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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue 03/2023
Contents of Issue 03/2023
WANG S., Zhdanova L.A. - The "Lost Generation" in the Modern Russian-language Journalistic Discourse pp. 1-10



Abstract: The article examines the use of the term lost generation in modern journalistic discourse, which originally referred to writers of the first half of the twentieth century who passed the First World War and expressed in their work its tragic experience, their inner emptiness and alienation from society. The presence of an attribute with a characterizing meaning in this idiomatic term allows it to be determinologized and used in modern Russian speech as a free phrase: in relation to different generations of people, primarily to modern Russian youth. The purpose of the article is to describe the main types of usage of the syntagma lost generation in modern Russian speech and to identify their connection with the original meaning of the term. The research material is contexts extracted from the National Corpus of the Russian language, as well as the results of the linguistic experiment conducted by the authors. The authors uses quantitative, functional-semantic, descriptive methods, uses the method of component analysis, highlights the main meanings and areas of use of syntagma as a steadily reproducible precedent nomination. Comparison of the experimental results and analysis of the contexts of the National Corpus of the Russian language shows significant consistency. Both in the survey and in the corpus, the terminological use is quite frequent (the second most frequent among all the selected types), however, it is significantly inferior to the totality of non-terminological uses, among which both close to the original and rather distant ones stand out (youth, people who did not justify the hopes placed on them in the professional sphere, socially unprotected groups' and others).
Poursanati S., Ghodrati A. - Russian Formalism in Practice: A Narratological Reading of Joseph Conrad's Youth pp. 11-26



Abstract: Conrad's shorter works of fiction are mostly ignored in the formalistic analysis of his critics. Therefore, in order to fill the gap in the literature associated with the narrative structure of Conrad's shorter works, the authors of this article consider in detail the ideas of Genette's narratology for Conrad's story "Youth, Narration". Narratology, the method used in this article, is a science of literature that originated in the works of Russian formalists and is engaged in the systematic study of narratives. The purpose of this science is to identify the basic structures and relationships involved in the creation of history and its meaning. To achieve this goal, the theorists of narratology have introduced and defined a number of language rules that separate all narratives written in all languages. The scientific novelty of the work lies in the fact that in practice the narratological reading of the material is shown, and also shows how the authors apply these structural rules to their texts. Genette, a French narratologist, introduced five narrative categories in his book Narrative Discourse; these categories include Order, Duration, Frequency, Mood, and Voice. This article discusses Genette's narrative categories applied to Joseph Conrad's short story "Youth, Narrative" and identifies the structural nuances of this story in order to help readers in general and those who study literature, in particular, to touch upon a careful reading of Conrad's writing style.
Yang H. - Coverage of the Theme "One Belt and One Road" in the Media, on the Example of the TASS Agency pp. 27-35



Abstract: The subject of this article is the media coverage of the topic "One Belt and One Road". The object of the study is the publications of the TASS news agency. The author analyzes the initiative from the perspective of the development of relations between the two countries and how it is reflected in the media. The media perception of this initiative has changed from superficial and one-sided to deep and comprehensive, and the focus of attention has expanded from economic interests to national security; proposals to participate in the construction of the "Belt and Road" at the present stage are becoming more and more pragmatic. The aim is to analyze the coverage of the topic in the Russian news agency. Methodology - content analysis of information messages. Novelty of the research - at the moment there is a lack of a large number of studies on the coverage of this topic in a particular media. It can be concluded that it is necessary to continue to promote cooperation in the field of production capacity, infrastructure construction and communication, industrial modernization and economic development issues. Today, Russia and China are actively promoting the docking of National Development Strategies until 2030 with the Belt and Road Initiative. Against this background, a study of the level of awareness and changing characteristics of the Belt and Road by the news agency may provide some thoughts and recommendations for further interaction. The results of the study can be applied to analyze the work and prospects and directions of development of the two countries within the framework of the initiative.
Derevskova E., Dorfman O., Pozdniakova N. - Language metaphor generating tropes pp. 36-44



