopolitical, geoeconomic, and geocultural circumstances is the reference to the internal resources of civilizational development. However, such return is not a revival of the traditional institutions in forms of their existence in the past or simple reproduction of the traditional practices, but a renewal based on the creative response in the context of civilizational development (rather than strictly national or modernization), a renewal through the sociocultural evolution.
Lepeshkin D.G. - On the path towards "New Enlightenment": representations on the post-secular in modern scientific discourse pp. 13-24


Abstract: The subject of this research is the interpretation of the phenomenon of post-secularism in modern scientific discourse (the late XX – early XXI centuries). The object of this research is post-secularism as a phenomenon of modernity. Research methodology leans on the comparative and descriptive analysis. J. Habermas, introducing the concept of post-secular, noted that the process of secularization in the West is not only dialectical, but also incomplete; and secularization itself has strayed from the "right path" of its development. This launched the discussion on the post-secular. The interpretation of the post-secular can still be polar or mutually exclusive, requiring certain systematization of views, which is presented in this article. The conclusion is made that modern scientific discourse contains different interpretations of the post-secular. The first implies rejection of the secular, accompanied by revival of the religious, infiltration of religion into the sphere of active social relations, realization of the erroneousness of secularization and correction of these errors; in this sense, the concept of desecularization is rather appropriate. The second interpretation of post-secularism is counter-secularization: the process of desecularization intensified by revanchist sentiments of the reviving religiosity. Such post-secularism, focuses non on the correction of errors, but full dismantling of everything secular, which entails natural tension on all levels. Counter-secularization is not focused on dialogue and is potentially dangerous for its fundamentalist continuation. The third interpretation views post-secularism as the natural, self-generated continuation and/or development of secularism; the so-called “New Enlightenment”, which due to its unreligious religiosity and extreme relativism devalues the reviving sacred, originating either its transformation from the traditional religiosity to somewhat ecumenical, or the emergence of something new, in essence, pseudo-transcendent, which would be the final victory of the secular. Actualization of the possibility of choice and the choice itself between transcendence and pseudo-transcendence is the essence of the phenomenon of post-secularism.
Ugrin I.M. - In Search of a New Russia: Reflections on the Concept of Spiritual and Ecological Civilization (A.V. Ivanov, I.V. Fotiev, M.Y. Shishin) pp. 26-49



Abstract: The article deals with the problem of choosing a strategy for the civilizational development of Russia based on the concept of spiritual and ecological (noospheric) civilization developed by A.V. Ivanov, I.V. Fotieva, M.Y. Shishin. There are five variants of the strategy of civilizational development. The understanding of civilization formulated by A. Toynbee and refined by V.L. Tsymbursky (it is the definition of the latter that is used as a working definition) is taken as a methodological approach that allows to identify and give a general description of these options. The latter option is a variant of the New Russia, that is, a renewed Russian civilization, not inheriting, but rebuilding the "sacred vertical". It is in the perspective of the possibility of implementing this option, in our opinion, that the concept of spiritual and ecological civilization should be considered. The author of this article generally agrees with the main provisions of the proposed concept. The study provides a brief overview and analysis of them. It is necessary to emphasize the integrity, logic and validity on the basis of a broad material (historical, philosophical, political) of the concept of noospheric civilization. It is characterized by the novelty of thought and interdisciplinary synthetics. However, it is necessary to point out the main drawback of the proposed concept. In our opinion, it lies in the lack of consideration of the issue of collecting the subject of civilizational development. Which social actor is able to take responsibility for the implementation of the project of spiritual and ecological civilization? Or is it assumed that it will come by itself, due to the objective laws of the historical process? The latter assumption seems utopian. The author of this article offers his answer to the question, thereby contributing to the development of the concept. At the same time, the political component of the concept under consideration is criticized, instead of the idea of hagiocracy, the idea of meritocracy is proposed as a form of government that largely corresponds to the stated principles.
Kuchukov M.M. - Civilizational (European) Metaphysical Gounds of Ethnic Destructiveness pp. 46-63


Abstract: At the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries the society discovered a new phenomenon – ethnic explosion. Even though there is a great variety of forms of ethnic activation, they all have one feature in common which is the destructive influence on existence of the state entities. Relevance of research is defined by the contents and novelty of the formulated problem. The analysis of civilization prerequisites of emergence of ethnic disruptiveness is carried out on materials of the countries which arose within the European civilization matrix. Interest in a subject is caused also by the need for conceptualization of existence of metaphysical prerequisites of genesis of conflict ethnicity. Work is performed on the basis of use of the principles of systemacity and historicism. The comparative method is applied to specification of separate aspects of the received results. The following conclusions have been made by the researcher: a) civilization models of sociality created in the European countries by the phenomena which became prerequisites of a national and ethnic conflictness include ideas of Freedom, Equality and Justice; b) their transformation into the phenomena stimulating a conflictness of ethnos is a consequence of efforts to extend an abstract ideal of the interpersonal relations to coexistence and the relations of transpersonal educations including national and ethnic communities.
Belyaev V.A. - Intercultural Crisis and Clash of Civilizations pp. 117-146


Abstract: This article represents another step towards introduction to the theory of interculturalism developed by the author of the article. This part of the introduction is devoted to the analysis of S. Huntington's idea about 'civilizational conflict'. The author of the article compares challenges of Huntington's theory and different theories of interculturalism. The author offers to view the development of interculturalism from the very beginning of the Early Modern Period. The author also underlines the need to establish a full theory of interculturalism in order to properly understand the modern 'clash of civilization'. The 'civilizational conflict' is described from the point of view of the theory of interculturalism as cultural remissions, i.e. attempts to restore the 'cultural' method of life organization. The author also analyzes the systems of personal and group identifications as well as their role in the process of cultural remissions. Special attetion is paid to the analysis of the 'clash of civilization' (cultural remissions) in modern Russia.  The article will be interesting for all who are interested in philosophical anthropology. 
Grachev B. - Philosophical-political comprehension of Eurasia in the context of the Russian project of civilizational development pp. 119-138


Abstract: This article attempts to “objectify” and conceptualize the concept of “Eurasia”, determine its ontological characteristics as the sociopolitical space of development of the Russian civilizational project, as well as delineates the contours of this space within the framework of a project-constructive methodological orientation. The author refers to the history of formation of holistic representations on Eurasia within the scientific thought, giving special attention to the contribution of geopoliticians, and emphasizing the implementation of theoretical provisions in real politics. The empirical basis relies on the two megaprojects that are implemented in practice: the Silk Road Economic Belt initiated by China and the Eurasian Economic Union (which includes Armenia, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, and Russia), as well as the “Greater Eurasia” as a potential way of their interlink and development of the space for cross-civilizational dialogue on the continent. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) Eurasia is determined both as the goal of the Russian project of civilizational development and as the space it can be realized within. At the same time, the space for the development of Russia-Eurasia is described as the natural environment of the Russian civilizational project, the space of the “primary circle”. Special role is played by the creation and development of the Eurasian Economic Union, which unites the countries that have faced the escalation of nationalist sentiment after the dissolution of the Soviet Union; 2) The “Greater Eurasia” is designated as the “secondary circle” of the Russian civilizational project, a space for continental cooperation, determines by new political reality.  3) Certain zones of civilizational confrontation and contradictions on the continent have been identified. The author believes that the need for conceptualization of the concept at hand lies in the significant sociopolitical formative potential.
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