Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue є 04/2021
Contents of Issue є 04/2021
Spectrum of consciousness
Binhi V. - D. ChalmersТ argument from logical supervenience in explanation of the phenomenal consciousness pp. 1-10


Abstract: The subject of this research is D. Chalmers’ argument in explanation of the phenomenal consciousness –sentience or qualia – explanation on the basis of dualism of the low-level physical and high-level mental propertoes of the brain. The dualism of properties in the philosophy of consciousness means that consciousness is a high-level property, supervenient on the physical properties of the brain. Chalmers introduces the concept of logical supervenience and explains the phenomenal consciousness by the fact that psychical properties are supervenient on physical properties naturally, rather than logically. This comprises the essence of Chalmers' concept of naturalistic dualism. The article reviews the concept of supervenience in most commonly used form, and the definition of logical and natural supervenience. Supervenience becomes logical and/or natural due to the fact that its definition includes the modal term “possibility”, which concedes different interpretations: possibility by virtue of the laws of nature – nomic possibility, and logical possibility. The author demonstrates that the definition of logical supervenience, which leans on the concept of identity, makes sense only in the context of transtemporal, rather than transworld identity. Such circumstance substantially changes the meaning of the definition of logical supervenience. The novelty of this work consists in showing that unlike the logical and natural possibilities, logical and natural supervenience are different names for the same type of relationship. The conclusion is formulated that naturalistic dualism, which claims their fundamental difference, cannot explain the phenomenal consciousness using this distinction.
Methodology of philosophical learning
Shiller A. - The role of the emotions of guilt and shame in methodology of research on social emotions pp. 11-25


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the role of guilt and shame, namely to prevalence one of these emotions in a particular culture as the leading mechanism of social control. The prevalence of guilt or shame as a cultural “dimension” has become one of the first criteria for the division of cultures into Western and Eastern, and was used by the researchers as a basic postulate for cross-cultural r. Over time, the perception of emotions as the criterion for the division of cultures has been revised. The article traces the history of research on emotions in general, namely the emotions of guilt and shame as social emotions, as well as describes guilt and shame as collective and individual experiences. Analysis is conducted on the role of guilt and shame in methodology of research on social emotions, cross-cultural studies. The author outlines certain methodological problems and contradictions, and assesses the current state of scientific research dedicated to social emotions. The conclusion is made that the research on collective sense of guilt and shame is more advanced from the perspective of cross-cultural psychology and philosophy, as well as the overall methodology of science; it allows shifting from the study of the role of individual emotions in interpersonal (conditioned by collective ties), intergroup and intragroup communication towards the integrated study of emotions associated with interaction of the individual and society, i.e. social experiences.
The torment of communication
Nikitinskaya A.A. - The phenomenon of social networks as an instrument for the dialogue between the authorities and society (on the example of Severodvinsk) pp. 26-35


Abstract: This article explores the communication process between the authorities and society via social networks on the example of the municipality of Severodvinsk. Online platforms have become the main source of communication between the government authorities and citizens since 2017. The recently appointed head of the city selected an effective strategy for establishing dialogue with the population; he chose a popular communication channel, published comprehensible texts, and demonstrated quick response to the citizens’ requests. However, having made wrong decisions, from the perspective of the city residents, the administration and the mayor faced a lot of negativity and limited communication in the social networks. The goal of this research is to determine conditions for using social networks as the main communication channel in building dialogue between the government and society on the example of the municipality of Severodvinsk due to the fact that in the course of implementing information policy, it demonstrated two different models of using social networks. The object of this article is the profile page of the administration of Severodvinsk in the social network “Vkontakte”. The subject is the communication process of the municipal authorities in social networks. The conclusion is made that the administration should take into account the specificity of social networks, such as openness in expressing emotions by the citizens; it is necessary to learn working with online platforms, separate work criticism from personal criticism, and establish the dialogue based on the rule of two-way communication, which implies not only sharing information, but also perceiving the feedback.
History of ideas and teachings
Gorokhov P.A., Yuzhaninova E.R. - The phenomenon of evil in the philosophical concepts of the European Middle Ages pp. 36-54


