- 12 2018 - , - ISSN: 2409-8728 - NotaBene
Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 12/2018
Contents of Issue 12/2018
Social philosophy
Minnullina E.B. - Communicative aspects of social time pp. 1-9


Abstract: The subject of this research is the communicatively substantiated social continuance. Particular attention is given to the reversible and irreversible processes of social development associated with the transformation of communicative environment. The author carefully examines the link between social time and communication processes; temporality of socio-communicative space in synchronic and diachronic aspects; time peculiarities of communication as a system on one hand, and as an action – on the other; as well as reversible and irreversible processes common to the communicatively mediated social interaction. The article conducts a phenomenological analysis of social communication, considering a number of positions from synergetics, concepts of the time of G. Deleuze and plural temporality of I. Wallerstein and F. Braudel. The conclusion is made that communication represents a temporal synthesis of social events, when in terms of the communicative maximum, the historical diachrony “reverts” to synchrony. The author underlines that communication temporally correlates the social events, arranging the order (syntagma); the individual’s interpretation of the past and the future defines the image of the social present.
Philosophy of science
Voronina N., Tkachev A. - Worldview prerequisites of the successful functioning of Galisons trading zones pp. 10-17


Abstract: He subject of this research is the impact of worldview representations in “trading zones” proposed by Peter Galison upon the development of interest in science and scientific communication. The authors determine the levels of formation of scientific interest, as well as reveals, that the representations in groups are the result of evident and latent concordance, where the latent plays the key role. The article considers the problem of successful and unsuccessful interaction in “trading zones”, and makes an attempt to identify the worldview nature of closeness and openness for the successful scientific cooperation. In the course of this work, the authors applied the general scientific methods along with the hermeneutic methodology for describing the worldview elements that affect the interest towards science. The scientific novelty lies in the suggestion to complement Christian List’s theory of judgment aggregation and Peter Galison’s concept of “trading zones” with consideration of the latent worldview elements that affect communication in the academic environment. At the same time, the authors determine certain specific worldview elements that influence the interest towards the scientific creativity and successful cooperation of scholars.
Platonov R.S. - Sociocultural aspect of Platos dialogue The Republic pp. 18-34


Abstract: The object of this research is Plato’s dialogue “The Republic”; the subject is the practical component of Plato’s ethical doctrine in form that it presented in this dialogue. The author sets the goal to determine the specificity of sociocultural practices generated by the moral theory of Plato; and for this purpose examines the practice of deception that is expressed in this dialogue in the most distinguish and gradual way. It is determined what type of problems are solved by Plato through the practice of deception, and what kind of problems it can lead to. Based on the analysis of application of the notion of “lie”, the author reconstructs the concept of deception in text of the dialogue “The Republic”. The scientific novelty lies in providing a holistic and structured reconstruction of the concept of deception in Plato’s ethical doctrine (dialogue “The Republic”) in its relation to the anthropological and ontological problematic. A conclusion is made that the designed by Plato arrangement order of the life of polis leads to sociocultural gaps between the three types of citizens, disintegration of polis; and such gaps must be overcome, according to Plato, by the practice of deception aimed at formation of certain worldview. However, gradual reconstruction of such practice described by Plato demonstrates that the problem of sociocultural gaps only enhances, and moreover – it leads to disruption of moral foundations of life of the polis.  
Maximov L.V. - Moral duty: the problem of substantiation pp. 35-45


Abstract: In modern meta-ethical literature, the analysis of various approaches towards rational substantiation of morality is one of the leading research trends. If in ethical thought of the past, the object of substantiation was manly the “ethical law” as a peculiar (metaphysical) essence, in meta-ethics it usually means the substantiation of ethical paradigms of the actual subjects of morality, in other words, foregrounding the arguments that can convince a certain nominal skeptically inclined individual to accept and adhere to the norms of morality established by society. In particular, the author notes an inappropriate substitution of reasoning with explanation, moral duty – with other modalities that are formally signified by the same term. The article uses the methods of logical-linguistic analysis applicable to such ethical and meta-ethical discourses that represent the different versions of substantiation of moral duty. The work demonstrates that it is namely intention of the duty, rather than its specific subject vector is the determinant attribute of moral motivation (because the subject content of moral norms and motives can be the object of both, moral duty and immoral incitements). Therefore, the fundamental impossibility of rational substantiation of such intention should be considered the theoretical disputes that touch upon the general problems of substantiation of morality.  
History of ideas and teachings
Marchukova E. - M. Heideggers thoughts on the medieval ontology: concept of time. Part I pp. 46-58


