Litera - rubric Translation
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Tetenova M.A. - Pre-translation analysis and translation strategy as components of the translation process pp. 1-14



Abstract: The subject of the study is pre-translation analysis and the process of choosing a translation strategy, since these stages are among the primary ones in building the translation process. The author examines in detail such aspects of the topic as the impact on both the translation process and the approach to it, and, subsequently, on the final translation product, which only emphasizes their importance in the translation system. Special attention is paid to the theoretical database of concepts and the chronology of the formation of concepts and terms, as well as to various translation models, within which the author highlights the place and function of pre-translation analysis. The main conclusions of the study are statements about the primacy of the stages of pre-translation analysis and the formation of a translation strategy in most existing translation models. A special contribution of the author to the research of the topic is an attempt to accumulate examples of argumentation of the translation strategy by ancient authors as evidence of a much earlier formation of concepts than terms. The novelty of the research consists in an attempt to create a chronological base for the formation of concepts and terms and the accumulation of historical artifacts for the subsequent systematization of knowledge about the processes of pre-translation analysis and the formation of a translation strategy, which will subsequently become not only the basis for translation, but also a reflection of the professional motivation of the translator.
Tetenova M.A. - Translation motivation and foreword by Charles Baudelaire "Edgar Poe, sa vie et ses œuvres" to the edition of E. A. Poe's texts pp. 1-18



Abstract: Charles Baudelaire is primarily known as a French poet, the author of the internationally acclaimed poetry collection "Flowers of Evil" ("Les Fleurs du Mal"). However, he is also known as a translator: it was he who created the translations that changed the literary fate of the genius not recognized at the time – Edgar Allan Poe. He wrote a 24-page preface to the collection of his translations "Histoires extraordinaires", on the basis of which the author analyzes the poet's approach to translation, records his argumentation and motivation. Within the framework of this article, the author provides an analysis of the preface by Sh. Baudelaire studies why the connection between these figures has been repeatedly called absolutely exceptional by researchers. The subject of the study is the motivation of Sh. Baudelaire's translation of E. A. Poe's texts, which he explains both in the preface to the publication of the texts of the American writer and in personal correspondence. The object of the study is the preface under the heading "Sa vie et ses œuvres", written by Sh. Baudelaire's edition of E. A. Poe's texts in his own translation, published by the publishing house "Michel Lévy" in 1869. The main research method was a detailed analysis of the text of the preface by Sh. Baudelaire's "Edgar Poe, sa vie et ses œuvres" to the edition of E. A. Poe's texts in his own translation of 1869. A special contribution of the author to the study of the topic is a detailed study of the preface by Sh. Baudelaire as an artifact containing the formulation of translation motivation directly by the translator himself. The artifact is presented to the author all the more valuable because the translator is a famous poet with a special, recognizable style, which obviously leaves its mark on his translations. The main conclusions of this study are: the need to study the phenomenon of the Baudelaire translator not only from the prefaces to the translations, but also from his statements in correspondence, as well as in the study of the cultural era accompanying the creation of these translations and containing events such as the confrontation of the Romantics and the Parnassian school. The scientific novelty lies in the creation of a detailed analysis, based on which more specific episodes of the life and work of S. Baudelaire as a translator can be studied.
Vigna-Taglianti J., Sidorova E.N. - Translator’s “Visibility”: E. Teza and His Translation of Pushkin’s “The Undertaker” pp. 174-184