Abstract: The object of this research is the heritage of the leading representatives of Medieval philosophy, while the subject is the philosophical ideas of the prominent representatives of Patristic and Scholastic philosophy upon the nature of evil. The goal of this work lies in giving holistic assessment to the philosophical ideas on the phenomenon of evil in the Middle Ages, and is achieved by solving the following tasks: 1) assessment of the concept of “the first sin” as the foundation for understanding the phenomenon of evil in Medieval philosophy; 2) determination of the genesis of philosophical ideas of the Middle Ages pertaining to the nature of evil in the logical-historical aspect; 3) description of the impact of such ideas upon further development of the Western European philosophy. The scientific novelty consists in comprehensive examination of the Medieval philosophical concepts dedicated to the phenomenon of evil. In Christianity, evil is viewed as essentially historical phenomenon, stemming from the event of the first sin and being conquered by the will of God. Medieval philosophers underlined the need for determining the ontology of evil, which is called to answer the question on the nature of evil and the role of evil in the universe. Medieval philosophers were also concerned with the problem of Theodicy, i.e. why a good God permits the manifestation of evil. The representatives of Patristic and Scholastic philosophy reasoned over the moral aspect in interpretation of evil, trying to correlate the phenomenon of evil with the free will of a human. The ideas of evil as the absence of good prevailed in the Christian philosophy, which viewed the phenomenon of evil as opposite to being, nothingness. Medieval concepts on the phenomenon of evil had a considerable spiritual and sociocultural impact upon the views of the leading representatives of German idealism, who have embraced not so much the assuredness of Medieval Christian philosophers that evil is the absence of good, but the idea on the equality of good and evil as the fundamentals of the universe and the components of human nature.
Social philosophy
Przhilenskaia I. - The concept of labor in socio-philosophical discourse of the XIX Ц XX centuries pp. 55-65


Abstract: This article reviews labor as the socio-philosophical category. Despite certain episodes in history of the antique and medieval philosophical thought, the socio-philosophical understanding of labor as a special phenomenon that characterizes personal and collective life begins in the second half of the XVIII century and gains relevance by the XIX and XX centuries. From this stage up to the present day can be outlined the two main themes of social philosophy directly associated with the concept of labor: the theme of freedom and the theme of justice. Methodologically, both of them are cross-disciplinary from the perspective of editorial classification and categorization of philosophical knowledge: the topic of freedom is developed within the subject-conceptual framework of philosophical anthropology, while the topic of justice also belongs to the sphere of ethical thought. The scientific novelty consists in the analysis of labor through the prism of a philosophical reference to the concepts of freedom and justice. In the context of humanistic discourse, these categories are reflected in the philosophy of culture, political philosophy, philosophy of economics, and philosophy of law, which allows viewing the phenomenon of labor not only in social, but also in anthropological, political, legal, cultural and other contexts. Having examined the ontological questions of labor, the author concludes that the philosophy of labor aims to resolve such key questions as the concept of labor, its purpose for the individual and the society, cultural and ethical principles of labor, and correlation between the concepts labor and freedom.
Belomytsev A. - Conceptualization of the phenomenon of social destructiveness from the perspective of archaization theory within the Russian socio-philosophical discourse pp. 66-76


Abstract: The subject of this article is the attempts of the Russian researchers to interpret the destructive processes in modern Russian society through the prism of development of archaization theory. Due to the lack of semantic definiteness, the concept of social archaization is often attributed to similar ones, such as “traditionalism”, “barbarization”, “patriarchalization”, “New Middle Ages", etc. The diversity of existing approaches substantiates the need to determine a certain theoretical core, which would become the foundation for further hypotheses. Special attention is given to problem of absence of a unified approach towards the definition of archaizing processes, as well as to the need for clarification and further functionality of the concept of social archaization. The novelty of this research consists in the critical overview and determination of flaws in the existing concepts of social archaization. It is demonstrated that the relevant findings of the Russian researchers do not always explain the origin of destructive processes in the Russian society. The effective practical solution to complications related to the phenomenon of social destruction is yet to be developed. The author proposes an alternative approach towards determination of the causes of archaization of the Russian society at the current stage; outlines the promising ways of reflection on archaizing trends; as well as formulates a refined definition of archaization of the modern society. The acquired results aim to lay theoretical foundation for further development and implementation of measures on overcoming destructive consequences of social archaicism.
Self-consciousness and identity
Pilyak S.A. - Transformation of the concept of Identity in the context of interpretation of cultural heritage pp. 77-85


Abstract: The concept of identity in the the era of fundamental rearrangement of the cultural and national map of Europe in the XIX – XX centuries. The threat of losing the identity of entire states, separate regions, and local communities, actualizes the value of cultural specificity and view of identity as a special concept. Regional identity associated with the cultural and natural heritage of a particular region remains most common. Identity alongside cultural heritage overall, is singled out as a special category only in case of its loss. The formation of the concept was related to the process of fundamental rearrangement of the cultural and national map of Europe in during the large-scale socioeconomic processes of the XIX – XX centuries. A sense of losing cultural bonds of the people, region, or local community aroused scientific realization of the value of identity. Determination and translation of regional identity is one of the pivotal stages in socioeconomic development of the regions and formation of attractive image of the territory. Moreover, the professional, age, gender and other types of identity can be distinguished in accordance with unifying characteristics. In light of the aforementioned facts, the author proposes to view the principle of identity as a peculiarity of interpretation of the cultural heritage.
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