Abstract: Most recent publication of the lecture of Martin Heidegger “Augustinus: Quid est tempus? Confessiones lib. XI” (Gesamtausgabe. Bd. 80.1. Frankfurt a. M.: V. Klostermann, 2016. S. 429-456) served as a motive and fundamental material for this article. The lecture was delivered on October 26, 1930. In this lecture, Heidegger gradually analyzes the contemplations of St. Augustine about time, leaning on the content of the eleventh book of the Confessions. Major attention is this article is given to the conceptual aspects that relate to the Augustinian understanding of time, however, considering the accents and notes made by Heidegger regarding Augustine’s contemplations. The key method of research is the comparative analysis of St. Augustine’s and M. Heidegger’s ideas regarding the concept of time. The conducted analysis of Heidegger’s lecture is aimed not only at describing the conceptual aspects of Augustine’s contemplations about time, but also allows tracing Heidegger’s precise interpretation of St. Augustine, focus of his attention and final conclusions.
Philosophy of law
Faritov V.T., Balakleets N.A. - The ontology of law and economy (postmetaphysical trends in the teachings of G. W. F. Hegel and S. N. Bulgakov pp. 59-71


Abstract: The subject of this article is the ontological grounds of the phenomena of legal and economic activities. The research material is based on the conceptual modelling of G. W. F. Hegel and S. N. Bulgakov. A comparative analysis of Hegel’s “Philosophy of Law” and Bulgakov’s “Philosophy of Economy” is conducted. The foundation and conceptual horizon of the comparative analysis is the idea of crisis in the European metaphysics and search for ways of overcoming it within the Russian philosophy. Therefore, main attention is given to explication of the crisis occurrences in Western metaphysics and postmetaphysical trends in Russian philosophy. The authors apply the methodological principles, paradigms of philosophical comparativism, principles of historical-philosophical study, and method of historical-philosophical reconstruction. The main conclusion lies in the thesis that with regards to the European metaphysics, the thought of S. N. Bulgakov (along with many other representatives of the Russian religious philosophy, beginning with V. S. Solovyev) is in a complicated state of attraction and repulsion. The research demonstrates that what for Hegel is the superior stage of self-comprehension of the spirit (state, law), for the Russian philosophers is just a perishable moment.
Mikhailov I.A. - Unity in print of the early phenomenology pp. 72-82


Abstract: This article explores the establishment of German phenomenology as a collective research program.  The author carefully examines the role of Max Scheler in establishment of publishing program of phenomenologists: his efforts in popularization of phenomenology and response to the critics of phenomenology. It is also demonstrate that articulation by the editors of yearbook of the most general objectives of the publisher practically aligns with the tasks formulate back in 1907 by one of the mentors of Edmund Husserl – Carl Stumpf: it is necessary to create world of ideas, capable of encompassing the sciences on nature and spirits, which by the “power of conviction”, will subordinate the wide variety of scholars. The scientific novelty lies in the analysis of publications of the first periodical that united the researchers of Göttingen and Munich, “Yearbook on the Philosophy and Phenomenological Studies”. The author demonstrates that the aforementioned formulations anticipate both, Husserl’s idea of the regional ontologies, as well as the reflected in the “Philosophy as a Strict Science” (1911) representation on the role of philosophy in culture. Since the first years of its existences, the “Yearbook” becomes an important branch of the forming academic community, and quite rapidly turns into the battlefield for influence.
Religions and religious renaissance
Loshchenkov A.V. - Gyuto Tantric Monastery: preservation and transmission of knowledge pp. 83-92


Abstract: The article is devoted to the coverage of the education system in the Gyuto tantric monastery, the introduction into scientific circulation of a complete list of subjects and names of texts, with their identification by the collected works of Indian and Tibetan authors. The fundamental sources and commentatorial literature are identified. The history of the monastery is presented. On the basis of textual analysis, the fundamental role of the texts of Zhe Tsongkhapa in the formation of the formation of this monastery is revealed. It is established that in order to understand the subjects studied in the monastery, they rely on the training manuals compiled by Gyuchen Kunga Dondrub, the founder of the monastery. When working with the materials, a combination of a classical textual approach and contextual analysis was used, taking into account the Buddhist commentary tradition. Methods of analytical comparison, structural and substantive classification were also used. Textual methods of accurate description of the structure of education are used to solve the tasks. The novelty of the article is due to the introduction into scientific circulation of a previously unexplored education system and its training manuals for obtaining Buddhist degrees in Tantra "Kyerimpa" and "Nagrampa". This will make it possible, when working with Tibetan-language texts stored at the Center for Oriental Manuscripts and Woodcuts (CVRK) and the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts (IWRS RAS), to identify and put into circulation, both directly sources under these names, and the literature commenting on them, created in Tibet and, possibly, in Buryatia. The study is of particular importance for determining the training program at Tantric faculties in the datsans of Buryatia, about which almost nothing is known, except that they belong to the program of the Gyuto and Gyume monasteries of Tibet.
Philosophy of knowledge
Vorobev D.N. - To the question on the novelty and heuristic potential of doxology in Protagorean version of modern gnoseology pp. 93-102