Abstract: The article deals with the trope system of the Russian language. The aim of the article is to reveal the stages of analysis which students need to pass to identify different tropes based on usual metaphor. For mastering theoretical material the authors suggest the teaching technique founded on the step-by-step topic learning. The chosen form of the material presentation has determined the direction of tasks combined into three modules: "Language metaphor - Artistic metaphor"; "Language Metaphor - Personification," "Language Metaphor - Figurative comparison". Module work is connected, firstly, with the tasks involving consulting with dictionaries, studying the structure of dictionary entries, revealing the lexical-semantic variants of a polysemant word that determine the specifics of an individual trope. Secondly, the authors suggest types of exercises which involve context observing and help students rethink the meaning of a word and then correctly identify the functioning of the trope in the text. While studying the topic, each of the modules gives the opportunity to combine knowledge of theory and practical analysis of objective material and that makes the results of research work valuable, and conclusions conscious. While training bachelor-philologists, linguists, teachers of the Russian language and literature and students of general and (or) secondary general education, the suggested technique for studying complex issues of lexical semantics and trope system allows students to develop skills that implement professional competence related to the readiness to use systematized theoretical and practical knowledge to set and solve research problems in the field of education.
Cela X. - Narrative Devices of Metamodernism pp. 45-58



Abstract: Theorists of metamodernism have written a large number of scientific articles on metamodernism, but these articles only clarify the existence and meaning of metamodernism. It is important to reflect some of the narrative techniques used in literature, and this would contribute to a deeper acquaintance with metamodernism. The purpose of the study is to propose, analyze and reflect the narrative techniques of metamodernism, to enable the reader to better understand metamodernist practices in modern novels. Each era has its own storytelling techniques, and this article will introduce six of the main storytelling techniques used in metamodern novels. Six techniques: hesitation, thinking "as if", man, paradox, breaking boundaries within globalism and metanarrative. The object of the study is the analysis of the narrative techniques of metamodernism. In the article the author used analytical, descriptive and comparative methods. The author analyzes six narrative techniques, listing the reasons for their use. The author describes their use in the text using examples from the works of modern writers. It is also necessary to compare the metamodern narrative techniques with the narrative techniques of previous eras. The practical significance of the application in applying the results in the courses of modern Russian literature, theory and history of Russian and foreign literature. The novelty of the study lies in the reflection of six narrative techniques of metamodernism, which can help the reader to better understand metamodernism as a worldview. As a result, it is proved that metamodernism has its own unique narrative techniques that distinguish it from its predecessors. The six narrative techniques are an important fact proving that metamodernism exists and appears in literature and beyond.
Pshenichnikova A.Y. - The Vocabulary of Traditional Dishes of the Regions of Spain, which has a Foreign Language Origin. pp. 59-71



Abstract: In the modern world, the Spanish language in Latin America is defined as the national version of the Spanish language. The object of the study is the national variants of the Spanish language. The subject of the study is the vocabulary of traditional dishes of the regions of Spain. In this regard, considering the origin of the vocabulary of traditional Spanish dishes, we highlight the purpose of the study: to analyze the names of traditional dishes of the regions of Spain that have an origin from the names of dishes of some Latin American countries. The Spanish language has a wide territorial variability, which determines the inter-variant national and cultural specifics of communication (Firsova, 2021: 176). The objectives of this work are to establish the interrelationships of the origin of the vocabulary of traditional dishes of the regions of Spain with the vocabulary of similar dishes of Latin American countries. The scientific novelty of our research consists in examining and analyzing the little-studied vocabulary of dishes from Spain and Latin American countries, such as Peru, Argentina and Cuba. Relevance of the research: the role of the Spanish language and the national variant of the Spanish language are an urgent topic and suggest making new conclusions about the development of the language, in a broad sense, as a sign and communicative system. The vocabulary of traditional Spanish dishes, represented by such groups as Arabisms, Gallicisms, Latinisms, indigenisms, regionalisms and varianisms, is marked by their different origins. Spanish in Latin American countries can be defined as the national version of the Spanish language. Spanish in Latin America has the status of the official language. Along with the Spanish official language, Quechua and Aymara have the status of the state language in the countries of Peru and Bolivia, which is reflected in the national and cultural specifics of the Spanish language. In the countries we are considering, Peru, Argentina and Cuba, the Spanish language, of course, has its own peculiarities. In the article we gave an analysis of the vocabulary of dishes by origin.
Pavlov D.N. - Fairy Tale Narrative in the Media Environment: Structure and Functions (on the Example of Motivating YouTube Content) pp. 72-84



