Litera - rubric Psycholinguistics
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Gurevich P.S. - Poetry and insanity pp. 1-38


Abstract: Russian literature demonstrates a dangerous, in my opinion, tendency – to look at man’s spiritual world only with the eyes of a psychiatrist. Thus, there have appeared discussions about the psychotic Jesus Christ, autist Aleksander Pushkin, about schizophrenic and schizotypal disorders of Franz Kafka, Jacques Lacan, Andrei Tarkovsky, Salvador Dali, Andrei Platonov, Daniil Kharms, about schizophrenia in culture. It has been agreed that present-day postmodernism is none other than latent, in other words, «benign» schizophrenia. The strain of the mind has come to be interpreted as the beginning of insanity. Imagination as a human gift has come to be described only in the frame of morbid fantasies.The article employs methods of hermeneutic analysis of poetic texts. Also, the findings of clinical psychology and the techniques of a comparative analysis of literary texts are used.The novelty of the article refers to critical interpretation of a tradition that has taken shape in modern humanitarian thought. Man is investigated only as a defective creation, insane by his mental essence. Acquaintance with psychiatry made many researchers begin to mistrust a human being as soon as some morbid symptoms appear. So far as M. Tsvetaeva, say, reveals the secret of poetic creation: «Flowers grow as stars and as roses…», she can be regarded as a sensible individual. But then she adds: «To rebel with a verse – or to bloom as a rose…». There clinical imagination begins to work.
Boykova S.E. - Experiment with the images containing a recurring character: bilingual narrative analysis pp. 37-50


Abstract: This article analyzes the French-language and Russian-language discourse of bilingual children of different types. The goal consists in examination of specificity of correlation between the name and image in a bilingual discourse, as well as in description of the action depicted on the image. The respondents for this research became the natural bilinguals from mixed Russian-French or Russian families in France. The authorial corpus of Russian-French speech of bilingual children served as the material for this study. The corpus consists of the stories based on stimulus material. The research was conducted individually with each respondent in Russian and French separately. The respondents could select the initial language for conversation (Russian or French). The scientific novelty of this work is defined by the fact that the tradition of studying narrative was applied in the context of analysis of the bilingual French-Russian speech. The author examined the Russian-language and French-language names of characters and objects in different groups, and drew parallels between them. The results demonstrate that the name of a character within the framework of a single language could vary from image to image. At the same time, variability of names of the main character is greater in the Russian-language block. The most frequent name version for the main character in the Russian-language block was the cat, while in the French-language block it was “chat” with the definite or indefinite article. It is notable that initially some respondents had other options (cat, squirrel), but in the process of the experiment, they also changed the name of the character to corresponding to the author's concept of the name of cat. Due to the fact that the respondents were asked to adhere to the selected language, there was very few instances of code switching. However, their presence indicates that the respondents are lacking lexical tools in their weaker language.
Hasanov M.M. - The Problem of Language Insecurity of Azerbaijani School Graduates Living in Russia: Methods of Overcoming it pp. 39-48



Abstract: The object of the study is the linguistic uncertainty of Azerbaijanis who live in Russia. The subject of the study is the causes of the phenomenon of language insecurity among graduates of Azerbaijani schools who received education in Russian in Azerbaijan, as well as the main reasons of a social and individual nature that contribute to its manifestation. The article describes the main reasons that have become the source of language insecurity among graduates of Azerbaijani schools who have received general secondary education in Russian in Azerbaijan. The authors of the article investigated the existing methods of teaching Russian in schools in Azerbaijan, the main problems that arise during the teaching of students, as well as obstacles that may affect the process of formation of language skills and knowledge of students. In order to study the causes of language insecurity among graduates of Azerbaijani schools in the course of communication while in the Russian Federation, we conducted a series of interviews with graduates of a number of schools in the capital of the country, in the city of Baku. The definition of the concept of language insecurity is given and the main reasons of both social and individual nature are shown, contributing to the manifestation of language insecurity in a number of students who have graduated from Azerbaijani schools with the Russian language of instruction.
Spirova E.M. - The tragic conflict of Hamlet pp. 45-68


