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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue 04/2024
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Contents of Issue 04/2024
Wang J. - Phraseological units with the semantics of "human appearance" in Russian and Chinese pp. 1-15



Abstract: Language is one of the main tools for communication between people, allowing to express our thoughts and feelings, as well as describe the world around us. Phraseology, as an integral part of any language, plays an important role in the transmission of cultural values and traditions of the people. One of the key groups of phraseological units are phraseological units with the semantic field "human appearance", which reflect ideas about beauty, ugliness, age and other characteristics of appearance. In this article, we will consider phraseological units with the semantics of "human appearance" using the example of Russian and Chinese languages. The relevance of this topic is due to the need to study and analyze phraseology as a means of expressing culture, mentality and national characteristics of peoples. In addition, the study of phraseological units in different languages allows to identify similarities and differences in the perception of certain concepts, as well as the peculiarities of translating these units into other languages. The subject of the study: phraseological units with the semantics of "human appearance" in Russian and Chinese. Methods: 1. analysis of scientific literature on the phraseology of the Russian and Chinese languages; 2. comparative analysis of phraseological units with the semantics of "human appearance" in Russian and Chinese; 3. study of examples of phraseological units and their translation into another language; 4. identification of similarities and differences between phraseological units in Russian and Chinese. Scientific novelty: for the first time, a comparative analysis of phraseological units with the semantics of "human appearance" in Russian and Chinese is carried out. The article identifies similarities and differences between these units, as well as examines the features of their translation from one language to another. Conclusions: 1. In Russian and Chinese, there are phraseological units with the meaning "human appearance", which play an important role in communicating and describing people. 2. Despite some similarities, phraseological units in the two languages have their own peculiarities in terms of structure, semantics and pragmatics. 3. The translation of phraseological units requires taking into account their connotations, cultural characteristics and historical context. 4. Phraseological units can serve as a source for studying cultural differences and interaction between peoples.
Vostrikova A.O., Nikonov S.B., Shafir T.V., Baichik A.V. - Transformation of the media system of Afghanistan in the context of the formation of statehood pp. 16-30



Abstract: The object of the study is the media of Afghanistan. The subject of the study is the genesis of methods for regulating the media system in Afghanistan. The article pays special attention to the formation of the media system of the modern period, which the authors have been defining since the end of 2021. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the media system of Afghanistan has been formed under the influence of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF, acted in accordance with resolution No. 1386[39] The UN Security Council of December 20, 2001) and the desire to create a liberal democratic state in the understanding of the ISAF leadership. Freedom of speech, expression and the media, which were achieved during this period, has been under the control of the Interim Government of Afghanistan since August 2021. This article defines the methods used by the current government of Afghanistan to regulate the media system. The main method of research is the content analysis of documents and information on the practice of law enforcement, compliance with current legislation. Naturally, he could not be divorced from the method of systematization of information - the study of information objects. For the first time in the scientific literature, an empirical study is presented, which represents important material on the history of the media system of Afghanistan, its current state, and the analysis of legislative changes. The study seems to be significant and expands knowledge about the media in this region. For 20 years, the media system of Afghanistan has been formed under the influence of an international coalition led by the United States, which tried to create a liberal democratic state. It was based on a compromise of Western "democratic" and Islamic values, more pluralistic and free than before and after this period. In August 2021, another political force came to power, forming a state based on other principles, which began to exercise control over all spheres, including the media, taking Sharia norms as a basis. One of the conclusions of the study was the strengthening of the traditional identity of the state by the new political power, which was "shaken" by Western reforms. After coming to power, the interim Government of Afghanistan repealed the 2004 Constitution and the 2009 Media Law. The Law on Access to Information in 2019 has not been officially repealed, but it is not respected in the country. Thus, the transformation of the state's media system has begun in the country.
Literary criticism
Gadzhilova S.M. - Magomed Akhmedov's Artistic Reflections on Russian Poetry (on the Development of Dagestan-Russian Literary Relations) pp. 31-43



Abstract: The subject of this research is M. Akhmedov's literary reflections and his poetic works dedicated to Russian writers and Russian poetry. The purpose of this article is to present a picture of the development of artistic reflections on Russian poetry in the works of M. Akhmedov. The concept of the article is based on the material of works related to Russian literature and Dagestan-Russian literary relations. Introducing into the study a part of artistic reflections related to Russian poetry, we set ourselves the task of defining and identifying the principles and techniques of artistic expressiveness and figurativeness of M. Akhmedov, serving to embody the national and international character of his artistic thinking. The methodological basis of this research is based on the analysis of artistic works and is designed to determine the following research methods: comparative-historical, through which the nature of M. Akhmedov's literary connections is interpreted as an artistic phenomenon that has passed certain historical stages and is developing to the modern stage; comparative, which allowed to compare the ideological and artistic significance of Russian writers in the person of his predecessors and like-minded people; a method of holistic analysis of a literary work, which made it possible to determine the specifics of the evolution of M. Akhmedov's artistic thinking and its connection with the history of national and Russian literature. The results of the study can serve as a promising support for further study of Dagestan-Russian literary relations, as well as M. Akhmedov's artistic creativity in the context of the national and international literary process. Russian poetry and poets The scientific novelty of the study is due to the fact that the analysis of the works of M. Akhmedov devoted to Russian poetry and Russian poets was undertaken for the first time. The obtained results have shown that M. Akhmedov's artistic reflections on Russian poetry make it possible to highlight the role and significance of Dagestan-Russian literary ties.
Abdullayev R.S. - State-supported language strategies in Azerbaijan: promotion of Azerbaijani and multilingual initiatives. pp. 44-63



