Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 05/2021
Contents of Issue 05/2021
History of ideas and teachings
Rozhin D. - Critical perception of V. D. Kudryavtsev-Platonov of the doctrine on the categories and fundamentals of I. Kants pure reason pp. 1-18


Abstract: The subject of this research is the reception of the doctrine on the categories and fundamentals of I. Kant’s pure reason in of V. D. Kudryavtsev-Platonov’s teaching on cognition (later referred to as Kudryavtsev). The reception of Kant’s doctrine in Kudryavtsev's philosophy, despite the wide array of literature dedicated to the perception of Kant's ideas in religious-academic philosophy, yet has not been the subject of in-depth historical-philosophical analysis. This defined the goal of this research – establish the degree of Kudryavtsev's understanding of the doctrine on the categories and fundamentals of Kant's pure reason, as well as reveal the nature of reception of this doctrine in Kudryavtsev's philosophy. The scientific consists in introduction of the previously unpublished Kudryavtsev’s manuscript dedicated to the philosophy of Kant. The result consists in the position, according to which Kudryavtsev interpreted Kant's doctrine on the categories and fundamentals of pure reason in the three aspects: 1) the Russian philosopher familiarizes with Kant's theory; 2) he criticizes Kant's doctrine from the perspective of gnoseological realism, focusing particularly on the transcendental deduction of pure categories; 3) Kudryavtsev gives a positive assessment to Kant's apriorism and actively uses it in his own philosophical constructs. It is claimed that the phenomenon of Kudryavtsev's “critical perception” of the doctrine on the categories and fundamentals of Kant's pure reason testifies to not only critical attitude towards the German philosopher, but also that Kantian gnoseological ideas were actively used by Kudryavtsev for solution of his own philosophical tasks.
Question at hand
Lyubokhonskaya O.V. - Socrates and Lao Tzu: philosophy and Sophiphilia pp. 19-32


Abstract: This article discusses the problem of the lost meaning of the philosophy, which emerged as a result of its “technematization” in modern world. The question of “What is philosophy?” is being raised again. The author refers to the two key representatives of philosophical thought of the ancient West and East: Socrates and Lao Tzu, using the comparative approach and considering the category of Tao in the contrast to the main categories of ancient Greek philosophy: being, truth, logos, and action. Reconstruction of the teachings of Socrates and Lao Tzu contributes to the disclosure of philosophy through the four crucial aspects: ontological, gnoseological, anthropological, and ethical. The explanation of these aspects or dimensions of the philosophy gives the key to its initial meaning. The author concludes on the borderline and specificity between “wisdom” and “discretion”, where the latter is the primary foundation of the existence of philosophy. The philosophy itself is viewed as a being and process of cognition, directed not only to the outwards, which is characteristic to the Western European tradition overall, but also to within, which is typical to the Eastern thought. The disclosure of the structure of philosophy indicated the need for coming back to its basic meaning through the ethical dominant, which was initially embedded in the concepts of “wisdom” and “love”. The author introduces a peculiar term of “Sophiphilia”, which corresponds to the level of “discretion” as a pre-philosophical field of existence.
The new paradigm of science
Rozin V.M. - Use of the concepts of" Tektology by A. Bogdanov in the works of the architect A. V. Rosenberg (characteristics of the methodological stage of establishment of design in Russia) pp. 33-45


Abstract: This article consists of three parts: the first discusses the role of methodology in establishment of the discipline (practice) and its further functioning; the second analyzes the work of A. Bogdanov “Tektology”; and the third explores the use of its means in the establishment of design in the early XX century. The author distinguishes the two basic functions of methodology: the stage of establishment marks criticism and analysis of unsatisfactory ways of thinking, while the stage of functioning of the newly established activity implies its methodological support. The analysis of “Tektology” allowed determining the our main interpretations: as general organizational science, distinct mathematics, practice, and private methodology. In this regard, the author reviews several meanings of the concept of organization, as well as similarity of the concept of organization with the concept of activity. Besides the organizational approach, the article also discusses the systemic approach. In the third part of the article offers the reconstruction of the works of Aleksandr Rosenberg, which indicates that a number of provisions of the establishing design (for example, the principle of “compliance” and “optimality”) were formulated based on the means of Bogdanov's “Tektology”. In conclusion, the article discussed the reasons why the organizational concepts were eliminated from design, while the systemic ones remain.
Social philosophy
Pakhar L.I. - Alienation: current state and development prospects of the society pp. 46-61


Abstract: The subject of this article is the phenomenon of alienation, which can be interpreted not only from the perspective of interrelation between labor and its outcome, but also in a much broader context. In social theory, the problem of alienation is one of the key in understanding of the mechanism of social development process. Social contradictions manifest through the processes of alienation; and vice versa, contradictions become apparent through the processes of alienation. This article traces the evolution of separate forms of alienation in historical retrospect. An attempt is made to determine the current state of the existing forms of economic, political, social and spiritual alienation in the Western and Russian societies. The author suggests the possible ways to overcome them. The novelty of this work lies in the author's attempt to examine the processes unfolding in modern world as a reflection of the processes of alienation and their modifications. The conclusion is made that if the contradictions are the source of development, the task of government representatives is to take control, manage and mitigate the internal processes of alienation in the society. With the advent of postindustrial era, the globalization processes altered the liberal model of social development. We can witness that capitalism ceases to be a formation that ensures progressive development. Humanity enters a transitional period of its history, similar to the Renaissance Era. Examination of the processes of alienation in the society would contribute to the proper response to challenges of the time.
Rusakov S.S. - The concept of subject and subjectivation in the philosophy of Spinoza: interpretation of G. Deleuze pp. 62-71


Abstract: This article explores the concept of subject in the works of Baruch Spinoza. The peculiarity of this research lies in the juxtaposition of the Cartesian concept of subject and the concept of subjectivation, which was developed in M. Foucault’s works of later period The goal is to disclose the specificity of the concept of subject in the works of Spinoza, formulate the key definitions used for revealing this topic, and to conduct a comparative analysis with the concept of subject of R. Descartes. The author examines such aspects of Spinozism as the interrelation between the higher subject and the mode of being, the concept of individuality and affects in interpretation of G. Deleuze, etc. The novelty of this research consists in providing a comprehensive analysis of some provisions of Spinoza's doctrine concerning the basic aspects of the concept of subject, as well as in determination of the crucial elements of the concept of subjectivation. The author concludes that Spinozism has shifted significantly from the Cartesian tradition. The first difference from Descartes lies in the ontological attitude of the Dutch philosopher, according to which a human can be viewed as a subject, not as a substance, but as a mode only. The second difference lies in introduction of the principle of dynamism, according to which the individual mode can have greater or lesser perfection, which could not comply with the permanence of Cartesian cogito.
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