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the determination of novelty and heuristic potential of doxology as a Protagorean version of constructivist epistemology. Analyzing the problem of epistemological relativism on the context of antagonism between the supporters of epistemological realism and constructivism, the author outlines the problematic field, on the background of which the novelty and heuristic potential become evident. In the course of this research were used the method of interpretation and critical method of philosophy, supported by the principles of historicism, unambiguity, and systemic consideration. The novelty of doxology consists in the expanded interpretation of the structure of cognition, which central elements are the realistic rendering of a cognitive subject and the idea of functional circle of cognitive activity (logos) and its object (doxa). The heuristic potential of doxology consist in its contribution to solution of the problem of relativism: focusing on the methods and factors of producing by the subject of what is considered real, intersubjective in certain area or culture at the moment, doxology contributed to formulation of methodology for understanding the consistent and intersubjective character of the relativity of knowledge.
Tradition and innovation
Karpov S. - Concept, family likeness, prototype: on the way towards adequate classification of philosophical concepts pp. 103-116


Abstract: This article analyzes the correlation between three approaches to categorization: classical (coming from Aristotle), based on the concept of family likeness (L. Wittgenstein), and prototypical (E. Rosh). It is demonstrated that these approaches can be differentiated by the specifics of relation established between the members of the category. The acquired result allows observing that prototypical categorization brings the gap with the classical categorization to the conceptual limit (while Wittgenstein’s only outlines it). The example of classification, associated with the “fundamental question” of philosophy, demonstrates the difficulties face by the classifiers using the classical approach for classifying the philosophical concepts. In particular, it is underlined that I. Kant’s philosophy can be referred to all of the three types of classification (idealism, dualism, materialism). From the standpoint of classical approach, such result can testify to “eclecticism” of the concept or limitation of the scope of classification itself (capable to realistically classify not nearly every concept). Nevertheless, both, classical and prototypical approaches allow avoiding such dilemma (classical – through various grounds for division into three initial types; while prototypical – via adding new elements into the category). However, if the classification is challenged with a uniform task (which historically was allotted for the political purposes, but also can serve, for example, in pedagogical), and moreover, the task of minimizing the hermeneutic “violence” (in arranging the concepts by types), the prototypical approach, as demonstrated in the article, solves these issues in a more adequate and explicit manner.
Philosophy of science
Zholkov S. - Philosophical problems of the pragmatic theories: genesis and architectonics, I pp. 117-127


Abstract: The subject of this research is the real pragmatics, i.e. targeted activity of the members of society (individuals, human associations). Real pragmatics, in general, in unity and interaction of the natural and humanitarian worlds is the subject of pragmatic theories. In practical aspect, the actual tasks of the analysis and large system management alongside their systemic analysis in unity of the natural scientific and socio-humanitarian components – is a pressing need. The article reveals the requirements to information background and architectonics of the pragmatic theory essential for establishing a reliable scientific theory of the real pragmatics. A comparative analysis with the construct of “theoretical knowledge” proposed by V. S. Stepin is carried out. The author formulates the general laws and requirements to the architectonics of components of the reliable and substantive pragmatic theories. The detailed comparative analysis demonstrates that the scheme of structuring the fundamental and argumentative pragmatic theory is fully compatible with the construct of (post-nonclassical) “theoretical knowledge” of V. S. Stepin. It is underlined that the scheme of theoretical knowledge proposed by V. S. Stepin leans not only on the meticulously examined by the scholar physical theories, but the mathematical theories as well.
Surovyagin D.P. - Explanatory model of reduction: epistemological and ontological aspects pp. 128-142


Abstract: The subject of this research is the explanatory model of reduction, which was originally formulated by E. Nagel and further developed by C. Hempel, P. Oppenheim, J. Kemeny, K. Schaffner, W. Stegmuller and other philosophers of science. The article clarifies the definition of reduction and determines its two basic aspects – epistemological and ontological. If the ontological aspects suggests the reduction of the ideal characteristics and essences to material, then the epistemological aspect implies studying of logical relations between the terms and propositions of scientific theories. The pivotal thesis of the article consists in the statement that the majority of problems of reduction occurs due to the fusion of ontological and epistemological aspects. Therefore, such problems can be eliminated through philosophical analysis of the language of modern epistemology. Examination of epistemological reduction must be separated for the discussions around reductionism, because such discussions are the result of improper interpretation of the terms, and caused by bringing ontological problems into epistemology. The author critically reviews the epistemological status of binding laws, idea of emergence and value of the specifics of certain areas of scientific knowledge. The novelty of this work lies in clarification of the idea of reduction, comparative analysis of reduction and its explanation.
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