Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 10/2023
Contents of Issue 10/2023
Philosophy of knowledge
Gribkov A.A. - The problem of loss of integrity of modern philosophical and scientific knowledge pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2023.10.44094

EDN: XXBEPK

Abstract: The article deals with the actual problem of social development, the development of sciences and, in general, the development of human civilization a gradual departure from reliance on a system of established generally accepted ideas and, as a result, the loss of the integrity of philosophical and scientific knowledge. The ability of various models to reliably describe areas of cognition that are outside the area on the basis of knowledge about which these models are formed is considered. The general theory of systems is considered, the central idea of which is the existence of isomorphism of forms and laws in various subject areas and at various levels of the universe, through which the integrity of the world is manifested. The necessity of relying on a system of generally accepted ideas about nature, society, ethics and aesthetics is justified, even if these ideas are not indisputable and final. The necessity of returning philosophy to the leading role in cognition is stated, since only philosophy is able to ensure the integrity of the knowledge system. It is stated that such a property is possessed by models that are able to fit into a holistic picture of the world. The idea is put forward that the General theory of systems can become the basis for building a holistic picture of the world. To do this, it should be expanded by defining the methodology of formation and describing particular manifestations of isomorphism, as well as supplemented with an ontological part containing an explanation of the genesis of isomorphism.
Social philosophy
Rakhinsky D.V., Panasenko G.V., Ravochkin N.N., Morozova O.F., Mineev V.V. - Social Contract: About Approaches to Its Theoretization and Its Philosophical Prospects pp. 10-21

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2023.10.48490

EDN: YZCEEG

Abstract: The authors raise the question of the content of the concept of social contract theory, discuss the key socio-philosophical content of social contract theories and modern views on it. The object of the study is the social contract as a philosophical concept, the subject of the study is the currently developed ways of interpreting and applying this concept. The goal towards which the research presented in the article is aimed is to understand the ways of developing the concept of a social contract and the prospects for its further socio-philosophical use. The significance of the concept of a social contract for discussing the ontological foundations of the norms and obligations implemented in society that arise between the actors of social interaction is revealed. The theoretical and methodological innovations used by modern authors are analyzed to develop the concept of the social contract. In the course of this study, the authors used methods of comparative analysis (in relation to the considered ways of understanding the social contract), analytical and interpretive methods, and a historical-genetic method (in the context of considering ways of developing the concept of a social contract). The scientific novelty of the study lies in the formulation of assumptions regarding the philosophical prospects for the development of the concepts of social contract, as well as in the discussion of the meaning and methods of application of these concepts. Based on the study, the authors conclude that the concept of a social contract is of current importance in the context of reflecting the foundations of norms regulating social interaction.
Philosophical anthropology
Gutova S.G., Berillo I.V. - The mystery of man in the teachings of Blaise Pascal: between mysticism and rationality pp. 22-39

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2023.10.39039

EDN: YYXRHL

Abstract: The article explores an anthropological essence of Blaise Pascal's philosophical views along with their analysis in the context of his personal being and also of common directions in the Modern Age intellectual and philosophical movement. An unbreakable connection between Pascal's ideas and setting cartesian scientific and philosophical world-outlook is shown here, as well as some cardinal differencies of his thoughts on nature, significance and perspectives for human being from pure rationalistic treatings of these problems. The main anthropological work of Pascal ("Pensees") is charaterised under the angle of its structure and method. The comparison of reception and evaluation of Pascal' and Socrates' personalities and ideas by the modern European philosophers (W. Windelband, E. Kassirer) and Russian religious thinkers (B.P. Vysheslavtzev, S.S. Glagolev) provided here. It is shown that in his reasonings on human being, wich are traditionally considered as religous and mystical, Pascal keeps some faithfullness towards "geometric spirit" of cartesian philosophy. It is manifestated by using of mathematical terminologies and also by constructing of phenomenological topica of human existing. The last one must be charaterised as vector determinanta or as intentional existence. The principal attention is given to concepts of love and heart with stressing that Pascal realised his specific method of exploring the human being problems through these intuitive and existential symbols in "world - self - being" triada. In conclusion it is determined that Pascal's anthropological ideas as presented in "Pensees" are to be considered as some christian apologetic experience (according to author's personal intentions) and also as one of the foundings of contemporary philosophical anthropology (due to their principially critical primal points).
Philosophy of science
Sushchin M.A. - What Can Philosophy and the Cognitive Sciences Give Each Other? pp. 40-50