Abstract: The article puts forward and substantiates the concept of motivating content. On the example of the four most representative videos posted on the You-Tube video platform, its specific features are considered. So, firstly, the specifics of the composition of the analyzed videos are revealed, it is proved that their structure goes back to the narrative archetypes of a fairy tale. Secondly, the order of the narrative elements is determined and the key features of the emerging syntagmatic plot unity are described. Thirdly, the functional specificity of motivating content has been established, which lies in the fact that it performs a psychological and therapeutic function (motivating content helps in resolving a personal psychological crisis, temporarily replacing real psychological help). The method of functional analysis of the fairy tale narrative, developed by V. Propp, serves as a research method. This method is based on the principle of decomposition of a work, which allows you to divide the material into its component parts and analyze the invariant features of the text series. The novelty of the work lies in the fact that it presents a functional analysis of narrative matrices found in media works that perform a psychological and therapeutic function in society. As a result of the study, the author concludes that MC is useful both for the blogger (increase in the audience) and for the viewer (the first, but temporary, psychological and therapeutic help).
Kosarina A.A. - Changing the Semantics of Author Terms Based on Scientific and Artistic Texts on the Example of the Term "Happening" pp. 85-92



Abstract: The subject of the study is the concept of the author's term, its definition is given, and the etymological, semantic and pragmatic criteria for the allocation of the author's term are also highlighted. Using the term Happening as an example, the use of the author's term in professional and non-professional discourse is considered. The article examines the definition given by the author of the term Alan Kaprow, and the evolution of his understanding of the term Happening. The semantics of the term and its changes in the works of various artists of the 1950s - 1960s, as representatives of professional discourse, and in works of art of the 1960s - 2010s, representing non-professional discourse, are studied. Common features of the use of the term Happening in professional and non-professional discourses are highlighted. The main conclusions of the study are the following positions: the term Happening can be considered copyright, since its author is known, the author's sema is key to the semantics of the term, and professionals using it associate the concept with its creator. In professional discourse, the term is used in a direct terminological meaning. In non-professional discourse, the term loses part of this, acquiring others; in particular, the author's sema is lost, and the term no longer meets the criteria of the author's term. The novelty of the research lies in the appeal to the use of the English-language author's term in professional and non-professional discourse.
Zheng Q. - The Specifics of Word Formation in Chinese Russian-Learners' Interlanguage pp. 93-101



Abstract: The purpose of the study is to find out the specifics of word formation in Chinese Russian-learners interlanguage. In the process of mastering a second language, interlanguage is considered as a language system in which exist its own rules and function, which differ from the rules of both the native and the target languages. The article updates the concepts of the term "interlanguage" in recent studies in Russian linguistics, discusses the common characteristics of interlanguage, analyzes speech features and written language materials related to interlanguage of two groups of Chinese philology students studying Russian language at the Faculty of Philology in Peoples' Friendship University of Russia. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that the author for the first time systematically described the specifics of word formation in Chinese Russian-learners interlanguage in aspects of prefix, suffix, word endings, etc., explained the reasons for their existence. The obtained research results provide useful recommendations to teachers working in the field of foreign language teaching; the results can be especially useful in classes for teaching Chinese students Russian language. The material of this article can also be used in the process of compiling textbooks and teaching aids on applied linguistics and the discipline of Russian language.
Jia J. - National and Cultural Peculiarities of the Use of Phraseological Expressions in Chinese and Russian pp. 102-108



Abstract: Idioms are the essence of a people's language and have a distinctive important national character. An idiom is a frequently used phrase that plays an important role in everyday communication. The differences in the structure, metaphorical use, the origin of the precedent phrases reveal the individuality of the two languages and cultures. The article provides a comparative analysis of the use of idioms in Russian and Chinese. Although modern vocabulary is a part of the language, which has greatly developed and changed, this does not mean that all its laws are in a state of fluidity there are two kinds of lexical laws - static and dynamic. The aim of the research is to carry out the analysis of Russian and Chinese phraseological expressions. The subject of the research is the national and cultural peculiarities of the use of phraseological expressions. Methods of research - analysis of scientific sources on the topic of research. Results of work. In Russian language idioms are called "salt of life" and "fruit of historical wisdom". In this article we will first try to discuss the lexical features of modern language to shed light on this topic. The results of the study can be applied in further comparison of the phraseological units of the two countries. The novelty of the research is due to the lack of scientific elaboration of the issue. All this actualizes the chosen topic of our research.
Chzhan T., Zhdanova L.A. - The Syntaxeme 'pri tsare' (in tsarist time) in the Meaning of in Russia until 1917 (according to the Russian National Corpus) pp. 109-115



