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Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 11/2016
Contents of Issue № 11/2016
Social philosophy
Ryskel'dieva L.T., Korotchenko Y.M. - Textual component in the modern socio-philosophical research pp. 1-10


Abstract: The modern socio-philosophical research comprise the objective field of this work. The subject of the research is the textual component in the existing socio-philosophical knowledge. The authors suggest enriching and complementing the object field of the modern socio-cultural research by reflection of the socio-philosophical implications of the results of analysis of the textual culture. Thus, the authors examine the phenomenon of public text as a whole, as well as publicist texts in particular. At the same time, they believe that the valuative analysis of public text allows noticing the textual nature of the object of study of the social philosophy. This work is carried out within the limits of the interpretational paradigm of the modern socio-philosophical knowledge, which suggests the examination of social reality as the object of conceptualization, understanding, and evaluation. This in turn, allows speaking about the social text as the space of reconstruction of social reality, as well as the tool of cognition of society. The proposed valuative analysis implements the key methodological orientations in the modern socio-philosophical knowledge: upon the socio-cultural interpretation of social phenomena, as well as the interdisciplinary character of their study. The scientific novelty of the acquired results is associated with the introduction into the area of socio-cultural research of such object as textual culture, which is understood as the combination of ways of production, preservation, and translation of texts. The authors offer an analytical, clarified, and reflexive language of perception of the social text, which is structured on the basis of the valuative dictionary. Social text is defined as the authorial text, consciously published and containing the author’s relation, position, and program of actions regarding the establishment of commonness.
Zarapin O.V., Shapiro O.A. - Philosophical text and communication in symposium form pp. 11-21


Abstract: The authors examine the correlation between the communication and text within the framework of the process of philosophizing. For description of the mechanism of such correlation is used the notion of “format”. It is noted that the format of textual-communicative organization of the philosophical thought, which is currently represented in conference, symposium, congress, roundtable discussion, has its own tradition ascending towards the ancient symposium. The article sets a task to determine the symposium form in philosophical texts, which contained the foundations of its tradition. In order to resolve this task, the authors explore the texts combined into the table-talk genre based on the example presented by Plato’s dialogue “The Symposium”. The methodological basis lies in the communicative approach towards hermeneutics of the philosophical text, which is views in the dynamics of establishment of the meaning as the source of meaningfulness in communication. The scientific novelty consists in determination and analysis of the symposium form as the mechanism of coordination of philosophical text and actual communicative process of the table talk. The authors come to the conclusion, according to which the philosophical text is initiated by the communicative process of the table talk as a position of self-reflection that allows preventing a thread of sliding towards senselessness. Communicative situation of the text and set by it example of quasi-argumentation represent the parameters of the form, by the means of which the text brings meaningfulness into the reality of communication.  
Mysteries of the human being
Vetushinskiy A.S. - Three interpretations of Turing’s heritage: what is referred to as artificial intelligence? pp. 22-29


Abstract: This article turns to a number of events from the life of Alan Turing, the founding father of the computer era and the author of the famous test that allows verifying the presence of consciousness in the machine in order to answer the question “What is referred to as artificial intelligence?” Because namely the discussion about the artificial intelligence, instantaneously disseminated in the special scientific research and products of mass culture, is one of the main consequences of Turing’s revolution. In this sense, the task of this article consists in reference to the source of emergence of the computer and narrative about the artificial intelligence, for the purpose of uncapping those meanings which were compressed in the very beginning, as well as never presented together in the specialized literature. The article answers the question “What is referred to as artificial intelligence”, demonstrating that it simultaneously incorporates three different names: 1) natural human intelligence, 2) human excluded, 3) new form of life.
The issues of holistic world
Napso M.D. - Anthropological aspect of global cosmopolitan world pp. 30-35


Abstract: The object of this article is the peculiarities of the global cosmopolitan world, while the subject is its anthropological aspect. The author traces the similarity and difference, positive and negative sides of the process of globalization and cosmopolitanization, the demand of the latter by the modern realities, correlation, as well as correlation between the local, cosmopolitan, and global. The work examines the influence of global values and cosmopolitan worldview upon the individual and collective consciousness and sphere of ethnicity. The author also explores the effect of the processes of unification, and standardization, homogenization upon the existence of an individual and society, as well as reveals the influence of orientations of the consumer society on the changes of anthropological nature. The scientific novelty consists in the number of positions: 1) globalization and cosmopolitism as the universal phenomena meet the demand of the modern development; 2) both, globalization and cosmopolitanism contain risks, which infuse them with ambivalence, the manifestations of which depend on specificity of the context – historical and social.
Man and mankind
Smirnov M., Trofimov M. - Alienation of a man in the context of the universal pp. 36-46


