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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue ¹ 12/2023
Contents of Issue ¹ 12/2023
Axiology: values and relics
Burukina O.A. - Promising approaches to the study of values in the interdisciplinary paradigm pp. 1-20



Abstract: The problem of understanding "value" as a philosophical category and phenomenon of culture and the construction of a system of national values is especially relevant at the present stage of the development of Russian culture and mentality in connection with the current axiological crisis that modern Russian society is experiencing and, as a consequence, modern Russian culture. The article provides an overview of concepts and approaches to the study of values in foreign and Russian philosophy of the XX–XXI centuries. The author traces the evolution of the concept of value over the past 120 years, focusing his research on the current stage of development of axiology and philosophy of culture – from the end of the twentieth century to the present day. The article pays special attention to the complexity of categorical analysis and the difficulty of defining the concept of "value" at the present stage of philosophy development, taking into account eclecticism in understanding and interpreting values in different scientific paradigms: philosophical, cultural, sociological, psychological, etc. The author analyzes the enduring significance of the heritage of outstanding Russian philosophers, as well as the contribution of foreign philosophers. It is suggested that the paradigm of the philosophy of culture, developed by G. Rickert, can become a conceptual and methodological basis for correctly comprehending the concept of value and building a national system of values that can become the basis for the progressive development of all spheres of being in modern society. From a wide range of studies by Russian and foreign scientists, both modern and related to the masters of philosophy today, the author identifies the most promising approaches to the study of values and the formation of a system of national values that reflect the most significant features of national culture and national mentality and contribute to the sustainable development of each member of society.
Philosophy of technology
Zelenskii A.A., Gribkov A.A. - Ontological aspects of the problem of realizability of control of complex systems pp. 21-31



Abstract: The article deals with the management of complex systems. The general definitions of the concepts "control" and "control system" are formulated. It is stated that the control system in its basis is an information system, for which the most important characteristics are performance and rapidity. Definitions are given and differences between these characteristics are revealed. The problem of realizability of control of complex systems is stated, which consists in the necessity of providing sufficient rapidity, at which the whole necessary complex of control operations is placed in the control cycle. The relationship between the control parameters: the complexity of the control object, the duration of the control cycle and the rapidity of the control system is investigated. As a result, a number of significant dependencies are revealed: the duration of the control cycle is approximately inversely proportional to the complexity of the control object; the rapidity of the control system is approximately proportional to the square of the object complexity. It is stated that within the framework of the general theory of systems there are two main options for increasing the stability of a complex system: the option of monocentrism with a central element, or by increasing the number of links in the object. The first option does not allow increasing rapidity. The second variant of stability can be implemented in practice in the form of a decentralized system. The latter option is universally realized in living systems and is promising for the control of technical systems.
Spectrum of consciousness
Gabdullin I.R., Orlova E.V. - Spontaneous-unconscious forms of thought processes: philosophical and psychological aspects of research pp. 32-41



Abstract: The subject of this study is those aspects of human mental activity that are determined by its inclusion in non-articulated and non-reflexive spheres of mental activity. The purpose of this article is to analyze the psychological and philosophical aspects of studying specific aspects of the formation and functioning of thinking as the highest cognitive ability of a person, namely in that part of this ability that manifests itself in a spontaneously unconscious form. One of the tasks that require resolution and arise in such a context is to raise the question of whether these forms of manifestation of thinking are considered only a consequence of the influence of external factors, or whether it is a necessary element of the process of their formation and functioning. Another task, due to the specifics of the chosen research subject, was the question of choosing a methodological context and prospects for further research. The methodological approaches and methods used in the course of the research involve both the theoretical developments of classical philosophy and psychology, as well as the results of modern philosophical and psychological research, which allows us to apply the so-called method of "systematic eclecticism", which partly allows us to actualize an integrated approach to such a complex field of research as the phenomenon of human consciousness. The relevance of the research is determined by the fact that despite the continuing interest in the problems of the functioning of human thinking, its origin remains insufficiently investigated in terms of its relationship with the unconscious processes of the human psyche. One of the reasons for this situation is the relative differentiation and fragmentation in methodological campaigns. As one of the main conclusions in the attempted study of the mental processes indicated by the chosen topic is the position of the inextricable connection, interdependence of conscious and unconscious acts of the psyche, and the spontaneous-unconscious form of manifestation of thinking is naturally inherent in it. As a particular conclusion based on the results of the conducted research, it is proposed to update the already existing results achieved in cognitive sciences as an interdisciplinary field of research on problems of consciousness and thinking.
Social philosophy
Mikhaylov I. - New Transformations of the public Sphere: Contemporary Discussions in Germany pp. 42-52