Abstract: The article is devoted to the linguistic means, trought which native speakers of the Russian language structure their history, divide it into periods. Such means include, in particular, indications of significant events (before / after the Revolution) and the nature of state power: pri tsare (in tsarist time), under the Soviet regime. The aim of the article is to describe the semantics, the pragmatics, the synonymic and antonymic relations of the syntaxeme pri tsare (in tsarist time) in the temporal absolutive use (without the extension of the definition). This use of the syntaxeme emerges after 1917, before which the syntaxeme is used in the temporal sense only with specifying definitions such as pri tsare Petre (in the time of Peter 1). The research material was found in the contexts borrowed from the main subcorpus of the Russian National corpus, the entire collection of samples consists of 964 contexts, 368 contexts are related to the temporal absolute use of the syntaxeme in questions. The analysis of contexts with the absolute temporal use of the syntaxeme allows us to identify the meaning 'in Russia before 1917' and several subtypes (shades of meaning): under the tsarist regime (denotes a wide time range with a blurred lower border), in the pre-revolutionary period (several decades, the reign of Nicholas II), a very long time ago'. The article uses quantitative, functional-semantic, descriptive methods, uses the method of component analysis, and considers the dynamic aspect (analyzes the change in the meaning of syntaxeme during the last century). The relevance of the study is due to the fact that lexicographic sources cannot explain the peculiarities of the use of the nominations under consideration, therefore, a description of their semantics and pragmatics with linguocultural commentary is required.
Chen F. - Real Geographical Loci and their Meaning in K. K. Sluchevsky's Cycle "Murmansk Echoes" pp. 116-122



Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of real geographical loci in the poem cycle "Murmansk echoes", written by the poet-pre-symbolist K. K. Sluchevsky in 1888 under the impression of a trip to the Murmansk region. The conducted research using historical, functional and comparative methods allows us to comprehend the nature of Sluchevsky's literary work and the philosophical ideas embedded in his poetry. The author of the article pays special attention to the study of landscapes, which are an expression of emotions and personal feelings of K. K. Sluchevsky, reflecting the concept of the poet's life and his philosophy; consideration of such an aspect of the topic as Sluchevsky's use of real loci to expand time and space. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that the work for the first time studied the influence of real geographical loci on the poetry of K. K. Sluchevsky, the depiction of artistic images in northern Russia, the life and customs of local pomors, investigated the changes in perspective in the real locus and the expansion of time, revealed the general "mythologeme" of the space of the real locus. As a result of the research, the author comes to the conclusion that the geographical locus allows the poet not only to convey impressions about what he saw, but also to open his inner life, and most importantly, to recreate a holistic picture of the universe through concrete and small things.
Literary criticism
Zakharova E.M. - The philosophical aspect of the book of literary and critical articles as a structural and semantic unity pp. 123-139



Abstract: The focus of this research is the book of literary-critical articles as a "big form", a phenomenon of such a special and developing branch of modern science of literature as cyclology. The main objects are authorized collections of articles written in the period from 1986 to 1989, when literary criticism of the philosophical direction was revived. Publications were selected as the research material: "On a live trail. Spiritual Searches of Russian Classics" by I.I. Vinogradov, "The Artist in Search of Truth" by I.B. Rodnyanskaya and "Paradoxes of Novelty: On the Literary Development of the XIX–XX centuries" by M.N. Epstein. The purpose of this work is to identify and analyze the principles that make it possible to talk about the philosophical nature of books that have become the object of comparative analysis for the first time. The distinctive feature of the books of the period 1986-1989 considered in this article in semantic terms were the "Aesopian language" conditioned by the era, indirect and direct references to the texts of Holy Scripture, concentration on issues related to the problems of Russian classical literature to solve problems of a spiritual and moral order. In general, we can talk about each of the books considered as a conscious attempt by the author to offer his own view both on problems relevant to the current state of literature and on issues of universal importance based on philosophical concepts and special ideological attitudes.
Skryabin V.Y. - Sonnet "Ozymandias" by P.B. Shelley pp. 140-146



Abstract: Thanks to its irony and the famous line "Look on my Works, ye Mighty, and despair!", the sonnet "Ozymandias" has become one of the most famous poems of the romantic era. It was written by Percy Bysshe Shelley in 1817 and eventually became his most famous work. The poem describes the half-buried remains of the statue of the Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses II and contrasts the proud words of the pharaoh with his ruined likeness. The main theme of "Ozymandias" is that any power is temporary and transitory, no matter how proud or tyrannical the ruler may be, and is achieved through a number of poetic techniques. The purpose of this study is to identify the features of the poetics of the sonnet "Ozymandias" by P.B. Shelley. This article presents the history of writing the sonnet and attempts to analyze the poetic techniques used in it. The analysis takes into account the peculiarities of literary and critical perception and understanding of the author's works and their translations in Russia. A hypothesis is described explaining the origin of the pseudonym Glirastes, under which Percy Shelley was hiding and under which the sonnet "Ozymandias" was first published in The Examiner newspaper on January 11, 1818. References to the sonnet "Ozymandias" in popular culture are given.
Kudryavtseva R.A. - Mari folk Songs in the Artistic Structure of S. G. Chavain's Novel "Elnet" pp. 147-175



