Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 11/2020
Contents of Issue 11/2020
History of ideas and teachings
Urbanaeva I.S. - Nāgārjuna and his Mūlamadhyamakakārikā in light of Je Tsongkhapa Great Commentary to this text pp. 1-14


Abstract: The subject of this article is meaning of the work “Ocean of Reasoning : a Great Commentary on the Nāgārjuna's Mūlamadhyamakakārikā” by Je Tsongkhapa for understanding the phenomenon of Nāgārjuna, his contribution to the development of the history of Buddhism overall and Buddhist philosophy in particular, essence of the explained by hum system of Madhyamaka – middle way, free from the extremes of reification and nihilism. The author establishes that false interpretations of Mūlamadhyamakakārikā as just logical-epistemological text and a guide for polemicizing, as well as such an improper understanding of the ontology of Nāgārjuna, when the doctrine of dependent origination is proclaimed higher teaching of the Buddha, can be overcome through the commentary of Je Tsongkhapa. The novelty of this study is defined by the fact that it involves original text of Tsongkhapa, which is translated into the Russian language for the first time, as well as introduced into the discourse on national Buddhology. Due the commentary of Tsongkhapa, it is established that the doctrine of emptiness is the “heart of teaching of the Buddha”, and the argument on the dependent origination is “superior to all arguments”, as it helps to cognize emptiness as the “dependently emerging suchness”. The doctrine of dependent origination and the view of emptiness comprise a semantic unity, although they are not identical. Therefore, translation from the Tibetan language and examination of the writings of Je Tsongkhapa, namely “A Great Commentary”, are relevant and essential for reconstruction of the authentic teaching of Nāgārjuna, as well as overall comprehension of Buddhist philosophy.
Dzhokhadze I.D. - Cognition, recognition, and the game of interchange of arguments pp. 15-29


Abstract: This article examines the key provisions of philosophical concept of the American pragmatist, representative of Pittsburgh School Robert Brandom, described in the commentaries to Hegel’s “Phenomenology of Spirit” (published in separate volume in 2019). It is demonstrated that rational reconstruction of Hegel's philosophy's conducted by Brandom was intended to revive the legacy of the classic, taking into account peculiarities and trends of development of the modern analytical philosophy. The specificity of Hegelian approach towards the analysis of experience of human consciousness, Brandom traces in “hypostasization of the conceptual” and gradual separation from all kinds of idealistic antirealist doctrines that contrapose being-for-consciousness-in-itself to being of things and “disengage” the subject of cognition from objects of the world. Brandom claims that reality itself, things in themselves, is conceptually articulated, and thus cognizable. The author reveals the theoretical-methodological difference between Hegel's interpretation of normativity (“recognitive model”) and Kant's subjectivist approach: according to Kant, institutionalization of the normative status is exhausted by the gesture of accepting such as an autonomous subject; in Hegel’s opinion, the essential condition for founding the status is, as interpreted by Brandom, socio-communicative mediation (“assignment” of status to the subject by his interlocutors, as well as recognition of his assertions by interagents and audience). The article reviews Brandom's arguments against the reduction of Hegelian master – slave dialectic to the inner conflict of individual self-consciousness (position of J. McDowell). The conclusion is made that “re-description” of Hegel conducted by the American philosopher is of radically anachronistic nature, and sheds light on the views of author of the commentaries (primarily his semantic pragmatism and holism), but not on the content of work he provides commentaries to.
Rossius I. - Emilio Betti: from the history of law to the general theory of interpretation pp. 30-44


Abstract: The goal of this article consists in demonstration of the impact of research in the field of history and theory of law alongside the hermeneutics of Emilio Betti impacted the vector of this philosophical thought. The subject of this article is the lectures read by Emilio Betti (prolusioni) in 1927 and 1948, as well as his writings of 1949 and 1962. Analysis is conducted on the succession of Betti's ideas in these works, which is traced despite the discrepancy in their theme (legal and philosophical). The author indicates “legal” origin of the canons of Bettis’ hermeneutics, namely the canon of autonomy of the object. Emphasis is placed on the problem of objectivity in Betti's theory, as well as on dialectical tension between the historicity of the interpreted subject and strangeness of the object that accompanies legal, as well as any other type of interpretation. The article reveals the key moment of Betti's criticism of Hans-Georg Gadamer. Regarding the question of historicity of the subject of interpretation. The conclusion is made that the origin of the general theory of interpretation lies in the approaches and methods developed and implemented by Betti back in legal hermeneutics and in studying history of law.   Betti's philosophical theory was significantly affected by the idea on the role of modern legal dogma in interpretation of the history of law. Namely this idea that contains the principle of historicity of the subject of interpretation, which commenced  the general hermeneutical theory of Emilio Betti, was realized in canon of the relevance of understanding in the lecture in 1948, and later in the “general theory of interpretation”. The author also underlines that the question of objectivity of understanding, which has crucial practical importance in legal hermeneutics, was transmitted into the philosophical works of E. Betti, finding reflection in dialectic of the subject and object of interpretation.
Political philosophy
Grachev B. - Eurasian Economic Union is an international organization or multidimensional institution. Ontological discrepancies and political consequences pp. 45-54


