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Philosophical Thought

Morals as the Absolute Bounds of Reason in Immanuel Kant's Ethics

Mekhed Gleb Nikolaevich

PhD in Philosophy

Docent, the department of Philosophy, the faculty of Social and Humanitarian Sciences, Bauman Moscow State Technical University

105082, Russia, g. Moscow, ul. Rubtsovskaya Nab., 2/18, of. 733

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The author of the article analyzes Kant's ethical theory in its communication with methodological aspects of his general philosophy and its central problem, definition of concept and bounds of reason. According to Kant, ethics are the highest form of philosophy. At the heart of the Copernican revolution made in philosophy by Kant there is not the constructivism introduction in the knowledge theory but bringing of the good (good will) to the level of the only absolute lies not so much. Thus the chronology of works of Kant does not always coincides with internal logic of movement of its philosophy: from the moral law to the star sky, i.e. from Criticism of practical reason to Criticism of pure reason. The idea of freedom as identities of will and good is necessary Kant as the valuable matrix defining his constructivism in the theory of knowledge. Kant considered idea of freedom as the main postulate of practical reason, so and its main limit. Thus freedom is understood by it as an exit out of limits of the empirical subject and coincidence to the transcendental subject of morals. Kant's this approach corresponds to crisis of rationality of the middle of the XX century when after Einstein, Bohr and Gedel's major opening the confidence of opportunities of human reason to learn an objective truth was shaken.

Keywords: ethics, moral absolutism, rationality, freedom, deontology, objectivism, philosophy, Kant, duty, good and evil
This article written in Russian. You can find full text of article in Russian here .

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