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2023.10.68745

EDN: VBGWQO

Abstract: The article explores some possible ways of interaction between philosophy and the specific cognitive scientific disciplines: psychology, neurosciences, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and anthropology. The author draws on V.A. Lektorskys idea of the dialogue between philosophy and the cognitive sciences. Philosophy and the cognitive sciences engage in a productive dialogue in which their mutual enrichment, the strengthening or weakening of certain scientific or philosophical theories, and theoretical progress can occur. On the one hand, it is asserted that philosophy can have the greatest impact on the development of the cognitive sciences in the way of clarifying problems of the philosophy of science. These problems encompass the problem of the theoretical progress of cognitive studies, the problem of the nature of individual cognitivist theories (as well as the nature of groups of individual theories such as connectionism, predictive processing, etc.), the problem of the relationship of cognitive disciplines to each other, and more. In addition, philosophers can contribute to discussions concerning the foundations of the cognitive sciences and their key concepts of representation and computation. They can also play a significant role in assessing the ethical implications of the emergence of new cognitive technologies and neurotechnologies. On the other hand, the specific cognitive disciplines can provide new insights into traditional philosophical issues, like the problem of consciousness and the brain, the problem of free will, and enrich the philosophy of science with novel empirical data.
Political philosophy
Zaitsev A.V. - Dialogue between government and society in the digital public sphere (theoretical and methodological aspect) pp. 51-62

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2023.10.68711

EDN: UDXZTO

Abstract: The subject of the research of this article is the theoretical and methodological aspect of the transformation of dialogical interactions between government and society in the digital public sphere. The essence of this transformation, taking place in the context the digital information society, is the reconfiguration of the "traditional" public sphere into a digital public sphere, civil society into a digital civil society, the usual offline dialogue between the government and society into an intersubjective digital online dialogue. Unfortunately, many of these changes up to the present time remain completely unexplored by Russian political science and related fields and branches of socio-humanitarian knowledge. The scientific novelty of the article consist in the question of choosing the most adequate theoretical and scientific-methodological means for the study of the transformations occurring in the digital public sphere in the contest of the dialogue between government and society. The main purpose of writing this article is focused on the study and selection and choosing the most appropriate theoretical and scientific and methodological tools for the study of transformations occurring in the digital public sphere, in the dialogue between government and society, tools that make it possible to comprehend the leading transformational trends in the field of communication technologies.
Philosophy of liberty
Ukhov A.E., Kovrov E.L., Simonyan E.G. - The problem of freedom in the philosophy of John Locke: semiotic interpretation pp. 63-81

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2023.10.40080

EDN: SVKINU

Abstract: The article shows the connection between the social constructions of political liberalism and its ontological justification in the system of J. Locke. With the help of semiotics and comparative philosophical analysis of the views of modern philosophers B. Spinoza, T. Hobbes, J. Locke, R. Filmer, J.-J. Rousseau, I. Kant, such problems as the nature of state power, the concept of freedom, natural law, social contract, the right of the people to revolution are analyzed. The semiotic context of natural law is revealed, and it is concluded that happiness, as the goal of New Age individuals quest, according to Locke, is thought to be a rational and, therefore, a free being. Linking the natural need to be a free being not only with the organization of state power, but also with religious need, Locke concludes that political participation itself can be considered not just as a way to achieve freedom, but also as the purpose for a person to improve themselves morally and politically. For Locke, state power turns out to be an integral part of society, and the balance between them always shifts towards society as the source of the social contract. At the same time, the negative meaning of freedom in Locke prevails over the positive, saving the latter from sliding into totalitarianism of the Jacobin type, as in Rousseau. The conclusion is drawn about the relevance of ideas about the need for free choice of citizens to build a rule of lawful state and develop democracy.
Philosophical anthropology
Danchay-ool A.A., Mongush S.O., Dongak V.S. - Worldview foundations in the system of ethnopedagogy (using the example of Tuvan culture). pp. 82-92

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2023.10.44217

EDN: STJLIF

Abstract: The article reveals the problem of the need to build ethnopedagogical methods through instilling the fundamental meanings of the worldview of traditional culture. The authors point out the inconsistency of the superficial application in the practice of ethnopedagogy of a simple listing of cultural phenomena or teaching the national language. The processes of upbringing and education must be implemented in unity with cultural enlightenment, in which the unity of man, society and nature is revealed. The problem of distorted interpretation of cultural phenomena in modern times is shown, which creates a contradictory worldview system. The need to instill an understanding of the transformation of the worldview of traditional cultures in modern times is emphasized, which makes it possible to fill pedagogical practice with specific content. The novelty of the study lies in the discovery of the relationship between problems of worldview and pedagogical practice. The ideology of the Soviet era was formed on substantialism and materialism, which required the application of the ideas of abstract progress and holism. In such conditions, Tuvan traditional culture was not fit into the abstract system that reduces the content of archaic cultures. The authors point to the unity of education and thinking, in which a person understands the uniqueness of each culture and its phenomena. In this connection, it is possible to learn the meanings of ones culture, which creates the possibility of self-identification. The main contribution of the authors lay in revealing of the need to develop ethnopedagogy with specific content, which is ensured through high-quality preparation of ideological foundations.
Ontology: being and nihility
Gaginskii A.M. - Being and givenness in the philosophy of M. Heidegger pp. 93-105

