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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 08/2015
Contents of Issue № 08/2015
History of ideas and teachings
Volkova N.P. - The Infinite as the Matter (On the Problem of the Infinite in Plotinus' Metaphysics) pp. 1-30

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2015.8.16339

Abstract: The subject of the present research is the concept of the infinite in Plotinus's philosophy acts. Plotinus undertakes comprehensive and multilevel consideration of concept infinite, applying it both to a matter, and to number, and to life. Thus, the problem infinite in Plotinus' teaching can be considered in three aspects: first, infinity as the matter in intelligible and sensual worlds, secondly, infinity as an infinite number (an infinity problem in the Mind), and in the third, the problem of infinity of the One. In this article the author focuses on the first question. The main method of research is the comparative historical-philosophical analysis of texts of Plotinus, Aristotle, Simplicius and other ancient authors. Similar research in domestic science is undertaken for the first time. It is shown that Plotinus offers a new positive understanding of the infinite which was absent in thought of the classical era in Platon's and Aristotle' teachings relying on Pythagorean tradition. Plotinus declares infinite a necessary metaphysical element of both the intelligible world (Mind and Soul), and sensually perceived Cosmos.
Philosophy of science
Kulikov S.B. - Contemporary Self-reflections of Science and Antique Ideal of Knowledge pp. 31-53

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2015.8.16371

Abstract: Object of research is clearing of opportunities of a scientific and extra scientific reflection in the course of creation of a relevant image of science. The author allocates and describes reflection types, achieving the objectives clearing of circumstances at which separate types of a reflection become the supplementing ways of understanding of images of science. The methodology includes realization of the phenomenological approach allowing repeating ways of judgment of idea of science which roots go to antiquity, but in modern conditions of the essence of research activity appearing in the form of essentially different contexts of understanding within the scientific and extra scientific spheres of society and culture in the structure. During research the conclusion was received that the image of science arising in borders of a scientific reflection coincides with the autonomous basis belonging to processes of self-justification of science. This image is expressed in the form of consistent generalization of basic elements of a scientific picture of the world. At the same time the fragmentariness of science within which finding of integrity can be interpreted as extremely remote purpose, which could be realized by scientists under influence of extra scientific spheres of society and culture. Therefore the most exact image of science is under construction within a science self-reflection, but the self-reflection remains are essentially incomplete without participation of philosophers in its institutionalization.
Social philosophy
Petrov V.E. - Negative Aspect of the Definition of Social Space: the Concept of χώρα in Plato's Works and Modern Age pp. 54-81

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2015.8.16195

Abstract: The subject of this article is the logic of concept of χώρα in Plato's philosophy and work of modern post-structuralist philosophers (Jacques Derrida and Yulia Kristeva). χώρα is considered as a way of negative definition of the social space understood within the paradigm set by Henri Lefebvre as "sciences about social space" as 1) the material organization of social being and 2) social reality. In focus of this article of concept of social space from Lefebvre's work "The Production of Space" (1974), the analysis of concept of χώρα in Platon's dialogue "Timaeus", synthesis of the basic theoretical provisions of main modern "horologists" - Derrida and Kristeva, and also the generalizing comparison of concepts of χώρα and social space. As the main method of the real research the comparative-historical method that allowed to mark out essential similarities and distinctions of the concept of social space at Henri Lefebvre  and Plato's concept of χώρα and its modern interpretations. The main conclusions of the present research defining its novelty are the provisions that Plato's χώρα is  definition of space in its most abstract look; this space which isn't possessing anything except ability to contain in itself something. However, at all the abstractness, in Plato's χώρα nevertheless two very essential characteristics are shown: first, χώρα participates in some sort ordering, sorting, and in it it is indirectly shown its active and productive functions; secondly, "illegitimate" – from the point of view of truth – conversation about χώρα can't do without appeal to metaphors, that is, to loan of images of these or those social spaces, subjects or relations from the reality surrounding us. t was found out and for the first time in domestic philosophical science it is recorded that modern conceptualizations platonovsky χώρα found the embodiment in Jacques's theories Derrida and to Yulia Kristeva. Both Derrida, and Kristeva, in our opinion, see in Plato's concept of χώρα model for possibility of opening of new ways of judgment of social space, and take essential steps towards their realization. Both thinkers insist on the need for consideration of space out of its (language) representation, on consideration of space of representation ("in which the object both exists and it is reflected"), which is χώρα. However the space continues to be understood by them or as true negativity, emptiness (Derrida), or as exclusive partial space of the biosocial relations of mother and child (Kristeva).
Political philosophy
Mishurin A.N. - Philosophy as Rigorous Science and Political Philosophy pp. 82-99

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2015.8.16318

Abstract: In the present article Leo Strauss touches upon the problem of the relationship between political philosophy and politics. In the modern age political philosophy has lost its universal nature while politics, on the contrary, has gained it. Strauss refers this fundamental shift to the influence of the philosophy of Martin Heidegger and his 'radical historicism'. Heidegger's radical historicism responds to the challenges of those times, i.e. the times when the idea of the borders of history prevailed. In these terms, Strauss mentions Hegel and his conception of the end of history as well as Nietzsche and Marx and their idea of the begining of history. Just like Nietzsche and Marx, Heidegger took his philosophy as the prelude to the beginning of history or, how Strauss calls it, the 'absolute', i.e. the turning point of history. However, such approach deprives the previous philosophy in general and political philosophy in particular of all their aspirations. Radical historicism makes philosophy dependent on historical conditions starting from the very moment when it appears. Trying to avoid the 'end of history', Strauss starts to move backwards. In our cuse, he directly appeals to Heidegger's teacher, Edmund Husserl and his work 'Philosophy as Rigorous Science'. 
Philosophical anthropology
Sevalnikov A.A. - Naturalist Approach to Studying Human and Language pp. 100-123

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2015.8.16148

Abstract: The article is devoted to consideration of naturalistic approach to the language origin in particular and to life of human in general. The naturalism is analysed on the basis of S. Pinker's views on the origin and development of language. The subject of the research is the naturalistic approach to the problem of glottogenesis. The problem of glottogenesis today is one of the most discussed in a scientific and pseudo-scientific community about which there is a set of hypotheses. The naturalism, owing to active research of the person as the biological object, is also exclusively popular. The comparative analysis of various sources reporting about scientific concepts and achievements within the studied perspective acted as a method. It is shown that naturalism as approach to a problem possesses a number of the advantages inaccessible to other views. For example, the methodology of naturalism allows the researcher to remain in a strict scientific framework and not to attract unchecked or even obviously wrong data as it often occurs at creation of some hypotheses of an origin of language. Also weak points of naturalistic hypotheses of glottogeneis are, for example, the restrictions imposed by scientific methodology or temptation of excessive analogy and transfer of ideas in other scientific problems are specified. In this article the methodological advantage of naturalistic approach connected with features of its evolutionary paradigm for the first time reveals: the naturalism allows to open new sides of human life, being other point of view in comparison with other, not biological approaches. Thus, the special value of naturalism as means of comprehension of human life admits its various manifestations.
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