Abstract: The article discusses the main stages and approaches to analyzing the problem of publicity using the example of the works of Heidegger, Horkheimer, and Adorno. The reasons for the absence of a positive concept of publicity in German philosophy of the first half of the twentieth century are shown, as well as the connection between a negative attitude towards publicity and the global socio-historical pessimism of that time. The significance of the theory of publicity presented in two studies of Habermas, “Structural Changes of the Public Sphere” (1962) and publications 2021–2022, is analyzed, as well as its connection with the political theory of democracy. Habermas interprets the “public sphere” as a special space for the application of critical discourse, emerging in the era of the emergence of capitalism. If in feudal society “publicity” is identified with the state, then in the 18th–19th centuries. a practice of discussions about literature is emerging, gradually expanding to a critical discussion of social processes. With the achievement by the middle of the twentieth century bourgeois society at the stage of “mass democracy” and the intervention of the state, which actively uses manipulative technologies, the rational foundations of the discourse of the public sphere give way to non-rational ones. The area of publicity becomes an area of confrontation and conflict between the interests of various social groups. New structural transformations in the sphere of publicity become noticeable in 2010–2020 and are associated with the emergence of new media, the new role of social networks. One of Habermas’ main critical arguments points out that the media structure changed by digitalization may deepen contemporary problems with contemporary Western democracy and result in deepening of it’s crisis. Habermas’ theory is contrasted against the theories of other media theorists (Marshall McLuhan, Niklas Luhmann and others).
Political philosophy
Podolskiy V. - "Social question" in political philosophy of N.A. Berdyaev, S.N. Bulgakov and S.L. Frank: comparative analysis of concepts pp. 53-69



Abstract: The difference in organizational forms in social policy is caused by different economic and political reasons and different political and philosophical approaches to social problems. The hierarchy of values defines opinions on the social question and ideas about the appropriate architecture of social policy. The decisions that laid the foundations for social policy in Europe were made in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and their logic resembles the philosophy of the “Christian socialism” most. The purpose of the article is to identify and compare the attitude of Russian authors who were closest to Christian socialism towards the social question and their approaches to solving it. The key works of the authors on the social question were studied. The comparative historical approach, hermeneutics, discourse analysis, and institutional analysis were used. All authors tend to problematize both the social question and its' solutions, rather than offer their own proposals. All three talk about the importance of human internal development and criticize socialist ideas about environmental determinism and human renewal through mechanical reorganization of the economy. All authors moved from Marxism to its criticism, although Berdyaev's views shifted in his later works to the left, to the most radical position of the three thinkers, to the conviction that capitalism has to be abolished, which he blames for oppression and exploitation. Bulgakov sympathizes with the logic of economic organization in socialism, but considers it possible to change economic relations while maintaining the political system. Frank is convinced that limited social reforms within the framework of a market economy are sufficient to provide social support to those in need. Berdyaev and Bulgakov think that justice is the most important value, while Frank thinks that duty is. Berdyaev and Bulgakov follow the key arguments of Christian socialism, and Frank - those of liberal conservatism.
Controversy and debate
Katunin A.V. - Features of the use of critical thinking skills in countering manipulation in modern communication. pp. 70-82



Abstract: The subject of the study is critical thinking. The article is devoted to the study of the role of critical thinking in modern communication conditions. Particular attention is paid to the peculiarities of using critical thinking skills in countering manipulative influences both in the professional sphere and in personal communicative interaction. The article substantiates that critical thinking is one of the most important skills in the modern world; the importance of critical thinking skills for effectively processing large amounts of incoming information, as well as for building successful communication, is clarified; the specifics and features of the application of critical thinking skills in the context of communicative interaction are considered; the role of logical as well as rhetorical components in communication is substantiated; options for countering communicative manipulations and incorrect communicative influences are proposed. The article uses methods of comparative analysis, contextual analysis, synthesis, generalization, classification, as well as the logical method. The article proposes a division of communicative goals according to the type of statements. Particular attention is focused on analyzing the situation of the motivating communicative goal. The article clarifies the meaning of the following concepts: communication, 4K competencies, critical thinking, non-critical thinking, manipulation, logical, psychological and rhetorical argumentation strategies, communicative purpose, rhetoric, ad hominem arguments, ad rem arguments, deductive inferences, inductive inferences. The article proposes methods and tools for strengthening the skills of building effective communicative interaction. Methods of countering manipulative communicative influences are also analyzed both from the point of view of logical science and rhetorical skill. The article will be useful for both undergraduate and graduate students studying rhetoric, argumentation theory, communication techniques, and a wide range of readers.
Philosophy of science
Sverguzov A.T. - On the question of the dialectic of scientific knowledge in russian philosophy: the problem of reflection pp. 83-92