Abstract: The goal of this research is the examination of the phenomenon of alienation of a man in the context of the universal. The subject of this research is the main conditions of alienation of human essence from the human. The article also reviews the conditions for overcoming such alienation. At the same time, human essence is defined as the universal, which in turn, is considered as the absolute haecceity that within it eliminates all of the global controversies. Thus, the object of this research is the human existence, and the subject – the conditions of alienation of the universal from the human in this existence. The main conclusions of the conducted research consist in the following: 1) One of the important signs of alienation is human’s realization of the loss of control over himself and his activity; 2) The cause of the loss of control is the deprivation of sensibility towards the universal; 3) Such sensibility is numbed as the result of a constant preference of the singular; 4) Overcoming of alienation suggests a spiritual practice, during the course of which takes place the “second birth” of the human, his conscious inclusion towards the universal; 5) Actualization by a human of the potentially presence universal in the world is namely the unalienated human activity. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that the authors examine the phenomenon of human alienation through the prism of the category of the “universal”.
Connection of times
Chubarov I.M. - Fictitious beginning and outside reason: Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud pp. 47-58


Abstract: This research refers to the famous speech of Michel Foucault in June of 1964 “Nietzsche, Freud, Marx” and its further discussion with Jean Wahl, Gianni Vattimo, and others. The main reason of relating to the corresponding material consists in the raised by Foucault and still relevant philosophical-historical problematic dedicated to the correlation between the revolutionary experimental theory and social practice, sign and interpretation, outside position of the author and his Other in the works of Marx, Nietzsche and Freud. The main method of this research is the intertextual analysis of the works of Maurice Blanchot, Jacques Derrida, and Giorgio Agamben, who also referred to the problem of actualization of Marxism in the present. The closeness of the research orientations discussed in the article, allows speaking of the “impossible” tradition of esoteric or rather “apophatic” Marxism through the inclusion of one more distant and not known by Freud himself collocutor – Walter Benjamin and primarily his early works, such as: “The Critique of Violence”, “Capitalism as Religion”, and “Theological-Political Fragment” (1921), and the last written essay “Theses on the Philosophy of History” (1940).
History of ideas and teachings
Sochilin A. - “The power to dictate the right and forbid the wrong”: to the question of the origins of philosophical substantiation of responsibility pp. 59-74


Abstract: The origins of philosophical substantiation of responsibility lie in the Stoic philosophy, and namely in the concept of the natural law, which in our opinion, is the most significant and noticeable contribution of Stoics into the European moral philosophy. For the modern philosophy, the essence of the question about human responsibilities consists in the problem of moral imperativeness, raised by the contemporary American researcher C. Korsgaard. The briefly described in the book backstory of the question on the morel imperativeness, contains a clear and simple scheme of metaphysical foundations of value thinking in the history of the European moral philosophy. Thus article represents an attempt to apply this scheme to the ancient philosophy, as well as trace the emergence of the notion of responsibility as the expression of oughtness, originating from what is inside the human. Special attention is given to the distinctness of translation of the key notion kathekon from the Greek to Latin language, as well as representation of the concept of natural law by the most reputable among the medieval and early Europe ancient author – Marcus Tullius Cicero. Based on his materials, the author highlights the theoretical framework of the theory of natural law, formed as the result of synthesis of the deterministic teaching on human nature with the doctrine on virtue within the Stoic philosophy. In conclusion, the article demonstrates the possibility of creation of the history of philosophical substantiation of normativity, which is able to reveal the theoretical continuality of the ancient ethics, theory of natural law, concept of divine (eternal) law, and new-European concept of moral imperativeness.
Social dynamics
Goncharov V.V. - Dialectical model in the doctrine of social changes of the philosophical concept of global constitutionalism pp. 75-86


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the examination of dialectical model in the doctrine of social changes of the philosophical concept of global constitutionalism. Forming the dialectical model, this concept as a combination of the methods of argumentation, type and ways of reflexive theoretical thinking, which researches controversies found in the cogitable content of this thinking, emanates from a number of trends substantiated by the modern directions of development of neoliberal and neoconservative socio-philosophical concepts that dominate in the Western society and used by the global ruling class in the process of determination of directions of sociopolitical, state-legal, and financial-economic development on international, as well as national levels. The author justifies a thesis that in the context of the philosophical concept of global constitutionalism, dialectical model in the doctrine of social changes, acts as a system of methods of argumentation of substantiation of the natural evolutionary character of the origin of the world capitalist system (its economic basis and sociopolitical addition), necessity of it preservation and development in the interests of the entire humanity. At the same time, the capitalist society, inspired by Hegelian system, is viewed by the philosophical concept of global constitutionalism as the higher point of social development within the doctrine of social changes.
Axiology: values and relics
Levikova S.I. - Morality as an intrinsic element of human community and degree of humanity in humans pp. 87-102