Abstract: The article deals with the issue of translator’s “visibility” using the translation of Pushkin’s short story “The Undertaker” published by Emilio Teza in the literary journal “Ateneo Veneto” in 1884 as an example. This translation was chosen for two main reasons: firstly, its historical meaning for intercultural relations between Russia and Italy as the first Italian translation of Pushkin’s short story; secondly, its translator – a well-known academician from the late 1800s, whose research concerned different areas of philology, linguistics, and comparative studies, as well as translation. As a result, despite then-predominant domesticating strategies, different elements in the target text reflect Teza’s personality and thus prove his “visibility”. The research started from the scrutiny of the translator’s biography, allowing the contextualization of this translation at a precise moment in Teza’s life. Through the contrastive analysis of the source and the texts several translatologically relevant units were identified. Afterwards, the translation strategies and shifts applied in their rendering into Italian were analysed. The scientific novelty lies in the application of such analysis to a previously unstudied text. The research led to the following conclusions: in the rendering of Russian realia, the target text is characterized by an overall domesticating strategy, typical of late-1800s translations and often correlated to the concept of translator’s “invisibility”. However, the presence of detailed footnotes reflects Teza’s personality as an ethnographer, thus making him “visible”. The presence of Tuscan dialectal forms in the target text hints at the translator’s biography, who in 1884 was living in Pisa. In addition, an example of linguistic interference from Serbian can be seen as a reference to Teza’s multilingualism. Therefore, it was proven that the translator’s personality can become “visible” by thoroughly analyzing linguistic features and translation shifts.
Petrova A.D. - Metaphor and metonymy in translation: transformation of images in Russian versions of Guillaume Apollinaire's works pp. 182-191



Abstract: This study is devoted to the nuances of metaphor and metonymy translation, in particular, to the works of Guillaume Apollinaire and their Russian translations. The article begins by defining the theoretical foundations of metaphor and metonymy, drawing on linguistic and cognitive theories to emphasise their importance in literary discourse. It then provides a thorough analysis of Apollinaire's unique stylistic elements, highlighting the fusion of visual and verbal poetics and how these aspects pose a challenge to the translator. The main part of the study is an in-depth analysis of selected Apollinaire works, offering a comparative analysis of the original French texts and their Russian counterparts. This segment highlights the difficulties inherent in translating Apollinaire's rich metaphorical and metonymic language, marked by a characteristic combination of visual imagery and linguistic innovation. The study uses a range of linguistic examples to demonstrate both successful and problematic translation solutions, providing a multifaceted insight into the translation process. The paper then examines the specific difficulties of translating metaphor and metonymy into Russian, given the linguistic and cultural differences between French and Russian. It presents various translation techniques such as substitution, modulation and word-for-word translation and evaluates their effectiveness in bridging the gap between the two languages. The study also critically examines examples where direct translation fails to convey the essence of the original, emphasising the importance of cultural context and idiomatic appropriateness in translation. The conclusion summarises the findings, highlighting the crucial role of cultural and cognitive considerations when translating metaphors and metonymies.
Feng W., Perfiliev A.K., Hu P. - Translation of medical terms into Chinese pp. 306-314



Abstract: The subject of this study is the peculiarities of translating medical terms into Chinese. The purpose of the study is to analyze strategies for translating medical terms into Chinese, as well as to identify the most effective and frequent methods of translation of medical terms. The research material is medical terms (60 hieroglyphic names of medicines and medical equipment) and their translation into Chinese. The article analyzes the four most commonly used ways of translating medical terms: phonetic, semantic, graphic and mixed. The analysis also focuses on alphabetic words of the Chinese language: full alphabetic words and partial alphabetic hieroglyphic words. The features of translating medical terms of Latin origin into Chinese and medical terms borrowed from English are compared. To achieve this goal, the following methods were used: descriptive method, method of analysis of theoretical literature, as well as methods of systematization of material and classification. The novelty of the study lies in the fact that with the advent of new medicines and medical equipment, the question of translating new concepts into other languages, in particular into Chinese, has become acute. The article provides examples illustrating typical ways of translating medical terms into Chinese. The authors conclude that when translating borrowings from Latin into Chinese, preference is given to the phonetic method, while when translating English medical terms, phonetic-semantic, semantic and graphical methods are mainly used. The semantic method allows you to convey the meaning of borrowed words most fully, as well as create a pragmatic effect. The frequency of using the graphical translation method is significantly lower, since English and Chinese have different types of writing, which also introduces limitations for the transmission and interpretation of information.
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