Abstract: The wealth of every independent and sovereign country is the abundance of language on its territory, in which the nationalities living there can freely use their languages. In addition to the State language, there are more than 15 languages spoken by ethnic minorities in the Republic of Azerbaijan. In addition to the languages of ethnic minorities, the population of the country uses other foreign languages, which are included in the group of world languages. The objects of research in this article are foreign languages and their relationship to the state language. The legislative acts adopted to regulate the language vector in the country are the subject of research. The author describes in detail and highlights the legislative bodies and government structures that play a crucial role in the development of language policy in the country. In the course of studying language policy, one cannot do without considering the following two main sociolinguistic terms: language regulation and language planning, which are of the nature of state or social impact on the functioning or development of languages in the state.The author mainly used the theoretical method in the study of the article, and also conducted a general analysis of the data. The conclusions are based on legal methods, as well as sociolinguistic methods (statistical and expert assessments). The necessary information in the field of the current language policy in the country was obtained during the analysis of legal documents. Foreign languages of global importance are in great demand among young people, increasingly studying these languages, they delve into the origins of this language, study the history of this country and through this prism the phenomenon of acculturation through language is observed. The author considers in more detail the status of the state language both de jure and de facto, and also considers in detail the position of the most widespread foreign languages in the republic. The language reforms carried out in the Republic of Azerbaijan mainly serve to strengthen the role of the Azerbaijani language as the state language and have the character of linguistic purism. Despite the ongoing reforms in the field of strengthening the state language, we are also considering a balanced language policy with regard to other languages existing on the territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan, the purpose of which is to preserve linguistic pluralism.
Dolgopolova L.A., Mustafaeva A.H. - Changing the functioning of the article in the history of the German language pp. 64-79



Abstract: The subject of the study is the historical changes in the syntactic structure of the German language; the object of the study is articles. The authors consider in detail the use of definite, indefinite and null articles based on the material of a fragment of the Gospel of Luke, which were published in various periods of the German language: the text of Tatiana, translated by Martin Luther, made in 1545; an adapted version of Luther's translation, published in 2017 and a lightweight electronic version created as a result of deviation from the canonical translation. Particular attention is paid to the frequency of use of articles, the reasons for the increase or decrease in their use, as well as other means of determination. It is established that modern electronic text shows a tendency to decrease nominal groups, which, accordingly, leads to a decrease in articles. The tendency to decrease the zero article is manifested by the early Upper German period; in modern German, there is a displacement of the definite article. The methodological basis is based on a systematic approach to the interpretation of the phenomena of linguistic ontology in diachrony. The research methods are comparative historical analysis, the method of distributive analysis, quantitative analysis, methods of N. Chomsky's theory of control and binding. The main conclusions of the proposed study are the revealed historical processes in the system of articles of the German language. It was found that at an early stage of language development, the zero article dominated in texts, which significantly narrowed the manifestation of determination. The main burden during this period fell on possessive nominal groups, which primarily included proper names. The definite article was used much less frequently. In nominal groups that are part of the prepositional group, the zero article was mainly used, which eventually led to the creation of stable prepositional constructions with a zero article. The largest number of all types of articles falls on Luther's translation adapted to the modern grammatical structure of the German language, which is associated with the maximum use of nominal groups. What is new is the establishment in modern German of a tendency to reduce the zero and definite articles.
Li X. - Verbal vocabulary as a means of expressing interpersonal relations in Russian and Chinese pp. 80-88