Abstract: This article is dedicated to morality as an intrinsic element of human association and degree of humanity in humans. The author supports the traditional idea that morality is a purely human phenomenon and appears in such moment, when people begin to live in community and have a demand to regulation the relationship between people. The work analyzes ethical concepts of two German philosophers F. Nietzsche and I. Kant, as well as attempt to clarify the essence of the notion of “moral” in reference books. The scientific novelty of the presented material consists in formulation of the question and examination of ethical concepts of I. Kant and F. Nietzsche as mutually complementing. The author concludes that the degree of morality of a human corresponds with the fact of how far a human has gone from his initial, purely biological animalistic state. Based on this position, the author claims that human community is not possible without morality; and namely molarity is the degree of humanity in humans, and characterizes it as a social creature.
The history of humanitarian science
Dlugach T.B. - Voltaire vs Rousseau pp. 103-123


Abstract: The author pursues correlation between the views of the two prominent representatives of French Age of Enlightenment  of Voltaire and Rousseau regarding all directions of their versatile efforts, as well as determines their equal importance for the European culture. Protection of interests of the entire Third Estate and all nation of Rousseau in some aspects concedes, and in some supersedes Voltaire’s idea of increasing the amount of highly educated people, because it is mostly aimed at establishment of class of the workers that are in demand in modern time. The requirements for realization of the democratic reforms of Rousseau overweighs the orientation towards the enlightened absolutism of Voltaire, but is ahead of its time; protection of sciences and arts of Voltaire is rather equivalent to the Rousseau’s absolutization of morality. The author concludes that the ironic fine humor of Voltaire cannot be placed higher or lower that the deep pathetic reasoning of Rousseau; and religious optimism of Rousseau does not affect the skeptical optimism of Voltaire. Both thinkers are so unlike, but equally important to France and Europe.
Mysteries of the human being
Suvorkina E.N. - Plato’s vision of the problems of birth and upbringing of children pp. 124-129


Abstract: This article examines the rational project of Plato pertaining to upbringing of children in the ideal state. The discovered by Ancient Greeks rational style of reasoning, creates a tough and reduced to the essential grounds picture of the upbringing process. Rationalism explains its thorough explication and scrupulous analysis of smallest details of the upbringing activity. These two qualities are also a response of the philosophical reason for its realization in culture. In its history, philosophical reason confessedly oriented at rational principles, often led to utopian social projects. Plato is the first to build social utopia, when his ideas state becomes a rational idea, hardly adjusted (or not adjusted whatsoever) to be realized in real life. Thus, Plato alongside the Italian thinker T. Campanella, viewed childbirth as a task that requires solution at the state level. He found it reasonable to join best men with best women for the purpose of improvement of the gene pool and reproduction of the “exceptional offsprings”. At the same time, only its best part was subject to upbringing; infanticide and abortions were not being condemned.  
Mekhed G.N. - The experience of comparative analysis of the ethics of I. Kant and F. M. Dostoyevsky: methodological commentary pp. 130-143


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the determination of methodological ground for comparative research of the ethics of Kant and Dostoyevsky. The researchers of Dostoyevsky creative works have not yet come to a consensus on the question of whether or not Dostoyevsky was familiar with Kant’s philosophy, at least in general. The author carries out an analysis of a broad circle of literature on the topic “Dostoyevsky and Kant”, as well as reconstruction of the concepts of a few thinkers, who could affect Kant and Dostoyevsky, as well as contribute to the introduction of Dostoyevsky to Kant’s philosophy. The work substantial the thesis about the formulation of a peculiar philosophical-literary method by Dostoyevsky for cognition of ethical phenomena, which makes possible the reconstruction of Dostoyevsky’s philosophy based on his compositions, and thus, direct comparison of Dostoyevsky’s ethics with Kant’s ethics. The author also supports and explains the idea of N. N. Vilmont that Dostoyevsky was familiar with the fundamental ideas of Kant’s philosophy through F. Schiller. In conclusion, the author underlines that Kant’s ethics and Dostoyevsky’s ethical philosophy had at least one common source of influence consisted in the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. All of these together allows making a conclusion about the methodological substantiation of comparative analysis of the ethics of Kant and Dostoyevsky.
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