Abstract: The subject of the study is the phenomenon of reflection in the structure of the mechanisms of scientific cognition. The results of studying the phenomenon obtained within the framework of Russian philosophy in different periods of its development – the Soviet and modern stages - are compared. Attention is drawn to the fundamental nature of the research results of scientific reflection obtained during the Soviet period of philosophy development. In the philosophy of that period, the concept of reflection was proposed, which remained outside the field of view of modern research. A feature of the subject of the Soviet concept is the identification of two aspects of scientific reflection – the relationship between reflection and rationality, as well as the relationship between the meaning-setting and meaning-revealing functions of reflection. The subject of modern domestic research is influenced by the Western tradition. Its characteristic feature is the isolation of reflexive thinking on oneself or, in Soviet terminology, the reduction of scientific reflection to a semantic function. The research method is a dialectical-materialistic approach. The peculiarity of the study is the use of internal contradictions of reflection. The novelty of the work is characterized by the application of the results of Soviet dialectical-materialistic research to modern analysis. It is shown that the modern discussion of this problem is in a dialectical context, constituted by the framework of interrelated opposites. The idea is expressed that the dialectical-materialistic approach continues to be fundamental and is an adequate method of considering reflection. In particular, the dialectical-materialistic methodology will contribute to overcoming, in the words of one of the modern researchers, the "epistemological impasse" with which he characterizes the results of modern study. The conclusion is made about the need to resume dialectical research.
History of ideas and teachings
Zheng Y. - Comparative analysis of the philosophical and historical views of S.L. Frank and V.V. Zenkovsky pp. 93-108



Abstract: The purpose of the article is a comparative analysis of the historiosophical views of S. L. Frank and V. V. Zenkovsky, which were based on specific ontognoseological concepts about the essence of being and the possibilities for a creative person to comprehend it. Based on the ideas about the place and role of man in natural and socio-historical processes characteristic of Christian personalism, thinkers, interpreting the concepts of creation and the Fall in different ways, came to dissimilar conclusions about the practical meanings of the cognitive and transformative activity of the individual. When conducting the study, comparative analysis methods were used, which involved a reasoned and consistent identification of the similarities and differences in the historiosophical positions of S. L. Frank and V. V. Zenkovsky, as well as hermeneutical methods used to better understand the semantic content of their texts. The author of the article, having consistently examined the views of S. L. Frank and V. V. Zenkovsky on evolution, social utopianism, conciliarity, on the place and role of the Church in the socio-historical process and on the eschatological perspective of humanity, comes to the conclusion that, despite the fact that both philosophers have significant disagreements regarding their solution to the problem of theodicy, the theme of overcoming evil in the world is fundamental for their philosophical and historical constructions. However, due to the incompatibility of their ideological approaches, the difference in the ontognoseological ideas of philosophers about the types of connection between the Absolute and the created world (essential and beneficial) and about the cognitive capabilities of man affected their understanding of both the goal of historical development and the methodology for achieving it.
Philosophy of science
Chechetkina I.I. - The connection of mathematics and logic in the structure of axiomatized and formalized theories pp. 109-120



