Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 03/2024
Contents of Issue 03/2024
Natural philosophy
Samarin A.S. - The experimental method of G. Galileo in the context of the formation of the concept of the subject in the philosophy of the Modern Times pp. 1-13



Abstract: Understanding the subject is of constant interest in modern philosophy. Turning to the subject allows deepening the understanding of the nature of its activity, as well as the creative and transformative relationship of a person to the world. The emergence of the concept of the subject occurs in the Modern era and is associated with the development of the scientific method. Along with resolving the questions facing the epistemology of the Modern era, the subject-object relation arises as a specific way of solving the problem of intensive development of natural philosophy and mathematical disciplines. The research shows the interrelation between the method of intellectual experiment in the concept of G. Galileo and the development of understanding the subject in the Modern era, as well as its change in modern philosophy (20th-21st centuries). By examining the characteristic features and specific examples of the application of the method of intellectual experiment in the research, the degree of influence of G. Galileo on the development of science and philosophy of the Modern era is demonstrated. By using a comparative and analytical method, the interrelation of G. Galileo's intellectual experiment, understanding the subject in philosophy, and the ways of carrying out scientific activities is demonstrated. The content of the concept of the "subject" is expanded through the use of the phenomenological method, allowing to specify the boundaries of the subject's activity and the relationship between the subject and the object in the Modern era and in modern philosophy. The novelty of the research lies in the formulation of the question of the interrelation between G. Galileo's intellectual experiment and the methods of modern experimental sciences. The understanding of the subject as one of the basic categories of philosophy is clarified through the analysis of the ways of working with the subject-object relationship proposed in the philosophy of the Modern era. In particular, Galileo's way of dealing with the subject-object relationship implies taking into account the gap between the subject and the object as a special space, filling which through intellectual experiment, the researcher creates a model of experience relevant to the object of study and available for joint use with other researchers subsequently. The creation by G. Galileo of a model of experience in the process of intellectual experiment is reasoned as one of the basic methods of obtaining new knowledge in natural science disciplines in modern science.
The new paradigm of science
Rozin V.M. - Is it possible to overcome the paradoxes of the modern conceptualization of the Universe? pp. 14-29



Abstract: The article comprehends the natural science approach to the interpretation of the Universe. At the same time, the author relies on the material of studies of the Universe and galaxies conducted by the Russian philosopher Vadim Kazyutinsky, who shows that natural science studies of the Universe are paradoxical and more like a humanitarian discourse. Hannah Arendt's assessment of these studies is no less paradoxical, she argues that the natural science approach has led to the fact that the universe is inaccessible in practice and even unthinkable. In turn, the author argues that cosmology should be classified as a scientific discipline of the humanities type, which does not exclude the presence of various physical and other natural sciences in it. The object of cosmology (similar to the objects of biology, cultural studies, and sociology) cannot be described in one scientific discipline, it is multilevel, and at each level there are different patterns that must be described by different cosmological theories.Implementing this methodology, the author proposes a scheme of three successive terrestrial Universes "cosmic" (physical), "vital" (biological) and "social". Within the framework of the latter, a person appeared and a culture developed. Each subsequent terrestrial universe included the previous one as its component or substrate. Another understanding of the Universe is proposed, based on the following provisions: a person must re-establish himself in his understanding of the Universe, recognize its presence (conditionality) in his actions; agree that the development of the social universe has acquired a catastrophic character; begin to think through the established sociality in order to understand what needs to be changed. According to the author, the universe resembles a matryoshka doll, including the cosmic, physical, biological, social and noospheric Universes (the latter is just beginning to take shape). At the same time, there are two multidirectional processes in the social universe: one works for man and culture, the other process, due to the diverse orientation that takes place in all Universes, in fact, acts against man and culture. Two important features of the noospheric Universe will have to be the attitude towards salvation and real changes aimed at realizing this attitude.
Philosophy of knowledge
Kuzmin V. - On the question of the existence of abstractions pp. 30-43