Abstract: The article analyzes the character of Hamlet in works of one of the founders of psychohistory, American psychologist Erik Erikson. W. Shakespeare’s tragedy «Hamlet» attracted many researchers. For several centuries, writers, literature critics turned to this play. In Russian literature, the tragedy was especially popular. Though first interpretations and analysis of «Hamlet» appeared in Germany and France, the influence of «Hamlet» found reflection in such works as «Hamlet of Shchigrovskiy uezd» and in works studied at schools - «Fathers and sons», «Rudin», «Hamlet and Don Quichotte», «Ivanov». Shakespeare is studied not as a playwright but as an artist creating persons of great scope. An interest to him as a psychologist increases, too.The article uses the methods of psychoanalytic analysis of literature works. This tradition goes back to Z. Freud who gave an original interpretation of works of art.The novelty of the article is conditioned by its interpretation of «Hamlet» within the framework of psychohistory. E. Erikson uses the character of the Dutch prince to illustrate a special stage of man’s development, the time when his fate is being determined. The American psychologist is interested in the crisis of a young man when he tries to be critical of the imperatives of the society, displaying stubbornness and will to philosophical reflection. According to Erikson, Shakespeare’s work expresses the greatness and tragedy of a young man. Hamlet, as any man, has to face such distresses of his age that are incompatible with the young mind and ardent heart.
Hasanov M.M., Kambak B. - Motivation factors in learning Azerbaijani and Turkish languages in Moscow pp. 47-54



Abstract: Learning foreign languages is an important component of personal and professional development. There are a large number of national communities in Moscow, including Azerbaijani and Turkish, and more and more people are paying attention to learning the languages of these countries. In this article, we will study the motivation for studying Azerbaijani and Turkish in Moscow. Let's look at how learning these languages can help when communicating with native speakers, traveling, in professional activities and how this can help expand cultural horizons. We will also consider the most popular motives for learning these languages among students in Moscow. The object of this article is the motivation of students and students living in Moscow when studying Azerbaijani and Turkish languages. The subject of the article is an analysis of the motivation factors that inspire people to study Azerbaijani and Turkish in Moscow, such as cultural interest, employment opportunities, study, communication and other factors that can be identified in the research process. The article will also describe the different motivations of each language learner, their personal experiences and opinions about it, as well as general preferences in language learning.
Si H. - Unrealized speech of A.P. Chekhov's characters in the aspect of family communication pp. 69-76



Abstract: The article presents an analysis of fragments of unrealized speech of A.P. Chekhov's heroes in the texts of novels and short stories written in 1888-1904: "Women", "Wife", "Neighbors", "Fear", "Black Monk", "The Story of an unknown person". Typical ways of introducing unrealized speech into the author's context are revealed. In the course of the study, it was found that unrealized speech conveys the innermost thoughts and emotional state of the main characters, being an important factor for understanding the essence of many events that occur in the adult life of A.P. Chekhov's characters. Unrealized speech is a significant component of the text that contributes to the correct interpretation of a particular situation that is associated with the family communication of Chekhov's characters. Unrealized speech, internal in nature, has an extra-verbal reason why it cannot be expressed verbally. In most cases, such a reason is the emotional state of the character, represented in the Chekhov text by a description of facial expressions or gestures, an out-of-speech situation that does not allow you to express the programmable so as not to offend the other. Analyzing fragments of stories from this period of Chekhov's work, representing family communication, one can come to the conclusion that unrealized speech actualizes the internal speech situation in the texts under study. Typical ways of transmitting unrealized speech are improper-direct, direct or indirect speech, thematic speech in the author's narrative is less common in this function. A typical input for unrealized speech is a modal verb with the meaning of desire or expression of will + an infinitive with the meaning of speech activity in a construction with a contrastive conjunction: I wanted to say, but ...; I wanted to say, but ...; I wanted to answer, but... etc.
Jiang S., Chulkina N.L. - Multimodal Analysis of Handshake Etiquette at a State Visit Welcome Ceremony based on the ELAN Program pp. 95-104



