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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 05/2014
Contents of Issue № 05/2014
Social philosophy
Kuchukov M.M. - Historicity of History as a Phenomenon of Social Life pp. 1-16

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0174.2014.5.12354

Abstract: At the turn of the late XXth — the early XXIth, the age of the processes of choatization of the world order, history appeared to be the necessary prerequisite of destructive activity of various type of social subjects. There was a problem of definition of a social role of history, existence of different type of functionality in a context of social processes. The history, exists and as set of specific and various actions of certain people, the human groups being in interrelation and forming planetary society and as a clot of information of having impact on public life. This second form also is an analysis subject. The article is based on the principles of systemacity and historicism, unity historical and logical. More specifically, the method of the comparative-historical analysis is used. Initial in research is the analysis of judgments of F. Nietzsche about emergence and history existence in human life, about the reasons and forms of negative influence of history on outlook and activity of the person. The method of comparative-historical research revealed features of occurring transformations with history in the present. Scientific novelty is defined by creation of the concept of change of a social role, the contents and a history form in time, feature of manifestation of its historicity in active existence of society.
Ethics
Mekhed G.N. - Morals as the Absolute Bounds of Reason in Immanuel Kant's Ethics pp. 17-44

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0174.2014.5.12351

Abstract: The author of the article analyzes Kant's ethical theory in its communication with methodological aspects of his general philosophy and its central problem, definition of concept and bounds of reason. According to Kant, ethics are the highest form of philosophy. At the heart of the Copernican revolution made in philosophy by Kant there is not the constructivism introduction in the knowledge theory but bringing of the good (good will) to the level of the only absolute lies not so much. Thus the chronology of works of Kant does not always coincides with internal logic of movement of its philosophy: from the moral law to the star sky, i.e. from Criticism of practical reason to Criticism of pure reason. The idea of freedom as identities of will and good is necessary Kant as the valuable matrix defining his constructivism in the theory of knowledge. Kant considered idea of freedom as the main postulate of practical reason, so and its main limit. Thus freedom is understood by it as an exit out of limits of the empirical subject and coincidence to the transcendental subject of morals. Kant's this approach corresponds to crisis of rationality of the middle of the XX century when after Einstein, Bohr and Gedel's major opening the confidence of opportunities of human reason to learn an objective truth was shaken.
Philosophy of science
Pris F. - Illusions of Opportunities and Real Opportunities pp. 45-70

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0174.2014.5.12295

Abstract: The problem of an explanation of illusions of possible violations of physical and psychophysical identities is stated and analyzed. The epistemic and settlement explanations offered by Kripke and the "if - in - reality" explanation are unsatisfactory. They, in particular, do not always satisfy to Stephane Uayblo's psychoanalytic criterion. These explanations also assume that some real opportunities which existence explains illusions always are behind illusory opportunities. Explanations of illusions of the opportunities offered by Perry and Hill who don't assume that there are real opportunities behind illusory opportunities are provided. Research is conducted within the framework of Wittgenstein's standard pragmatism and naturalism. The concept of family similarity plays the central role. the author of the article suggests that we should use Wittgenstein's explanation of illusion of possibility violating a necessary posteriori identity which, according to the author, satisfies Stephane Uayblo's psychoanalytic criterion. Illusion is explained by the fact that in other contexts concepts entering identity could be used in a different way. It is claimed also that in mathematics not all illusions of opportunities are purely epistemic.
Philosophy and culture
Gumerova G.A., . - The Problem of Philosophy in Nikolay Berdyaev's Creative Work pp. 71-89

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0174.2014.5.12073

Abstract: The article is devoted to the main topic in life of a Russian religious thinker of the beginning of the XX century Nikolay Aleksandrovich Berdyaev – the creativity problem. Berdyaev's understanding of creativity was quite specific. He understood creativity not as the creation of cultural products, "sciences and arts", artwork, books, pictures and so forth but the 'disturbance and ascention' of human being aimed at creating another, the highest life and a new form of existence. The analysis of emergence of culture from a cult, sacral bases of culture, the analysis of emergence of cultural images and cultural the practician from cult activity is carried out. The authors also studied the relation between culture and creativity, creativity as a non-cultural beginning and creativity objectivization in cultural forms.The conclusions made by the authors are the following: - the systematic analysis of ideas about culture of the Russian religious philosophy of the XX century is given;- it is shown that many ideas of modern cultural science concerning an origin of culture, its fundamental bases, its sacral roots were for the first time clearly and are deeply formulated in the Russian religious philosophy;- conditions and possibilities of cultural creativity, possibility of an exit of creativity out of limits of culture, a way of objectivization of creativity in cultural forms are investigated.
Belyaev V.A. - Modernistic 'Critics of Culture' and Dialectics of the 'Cultural - Post-Cultural - Inter-Cultural' pp. 90-178

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0174.2014.5.12355

Abstract: The main objective of this work is to consider a modernist style as to "the critic of culture". I will understand change as "culture criticism" like sociocultural construction in relation to traditional as which realization it is possible to consider the medieval European world. I will allocate two intensions of "criticism of culture": intra cultural (post-cultural) and inter-culture. The post-cultural project, result of the second intension – the intercultural project has to become result of the first intension. And their realization I am going to show logic of creation of these projects in the most general plan. The intra cultural aspect will accent all connected with individual freedom. "Culture" in this intension of criticism will look way of stealing of individual freedom of the person. Therefore "the person who is cultural believing" will be the main object in this criticism. As a positive the project world whole only on the basis of individual freedom will be developed. The Interkulturny aspect of criticism will accent those a consequence of "a cultural polaganiye" which generate division of mankind into the "cultural" worlds denying each other. This intension will build as a positive the project world whole on the basis of "universal", "inter-cultural" values. Difficult relations in design of "post-culture" and "inter-culture", attempts of restoration of "cultural" sociocultural constructions throughout the new European history make that I called dialectics of the "cultural-post-cultural-inter-cultural". I am going to show this dialectics in the most general plan. I will begin the analysis with analysis of Kant philosophy of the religion stated in "Religions within only reason". I will interpret Kant's philosophy as extremely bright expression of "criticism of culture". In Kant's this sense it will be one of ideologists of the modernist style, accurately expressed its main intensions. I will try to open through action in development of its philosophy which will begin with radical "critics of culture", and will come to the end with attempts of return of certain "cultural" principles – cultural remissions. I also will deliver to his critic of religion in prospect of this through action. I will show as far as at its philosophy there are post-cultural and inter-cultural intensions of "criticism of culture" and the dialectics of the 'cultural-post-cultural-inter-cultural'. The analysis of the phenomena of "eternal fascism" and "eternal cultural sensitivity" will be the main thing in disclosure of this dialectics as it is realized in the body of the new European world. Both that and other phenomenon will be connected with the front of cultural remissions of the XX century which can be considered as the answer to the all-European wave after the ambassador of World War I. Especially it belongs to a phenomenon of "eternal fascism" which I will cut out as extremely rigid expression of "an eternal cultural sensitivity".If as a whole to consider a modernist style as expansion "critics of culture", being realized in the philosophical and ideological plan and in the body of the European world, the logician of expansion of post-cultural and inter-cultural intensions of this criticism, the logician of multi-scale and various kickbacks to "cultural" architecture of the person, the logician of new waves of post-cultural and inter-cultural intensions of criticism in response to kickbacks and will make modernist dialectics of "cultural-post-cultural-inter-cultural".
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