Abstract: The subject of this research is the ontological nature of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU). An attempt is made to determine the conceptual philosophical-political characteristics of this organization in the light of particular and universalistic approaches. The author examines and describes the impact of ontological characteristic upon the process of formation and functionality of the international organization and multilateral institution. In future, the dual nature of EAEU can carry political and practical consequences for the Eurasian integration – the question of expectations and outcome from its participation in the indicated integration project, degree and nature of influence upon the domestic policy of EAEU member-states may arise sooner or later. The author's special contribution consists in formulation of the problem of long-term existence of the Eurasian Economic Union from perspective of identification of its ontological characteristics. For achieving success in this regard, integration must represent a universalistic paradigm founded on the principle of pan-unity (universality), when any integration structure is a part of infinite whole, the Universe, endued with the basic characteristics and patterns, and interconnected with all other parts. However, if integration wends the path of particularism, it would be founded on the positivistic methodology, which in turn, considers “external realities” and their structures as measurable. Each participant of the integration would seek to comply with the own national interest, which first and foremost is aimed at preservation of national sovereignty. In this regard, the term “international organization” no longer reflects the nature of such integration structure to the fullest, and thus it can be referred to as “multilateral institution”.
National character and mentality
Kravchenko E. - Mediterranean Studies in the modern socio-humanistic knowledge pp. 55-63


Abstract: Sociocultural processes, political situation and cultural contacts in the Mediterranean countries substantiate the relevance of development of the humanities section in Mediterranean Studies. The author discusses the problem on the advancement of Mediterranean Studies in Russia and abroad, as well as indicates the key questions faced by the scholars of Mediterranean Studies at the initial stage of analytical work. The object of this research is the establishment methodological framework of Mediterranean Studies in the sphere of humanities. The subject is the concepts of prominent theoreticians in the field of Mediterranean studies (D. Abulafia, R. Clement, S. Stroumsa, N. Bouchard, F. Braudel, H. Pirenne). The goal consists in determination of the relevant problems and approaches toward studying the Mediterranean Region. Due to the fact that in the Russian Science close attention is given to natural scientific vector of Mediterranean Studies, there are virtually no research on the development of Mediterranean Studies in the sphere of humanities, and namely culturology, which defines the scientific novelty of this work. The main conclusion consists in the analytical overview of the state of Mediterranean Studies in Russia, as well as in explication of foreign theories that reveal the concept of the “Mediterranean” and approaches towards its examination. This work can attract the attention of translators to the research bases of foreign centers of the Mediterranean Studies, contribute to scientific communication, as well as designate the topic for international research projects in the area of culturology, history, and international relations in Russia.
Philosophy of religion
Solopov O.V. - Raja yoga within the system of religious-ethical philosophy Of M. V. Lodyzhensky pp. 64-90


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the characteristics of the doctrine of Raja yoga in interpretation Of M. V. Lodyzhensky. The goal consists in the analysis and reconstruction of the system of Raja yoga within the religious-ethical philosophy of the thinker. In the course of this research, the author resolves a number of problems: examines the system of primary elements of religious-ethical philosophy of M. V. Lodyzhensky; analyzes the sources that affected the formation of views of the philosopher upon Raja yoga; reveals main characteristics of the system of Raja yoga within Lodyzhensky’s philosophy; determines the peculiarities of religious-mystical practice of Raja yoga in the philosophy of M. V. Lodyzhensky; defines the role of Raja-yoga within the system of religious-ethical philosophy of the thinker. The novelty lies in determination of the novel in comparison to the existing in scientific literature categories of M. V. Lodyzhensky’s philosophy and their analysis in the context of system of fundamental sections of philosophical knowledge (ontology, theology, anthropology, epistemology, axiology, ethics); as well as in comprehensive study of the system of Raja yoga in interpretation Of M. V. Lodyzhensky and determination of its role within the structure of his philosophy. It is established that the “core” of the system of religious-ethical philosophy of M. V. Lodyzhensky is the ethics develop ethics and axiology of Hesychasm developed by him. It is proven that the system of metaphysical categories and ideas of the thinker is of synthetic nature and leans on various cultural trends and traditions. The article demonstrates that special role within the system of Lodyzhensky’s philosophy is played by the apologetics of Hesychasm that implies critical review of the non-Christian mystical practices, among which is the examination of Raja yoga. The author underlines the uniqueness of interpretation of Raja yoga in the philosophy M. V. Lodyzhensky, as well as provides critical assessment to his interpretation of the system of Raja yoga.
Prokofyev A.V. - Transformation of representations on the normative content of morality in moral philosophy of the Early Modern Age pp. 91-107


Abstract: The object of this research is the philosophical representations on the normative content of morality in their historical dynamics. Unlike its formal and functional characteristics that include objectivity, universality, priority with regards to other regulators of human behavior, the content of morality implies the general requirements and criteria for approval that form the image of a morally perfect individual and set the parameters of morally appropriate behavior. Although on the level of utmost generalizations, Western European idea of morality retains the normative content typical to the Judeo-Christian tradition; its instantiation constantly varies. The goal of this work consists in tracing the changes of such instantiation occurred in Western moral philosophy of the XVI – XVIII centuries (Early Modern Age). The indicated historical process is the subject of analysis. Research methodology suggests determination of the long-term trends in the history of normative ethics and their correlation with the socio-historical context. The analysis of sources on the topic demonstrates that understanding of ethical requirements and criteria for approval in understanding of moral philosophers of the Early Modern Age have experienced the following fundamental changes: 1)  displacement to periphery of the morality of responsibilities of moral figure before himself, 2) transition towards understanding of the good of other person through the prism of his wellbeing and opportunities for unhindered personal fulfillment, 3) emergence of correlation between responsibilities to other person and regards of his individual rights. In relation to the latter change, the three factors had crucial significance:  advancement of the idea of religious tolerance beyond the religious wars, countering the paternalistic custody by absolutist regimes, as well as the development of universal empathy based on the new forms of description of inner experience of a human. Although some conclusions acquired in evolution of the ideas of recent decades contradict to the explanation of the process of implementation of the individual rights into the moral legal discourse, which relies on the aforementioned three factors, it remains most promising according to the author.
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