Abstract: The aim of the research is to study the relationship between logic and mathematics in the structure of axiomatized and formalized scientific theories. The object of the study is the explication of this connection and its explanation. The subject of the study is syntactic and semantic views on the structure of scientific theories, the relationship between logic and mathematics has not been studied in detail in them. In the syntactic view, the structure of the theory is understood as a linguistic construct build from various logical propositions of the theoretical level, correspondence propositions and observation propositions. The structure of the theory does not take into account the variety of model representations of the theory that generate a variety of language constructs. The semantic view overcomes this disadvantage, and in it the structure of the theory is presented as a hierarchy of models: from axioms to theoretical-level models, experimental models and data models. The structure of the theory, the connection of logic and mathematics were studied using comparative analysis, methods of interpretive analysis and reconstruction of scientific theories. The methods made it possible to explicate mathematical concepts in the structure of the theory and correlate them with logic and natural language. Comparative analysis has shown that in the syntactic view, the connection between logic and mathematics lies in the fact that mathematical concepts of physics are interpreted in the language of logic of first-order predicates with equality. The connection between mathematical concepts is provided by the axiomatic method, which serves as a means of formalizing concepts. Mathematics comes down to logic. In the semantic approach, in order to identify the connection between mathematics and logic, it was necessary to reconstruct the structure of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. With the help of the set-theoretic predicate of Suppes, its axioms were determined, the connection between mathematical structures, postulates of the theory, axioms, and observable quantities was established. Logic and mathematics are related to each other in such a way that metamathematics or linguistics is a part of mathematics. Mathematics includes set theory and model theory, i.e. mathematical logic. The connection of mathematical formalisms with phenomena and with natural language remains problematic, and there is this drawback in the syntactic approach. The novelty lies in the fact that the research contributes to the methodology and logic of science, to the explanation of the connection between logic and mathematics in scientific theory, which was illustrated by various examples from various fields of physics.
Social philosophy
Komissarov I.I. - External analogies in social and philosophical knowledge: prospects and limitations of the approach pp. 121-137



Abstract: The subject of research concerns the social models which are constructed by using external analogies. External social analogies imply a reference to an object that is studied within the framework of a science being external to social knowledge (biology, physics, psychology, etc.). Specifically, biological (organic), biomechanical, as well as psychological and psychoanalytic varieties are analyzed. Biological analogies are represented by the models of H. Spencer and Yu. I. Semenov. Biomechanical models include the concepts of Th. Hobbes, J. O. de La Mettrie, É. Durkheim, N. I. Kareev and A. Fouillée. External psychological and psychoanalytic analogies are approached in the works of G. Tarde, S. Freud, E. Fromm, G. Deleuze and F. Guattari. Particular attention is paid to critical remarks regarding these concepts, which determines the limitations of the considered method. Classification of existing socio-philosophical models is used as method in the research. Classification criterion is the type of external analogies that is used in the construction of these concepts. As a result, prospects and limitations of the considered method were identified. Namely, the effectiveness of external analogies in social and philosophical research objectively depends on how well this “external” science itself corresponds to reality. The other side of the problem lies in the abuse of analogies themselves: introduction of excessive terminology, speculative parallelisms, misusage of special scientific terms, which ultimately leads to difficulties in understanding the social and philosophical model itself. At the same time, the following prospects of the considered method are pointed out. Firstly, in the case of emergence of a new science or revolution in the domain of existing one, their objects or results could be used as sources for external analogies in the construction of a new social model. Secondly, existing external social analogies could be reused in other fields of knowledge.
Philosophical anthropology
Martseva A.V. - The Corporeity Discourse and the Body “Arguments” in Fyodor Dostoevsky’s Works pp. 138-150



Abstract: The subject of this research is the discourse on the body and corporeity in Dostoevsky’s works on the example of four out of his “five greatest novels”. The questions of the body and corporeity are often eliminated in philosophical studies of Dostoevsky’s works which allows researchers to conceptualize the content of his novels more easily. This tradition and its inconsistency can be revealed through a brief historiographical review. The author of the article, on the contrary, regards the corporeity as an important part of Dostoevsky’s philosophical and anthropological ideas. Thus, two main aspects of the discourse on the body and corporeity found in various proportions in the writer’s works: 1) corresponds with materialistic philosophical anthropology, and 2) matches the Christian patristic anthropological tradition. In addition, the article describes Dostoevsky’s non-formalizability of corporeity which stands above the materialistic interpretations of the man and the standardized, not problematized body. This is achieved through cultural and historical, biographical and ideological contexts of Dostoevsky’s writings. The hermeneutic analysis of the four novels texts provides an opportunity to briefly outline the concept of the body and corporeity understanding. Thus, the author identifies three modes of corporeity underlying the body problematization in Dostoevsky’s novels: the scientistic mode, the otherness mode, and the religious mode (based on the anthropological tradition of Eastern Patristics). Unlike the materialistic concepts of a onefold approach to the man, Dostoevsky offers twofold (or even threefold) concept dissecting corporeity through its most non-formalized manifestations. The body for Dostoevsky is both universal and unique. On the one hand, it complicates the corporeity conceptualization, but on the other hand, it enhances its importance in the writer’s works. The results of the research can be used to elaborate new non-reductionist interpretations of Dostoevsky’s literary legacy.
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