Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 09/2022
Contents of Issue 09/2022
Question at hand
Yangutov L. - The concept of emptiness in the Prajnaparamite tradition pp. 1-10



Abstract: The article deals with the central concept of Prajnaparamite philosophy the concept of emptiness. The analysis of the understanding of this concept in the scientific literature is given, the difficulties of understanding it are indicated. Nagarjuna's explanations of the doctrine of emptiness are considered in the context of the Prajnaparamite theory of the middle. Much attention is paid to the difficulties of understanding emptiness in China during the formation of Buddhism in this country. The variants of understanding the concept of emptiness presented in the teachings of the "six schools and seven directions" (Liu jia qi zong) are considered. The interpretation of the understanding of emptiness in the writings of Seng Zhao and Kumarajiva is shown. The translation of the text of the Hridaya Sutra is presented, in which the definition of the concept of emptiness is given in a concise form. The object of the study is the philosophy of Prajnaparamita. The subject of the study is the interpretation of the concept of emptiness in the Prajnaparamite tradition. The scientific novelty of the article lies in the fact that it presents different points of view on the understanding of the concept of emptiness, both in the scientific literature and in the Buddhist tradition of India, Tibet and China. The main conclusion of the article is that the reason for the different interpretation of emptiness lies in the semantic features of the term "emptiness" which implies absolute negation. Therefore, there was a need to justify the fact that the negation is followed by a statement, the emptiness hides the true being. The next difficulty was the question of what truly exists. The search for the true essence of this being is especially clearly traced to the Chinese tradition.
Social philosophy
Petrov P.A. - Sociocultural aspect of "unifying" and "traditional" value systems in the context of globalization. pp. 11-17



Abstract: The article analyzes the conflict between global and local socio-cultural systems on the example of the confrontation between fundamentalism and traditionalism in Islam. Religious fundamentalism in the form of Islamism inevitably accompanies the processes of globalization (A. I. Fursov, I. V. Fedyai, A. A. Kuznetsov). The conceptual interpretations of Islamic fundamentalism are investigated as a reaction to the pressure of global forces, when radicalism is considered as a response to Western neoliberalism (S. A. Batchikov), and as a form of modernization of Islamic fundamentalism capable of opposing traditional structures. Based on these interpretations, the conflict between fundamentalism and traditionalism in Islam is analyzed. Questions are raised about whether Islamism is a tool of "globalizers" and a form of mobilization of Muslims to destroy traditional systems, or fundamentalism should be understood as a means of preserving Muslim identity under global pressure. Conclusions of the study: 1. The conflict between traditionalism and fundamentalism in Islam is an example of a worldwide conflict between "global" and "local" systems. 2. The assessment of the role of Islamism in the modern globalizing world is ambiguous: on the one hand, fundamentalism has really become a response to the global processes of Westernization and unification, on the other hand, its role as a mechanism for ensuring the cultural identity of Muslims and an alternative to the Western civilizational model does not correspond to reality. 3. Fundamentalism in its opposition to traditional Islam is aimed at destroying its cultural and historical heritage and ultimately leads to destabilization in the Muslim world, to the destruction of historical Muslim statehood and culture. 4. Fundamentalism is transformed into anti-traditionalism, which carries the ideas of religious postmodernism, but in reality it has an archaic content and is used in this way by supranational structures to implement the project of a controlled universalist world order.
Ginatulina O.A. - The Social Existence of the Archive in the Light of the Challenges of Modern Society pp. 18-24



Abstract: The subject of this research is the socio-ontological foundation of the archive as a social institution in modern society. The purpose of the article is to study the challenges of modern society that affect the activities of the archive in connection with the interformational transition to a postindustrial society. The methodology used was a concrete universal theory of the development of the historical process, based on the modern scientific form of dialectics. The archive acquires the relevance of preserving mnemic images of society in connection with radical transformations in society. The information society, opening up new perspectives, does not always facilitate the process of preserving information, but on the contrary introduces new threats. In this regard, the role of the archive as a guarantor of objective truth is greatly increasing. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that the objective laws of the functioning of historical memory and the role of the archive in this regard are shown. The significance of the archive as a social institution lies in the fact that it is able to manifest the objective basis of history in the collective consciousness. The less the mnemic images differ from the social being, the more effectively society as a whole will function. Also, the archive should become one of the links in carrying out a "historical policy" aimed at preserving the mnemic images of society, capable of fighting back in a consentient war that destabilizes the population by distorting the historical memory of the people.
Philosophy of liberty
Mamarasulov A.R. - Problems of Definition of Freedom Through the Concept of Responsibility pp. 25-43



Abstract: The subject of the study is the cognitive relationship between the concept of responsibility and the idea of freedom. The objects of research are the philosophical categories of responsibility and freedom. The author examines in detail such aspects of the topic as the epistemological disparity of these categories, the difference in their specificity as concepts, as well as the features of responsibility and freedom in the role of effective phenomena. Particular attention is paid to the problem of the possibility of defining or objectifying freedom through the concept of responsibility in those areas where such interaction is most evident, namely: at the intellectual, metaphysical, social levels and in the field of personal being. The main conclusion of the study is: responsibility is a psychological modification of the category of necessity, which returns to the classical antinomy "necessity-freedom" and does not allow making responsibility an epistemological correlate of freedom. This theoretical conclusion is supported by an analysis of the effect of responsibility on freedom in all spheres of human existence considered in the study, where responsibility does not define freedom, but, on the contrary, levels it. The main contribution of the author to the study is that responsibility is considered not as a moral category, but as a structural phenomenon defined through the concept of "whole". The novelty of the research lies in the author's attempt, being in the field of ethics, to separate responsibility and freedom as essentially different and not having a linear cognitive connection concepts.
Philosophical anthropology
Kannykin S.V. - Cultural Content of Personality-building Running Practices pp. 44-63



Abstract: In the evolution of homo sapiens, running acquires the character of an activity, that is, it assumes both a derivative of reflexivity and participation in its implementation in order to transform both the subject and the environment of his existence. Thus, running acquires cultural significance, the clarification of which is the purpose of this work. To achieve it, the question is raised about the personality-creating resources of running practices, about their contribution to the formation of consciousness and phenomena derived from its activity, for example, will, endurance, meditative states. The features of these resources expressing the metaphysical components of the human "I" are also revealed. The personal need for running activity has the following dimensions: ontological (the choice of running locomotion as a response to the "motor call" of being); anthropological (the realization of a specific hereditary predisposition that bases many elements of culture); psychological (achieving maximum sensations from extreme motor actions) and socio-cultural (participation in a variety of social practices). Systematic running activity develops the ability for long-term endurance, the general cultural significance of which lies in the fact that runners find practically effective and in many ways universal ways of value-semantic motivation to carry out activities that have a lack of motivation. Highly automated running action becomes a way of reproducing a specific ability to dynamic meditation, that is, it creates its own subject and participates in the development of physical culture of the individual, and the formation of the ability ("motor professionalism") to such running is one of the directions of the educational process. The subject-subject orientation of meditative running action means directing efforts towards the implementation of personal activity associated with the support of the "substance" of subjectivity ‒ social, where only the possibility of reflexive human existence is provided. The marker of the social "load" of running motor action, in addition to highly automated and the production of specific structures of consciousness, is its moral component, which is especially pronounced in competitive practices and running events.
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