Abstract: The subject of the study is the semantic and functional features of the lexico-semantic group of verbs denoting interpersonal relations in the Russian and Chinese languages. The verbal vocabulary representing the category of relationship describes the relationships that arise between people in the form of feelings, judgments and appeals to each other in the course of everyday life. The purpose of the proposed article is to identify the semantic and functional features of the verbs of the lexico-semantic group of interpersonal relations in the system of Russian and Chinese languages. The study revealed similarities and differences in the meaning of these verbs. As the analysis showed, some Chinese verbs do not match the meaning of the verbs of the Russian language. This article also examines the types of semantic changes in the semantic structure of the verbal word form functioning in the context.The main method of studying this group of verbs in Russian and Chinese is the comparative method. The descriptive method and the functional-semantic method, as well as the method of component analysis, were used in the selection and use of linguistic material. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the fact that the verbs of interpersonal relations are still insufficiently studied on the materials of the Russian and Chinese languages. The results of the research can be used in the practice of teaching university courses in such disciplines as cognitive linguistics, linguoculturology, and intercultural communication. The study allows us to conclude that the verbs of interpersonal relationships are quite often used in both languages. The meanings of Chinese and Russian verbs are not always equivalent. Their semantic structures may also differ. The analysis of interlanguage gaps reveals the presence of incomplete lexical correspondence to a foreign word. Some verbal lexicons express interpersonal relationships in their direct meanings, while others develop this ability as a result of semantic modulation and semantic derivation. Interpersonal relationships can be expressed by verbs from other lexico-semantic groups, acquiring the semantics of interpersonal relationships in the context. In conclusion, we note that expressions of interpersonal relationships can also be verb-noun combinations, which, when analyzing various specifiers in the context, indicate the reasons for a positive or negative attitude towards a person.
Tabatabai S., Bulgarova B.A., Kotecha K., Patil S. - Decoding Iran's meme culture and implications in journalism pp. 89-96



Abstract: The study of digital humour and meme culture as a complex phenomenon, given the growing consumption and popularity of memes, especially among digital technology speakers, coupled with the scarcity of scholarly attention and research on this topic in Iran, has become increasingly relevant. This article focuses on the complex interplay between memes, culture and technology. By analysing the integral role of humour in Iranian digital culture, the study aims to explore the nature and functions of Iranian meme culture. The analysis shows that Iranian digital humour and meme culture function as a platform for equal opportunities to laugh, challenge established cultural norms and question prevailing ideologies. The research methodology is based on the reproduction of gender conventions and power hierarchies in Iran through internet memes. The methods applied are: content analysis, distributive and comparative. The study also builds on Bakhtin's concept of "chronotope" in multimodal analysis of memes common among Iranian immigrants. The novelty of the study lies in the fact that it makes a valuable contribution to the field of journalism and media studies, highlighting the importance of understanding the role of humour and memes in shaping public perception and navigating complex ideological landscapes, as well as the ways in which memes can be used to disrupt or alter these dynamics. The results of the analysis of Iranian digital humour and memes show that meme culture functions as a means to combat inequalities in power and status. In addition, the study demonstrated the Iranian population's reinterpretation of the immigrant experience, thereby reaffirming and refining their hybrid identity as transnational Iranians. This process unfolds through the recreation of different spatio-temporal configurations within the meme.
Dmitrieva N.M., Korobeynikova A.A., Malahova O.M., Polovnikova A.Y. - Semantics and structure of the concept of Bogatyrstvo in epics and modern linguistic consciousness pp. 97-108



Abstract: The subject of the study is the concept of "Bogatyrstvo" and its structural and semantic features. Bogatyrstvo is inextricably linked with the hero and with the plot of epics. In epics, it is perceived as a concept-script, that is, it is formed in the process of the entire narrative. However, the original structure of the concept is presented as a conceptual field of meanings inscribed in a more complex structural formation the ethical concept of "Courage". The relevance of the research is dictated by the high precedent of the name of the concept and its dominant verbalizers. The semantic field of the concept is explored in etymological, historical and topical layers. The main semantic load of the etymological layer of the concept is formed in the Church Slavonic language. The historical layer is vividly represented in the dictionaries of the XIX and XX centuries, the latter captures the limitation of the "existence" of the concept by the genre of epic. The actual layer is revealed in the process of studying the consciousness of modern students. The purpose of the article is to identify the reference points (slots) that formed the basis of the concept. A special contribution of the authors and the novelty of the study is the conduct of a semantic experiment, which established that in the minds of modern native speakers, the concept Bogatyrstvo, for which analysis methods were used (analysis of dictionary definitions and contextual analysis of epics), semantic analysis (the "supporting" semantic shares of the concept of "Bogatyrstvo" were identified, their key verbalizers were highlighted) and the method of semantic experiment to identify the modern perception of the concept. The main conclusions of the study: 1) the concept of "Bogatyrstvo" has a static frame structure and a field structure, including slots "spiritual strength" and "physical strength". Spiritual strength lies in the constant readiness to stand up for the motherland as a manifestation of true courage and heroism; in the fate of the hero-defender, ordained from above; in the Christian faith. The physical strength of the hero is, as it were, the personification of the whole strength of the Russian people, given by God. 2) These slots are present in the epics in the dynamic structure of the script: the slot "physical force" unfolds to the whole epic action; the slot "spiritual force" is expressed through the entire epic narrative this is the very motivation for action. A special contribution of the authors and the novelty of the study is the conduct of a semantic experiment, which established that in the minds of modern native speakers, the concept of "Bogatyrstvo" is presented statically and includes both slots, with the predominance of the slot "spiritual power".
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