Abstract: The given abstraction is investigated. The existence of its relational states (extensional or intensional reality) is revealed. Some types of abstraction are analyzed, in particular, the abstraction of identification, isolating, etc. It is shown that the first is given intensionally, and the second is extensional. It is concluded that abstraction and idealization are two sides of the same process. The interval methodology and the phenomenological approach (as interpreted by A. Meinong) are used. It is noted that for each "size" of the abstraction interval and there are only three of them: "situation", "co-existence" (a set of subjectrelated situations) and "universe" - there are different types of abstractions. In particular, the abstraction of constructivization is given in a situation, and the isolating one is given in coexistence. It is concluded that the question of the existence of abstractions in itself is incorrect. The existence of objects (concrete or abstract) is just one of the many modes of being objects. Abstract objects are characterized by a weaker mode than those that actually exist. Existence, as one of the states of reality, is eliminated by itself in the modus interpretation. It is more appropriate to talk about the existence of any objects in a situation (in co-existence, in the universe) with some kind of mode for the "I" and/or for the Other (Others). Thus, abstract objects exist in the given just like any other, including those that actually exist.
Gribkov A.A. - Creativity as an implementation of the idea of the integrity of the world pp. 44-53



Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the areas of realization of creative activity, justification of the possibility of creativity as a process of creation of qualitatively new values, mechanisms of creativity, the main of which is intuition. One of the key questions, the answer to which determines the possibility of explaining creativity, is the choice of deterministic or irrational representation of the world. The author makes a reasoned choice in favor of a deterministic view of the world, within the framework of which intuition, and thus creativity, receive an adequate explanation. The research methodology in this article is based on the idea of creativity as a process manifested in the form of intuition, through which the mind reaches areas of world understanding inaccessible to reason based on reproductive thinking. As a result of the research conducted by the author, the key role of intuition in creativity has been established. Intuition, in its turn, is a consequence of isomorphism of forms and laws in different subject areas, at different levels of the universe. A generalization of the use of isomorphism in practice takes the form of the principle of similarity or analogy. The ability of human being to intuition is the result of his multisystem integration into many systems: physical and biological world, social and cultural environment, system of professional knowledge and relations, etc. The representation of the integrity of the world is an imperative of creativity. On the other hand, creativity is an indispensable tool for creating a holistic representation of the world. By virtue of its defining internal mechanisms, everything valuable that creativity gives birth to becomes a part of the holistic world. It can be stated that in the process of creativity the representation of its integrity is implanted (reproduced and used as a tool).
Spiritual and moral search
Zykin A., Aref'ev M.A., Davydenkova A.G. - Orthodox Old Believers in the synthesis of cultures of the Trans-Baikal region (on the history of Spiritual Missions of Transbaikalia) pp. 54-69



Abstract: This work is aimed at studying the role of spiritual missions in the cultural life of Transbaikalia on the example of the Daurian Spiritual Mission, which was created by the Russian Orthodox Church with the aim of spreading Orthodoxy and Russian culture among the indigenous population of the Daurian land and neighboring regions of Eastern Siberia. It is noted that in general, the Daurian Spiritual Mission has become the most important tool of the ROC in spreading the Orthodox faith of the XVII-XVIII centuries in Siberia. It made it possible to introduce many peoples of Eastern Siberia to Christianity, preserving a tolerant approach and the uniqueness of local cultural traditions, which contributed to the development of both trade and industry in this region. During the intensive development of the economy of this part of the Russian state, the Daurian Spiritual Mission played its role as a spiritual and economic connector. Separately, the interaction of the mission with Northern Buddhism (Lamaism) and the desire to attract Buddhists to Christianity is noted. However, due to concerns about the negative impact on international relations with China, this line of work was not continued. In addition to pagan and Buddhist influence on the ethnoculture of Eastern Siberia, the influence of Old Believers is noted. The Trans-Baikal Old Believers are an important spiritual experience of Russian Orthodox culture in Eastern Siberia and have a long history. The Semey Old Believers are considered separately as a kind of Old Believers in Transbaikalia, who were settled in this territory in the XVIII century, which is caused by an incomplete understanding of their life and everyday life. It is indicated that the mixing of cultural elements, including mixed marriages, has led to the formation of a unique culture and way of life of the Semeyskys, who continue to preserve their individuality and persist in the modern world.
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