Abstract: The handshake is an important element of etiquette in many cultures. It is used in various, not only official, but also informal situations that express greetings, farewells, gratitude, etc. In this work, the object of study is the etiquette of shaking hands during the welcome ceremony of a state visit. The subjects of the study are various modalities and their meanings when performing a handshake. The authors consider in detail such aspects as the requirements of a handshake in official communication: the duration of the handshake, the distance between the communicants, the types of modalities: facial expressions, visual gaze, body movement. Particular attention is paid to highlighting and analyzing the significance of handshake modalities during the welcoming ceremony. The conducted research provides information about the meaning of the handshake and the role of other non-verbal modalities: distance, gestures, gaze and facial expressions, which are designed to demonstrate politeness in a communicative situation. A special contribution of the authors to the study of the topic is to identify the function and meaning of various modalities during a handshake. The study helps to study the expression of politeness in various modalities during a welcome ceremony. The novelty of the study lies in the analysis of etiquette in terms of multimodality. Using the ELAN software, the modalities of the handshake at the ceremony are displayed visually, which allows statistical methods to match verbal and non-verbal elements during the handshake.
Pevneva I.V. - A Psycholinguistic Comparative Study of the Strategic Conflict-handing Behavior of Russians and Americans pp. 100-107


Abstract: The research is devoted to the study of the verbal behavior of the Russians and Americans based on the choice of the strategies of behavior in the conflict situations. The phenomenon of conflict and challenges of misunderstanding appear today extremely acute in all areas of social and international relations. Verbal communication involves a strategic process by which a speaker defines the language resources for its implementation. By choosing a strategy which should contribute to the goals and objectives of the interaction a speaker makes the process of communication either successful or leading to a communicative failure.The object of the research is the natural communication. The study is based on the principles of psycholinguistics and ethno-linguistics, which studies the cultural variability in cognitive and communicative aspect of speech. The scientific importance of this work is in multi disciplined and cross-cultural study of ethnic and cultural influences, gender and other characteristics of conflict discourse participants. The results might present an interest for the participants and alumni of the international academic exchange programs (students and teaching staff) as well to specialists whose jobs are associated with the functioning in a multicultural Russian-American environment.
Zharnikova A.V., Tsybenova C.S. - The image of mother in multi-structural languages (based on the material of the Russian and Tuvan languages) pp. 189-197


Abstract: This article analyzes the image of mother in the Russian and Tuvan languages based on the results of associative experiment. The key goal of this cross-cultural research is consists in comparison and determination of the constant meanings underlying this image and its ethnocultural peculiarities in the linguistic consciousness of native speakers of multi-structural languages. The object of this research is the verbal associations for the stimulus word “mother” in the linguistic consciousness of the Russian and Tuvan people. The empirical material is acquired in the course of experimental methods and viewed from the perspective of the fragments of linguistic consciousness, which reflect the image of the world of a particular culture. The practical value of the work is defined by the relevant contrastive study of the lexicon from the category of universal images, as well as by possibility of application of the obtained results in translation studies, cross-cultural communication, linguoculturology, and lexicography. The scientific novelty lies in carrying out a psycholinguistic interpretation of the associative fields "mother" and “ie”, examination of their field stratification, comparison of fragments of the core of linguistic consciousness of the Russian and Tuvan people. The selected image id describe through the prism of its archetypal nature. The conducted analysis reveals that the perception of a particular stimulus word in linguistic consciousness of a person is impacted not only by ethnic and sociocultural factors, but by the corresponding language norms as well.
Lyulina A.V. - Intentional Analysis of Theresa May's Speech 'Renewing the British Dream': Etophysiological Aspect pp. 315-321


Abstract: The aim of this research is to analyze the text of a political speech 'Renewing the British Dream' made by Theresa May from the point of view of the intentional correlation 'manipulation target (a particular group of speech recipients) as a speech actualisator'. The author of the article offers her own classification of etophysiological (i.e. referring to instincts and peculiarities of human's physiological perception) manipulation targets that is based on the universality and collectivity criteria and includes etoreceptive, exteroceptive, interoceptive, proprioceptive, spatial, temporal and kinaesthetic subgroups. The author assumes that particular speech actualisators are attributable to a certain group of targets. The research is based on the author's recipient-centered approach that views peculiarities of speech manipulation in the political discourse from the point of view of relevant characteristics of a recipient (i.e. particular manipulation targets). The use of this approach causes the novelty of this research and allows make the following conclusions: quite a great number of speech units that actualize manipulation targets actualized within the framework of this research proves that they have a high manipulation potential; the most frequently used actualisators of etophysiological targets are nominative word, associative word and speech acts, products of the abductive thinking of a producer (abductive speech acts). The rationale of this research is caused by the fact that despite the growing number of researches on the phenomenon of political discourse manipulation, speech mechanisms of this phenomenon are still left uncovered, the mechanisms that deal with the instinctive behavior of the recipient public and physiological perception features. 
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