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2023.10.44016

EDN: MVTZML

Abstract: The author believes that it is possible to discuss Heidegger's philosophy only in the light of a more or less clarified understanding of being, but this is precisely the main difficulty: Heidegger invites you on the road without saying where to go and what to guide you on the road. What should serve as a guideline to understand it correctly? From what preliminary understanding of being should we proceed when talking about fundamental ontology, ontotheology, ontological difference? First of all, my own being is for me a point of reference and a starting position in the comprehension of being and the construction of ontology. Therefore, the meaning of being is read not from the existing in general, but from the concrete existing, from itself. The being of Dasein finite, because the existing one is mortal. However, the existence of a person is different from the existence of a number, a tree or an angel how then to understand what meaning this word has? If being is time, and time is myself, then what is being a rock, a number, or God? In addition, Heidegger does not limit himself to the statement that God or an angel are given to consciousness, that is, given as certain entities, he says that they exist, that is, that entities are essences. This corresponds to the concept of "givenness" in phenomenology. At the same time, the datum can refer to anything, for example, to a unicorn and pegasus, Zeus and Hera, a round square and a wooden iron, but without considering them as something existing. Therefore, the question naturally arises about how Heidegger understands being after all, why does reality act as a synonym for being for him?
Philosophical anthropology
Gluzdov D.V. - Philosophical anthropology analysis of contradictions in the development of artificial intelligence pp. 106-123

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2023.10.40062

EDN: NFQRFV

Abstract: The object of philosophical research is artificial intelligence. The subject of the study covers the impact of the development of artificial intelligence on a person, on the formation and change of ideas about a person, his nature and essence. But in the study, the emphasis is on the contradictoriness of this impact. The philosophical and anthropological analysis of artificial intelligence is focused on understanding the impact of this technology through the phenomenon of man, human existence and his experience. The article is an attempt to study the problem from different positions, including the question of how to ensure control over the growing "consumption" of artificial intelligence in a variety of ways, as well as what can affect the development of a person himself and how current trends contribute to change or create social and cultural norms, such as the ideas of "roboethics" and ethical responsibility in the creation and use of intelligent machines. The presence of fragmented or insufficiently complete coverage in the study of the presented topic in the works of researchers allows us to set the task of formulating the problem and studying it. It is the need for a comprehensive study that is the idea that initiated this work, which boils down to an attempt to conduct a philosophical and anthropological analysis, identify the shortcomings of the existing situation and determine the prospects. From this position, in the process of research, no materials were found that consider the problem comprehensively, and on the other hand, combine the task of identifying the causes and foundations of these contradictions in order to analyze them from the standpoint of philosophical anthropology, which determines the novelty of the study.
Philosophy of technology
Vetrov V.A. - Sociohumanitarian issues of preconception genetic screening programs pp. 124-137

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2023.10.44164

EDN: NISNCT

Abstract: Preconception genetic testing for carriage of recessive mutations is an important genetic test that allows for better planning of the method of conception (natural or IVF), the course of pregnancy, and the need for additional screening of the developing fetus. Despite the obvious benefits that ECS brings to public health, uncertainty about issues and concepts such as determining disease severity, the social consequences of routine screening, and target setting create ethical controversies in defining conditions appropriate for inclusion in a screening panel. The development of a large-scale screening program exacerbates uncertainties and requires methodological elaboration. The author identifies and reviews problem areas of pre-conceptual genetic carrier testing not from the side of ethical implications, specific (or perceived) cases, but looks for their source in the underdevelopment of basic concepts and intuitions in assessing the severity of genetic disease. Analytical and empirical tools in this situation appear to be insufficient. The author concludes that a satisfactory consensus can be reached only with the participation of socio-humanitarian scientists in its development, including epistemological, existential, sociological and other humanitarian dimensions in the analysis. Sociohumanitarian expertise is a necessary element for finding a systematic solution for pre-conceptual genetic screening programs.
Monograph peer reviews
Ilinskaya S., Sirina E.A. - Different logics of social and political analysis pp. 138-151

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2023.10.68757

EDN: NXENWU

Abstract: The article is a detailed consideration of the poststructuralist concept, which is developed in the work "Logic of Critical Explanation in Social and Political Theory" by D. Glinos and D. Howarth, and will arouse the interest of all those engaged in discursive research. In the work of professors of the University of Essex, the forces of social and political philosophy carried out a deep study of the discursive paradigm, first conceptually outlined in the work of S. Mouff and E. Laclo "Hegemony and socialist strategy", which has not yet been translated into Russian. The "new ontology" proposed by Mouff and Laclos became the basis for the original scientific school. The reviewed monograph is presented as a new round of development of this research direction. Based on the ontological attitudes of the discursive paradigm, Glinos and Howarth propose a postpositivist model of social sciences based on abduction, a problem-oriented approach (problematization), the need to take into account both the "hermeneutic" and "materialistic" components, both the objective and subjective sides of the social. The schemes they form for socio-political analysis seem analytically valuable. Of course, there are alternatives to them, but one of the key consequences of the discursive paradigm is the installation not on the competition of ontic approaches, but on their unification, since it is important to rely on what one or another approach brings to social knowledge, and not what it contradicts to another approach.
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