Abstract: The article examines the folklore intertext of the novel "Elnet" by the classic of Mari literature Sergey Grigoryevich Chavain at the level of folk songs, reveals their place in the artistic structure of the novel text, analyzes their role in revealing the people's perception of the world and the nature of the creative personality of the intellectual-Mari, in the expression of the author's ideas. The song texts of the novel, directly borrowed from folklore or reworked by the author, as well as created by Chavain himself in the likeness of the content and stylistics of folk-poetic works, give the artistic narrative romantic sublimity, poetry, drama and national specificity, strengthen the author's concept of the world and character. The methodology of the research is determined by the structural and semantic analysis of the works. The article for the first time identifies and describes in detail the semantic and typological components of the folklore-song intertext of Chavain's novel "Elnet", its significance for the expression of its artistic content. It is proved that the song texts of the novel mostly reveal the traditional cultural way of life of the Mari people, their natural existence, orientation to myths and ideals (labor songs; ritual songs: wedding, including lamentation songs; lyrical, mainly love and orphan songs). They are directly related to the national issues of the novel and the author's concept based on the uniqueness of the Mari people and their culture. A lot of space is occupied by songs that highlight the difficulties of the prerevolutionary social life of the Mari people, the inequality of ethnonational existence, which became the reason for the formation of revolutionary predilections in the popular environment (recruiting - about seeing off to war, orphans, lamentations). This folklore intertext helps to clarify the ideological and moral quest of Mari in the pre-revolutionary era, the search for ways of social and national liberation brewing in the depths of the people.
Bogdanova I.A. - The Egyptian Novelistic Prose of the 1950s and the Tendencies of its Development: a Comparative Analysis pp. 176-189



Abstract: The article investigates the common tendencies and the diversity of the Egyptian novelistic prose of the 1950s. We analyzed the following novels: The Earth (1954) by Abd al-Rahman al-Sharqawi, The Cairo Trilogy (19561957) by Naguib Mahfouz, The Sin (1959) by Yusuf Idris, The Open Door (1960) by Latifa al-Zayyat, and The Blue Flashlights (1960) by Mahmoud Teymour. Despite the fact that some of the most significant novels were written in the 1950s (The Trilogy, The Sin, and The Open Door are in the top-100 of the Arabic novels of the 20th century, Arab writers union, 2001), the researchers have been taking into account either the authors one by one, or the modern Arabic literature in general. We drew the attention to the national features and the close context in which these influential Egyptian novels were created. By comparing their plots, characters systems, style and language, narrative, and the conflicts of the pieces, we came to the following results: the realism in Egypt flourished in the 1950s; the socialist, critical, psychological branches of the realistic literature are represented. The writers interest was dedicated to the national liberation struggle. The prose of the decade is either urban or rustic. The difference between writers generation appears in the language of the dialogues (Standard Arabic or Egyptian dialect). In conclusion, the realism in Egypt had reached its mature stage in the 1950s, and during the decade, the tendencies appeared that had led to the rise of modernism in the 1960s.
Shchepacheva I.V. - Multiculturalism in Teju Cole's Novel "Open City" pp. 190-199



Abstract: The object of the study is the modern American multicultural prose of the late XX-early XXI century, the subject of the study is the situation of multiculturalism. The research material is the novel "Open City" by the modern American writer of Nigerian origin Teju Cole, published in 2012. The purpose of the study is the relevance of this study due to several factors. Firstly, at this stage, both in foreign and domestic literary studies, one can observe a continuing interest in highlighting various features of multicultural literature in the United States. Secondly, today T. Cole is a significant author in the modern literary space of the USA. The novel we are analyzing is distinguished by its appeal to the iconic trends of modern US literature and is an interesting material for research in the context of the designated topic. If the work of many representatives of the multicultural prose of the USA of the late XX-early XXI century became the subject of scientific research, the work of Teju Cole is practically not studied. In this regard, the novelty of our research lies in the fact that for the first time in Russian literary studies, an analysis of the novel "Open City" is provided from the point of view of the functioning of various cultures and their influence on the formation of the identity of the protagonist. As a result of the research, we come to the conclusion that the novel highlights the multicultural situation in which the main character finds himself. Such a situation causes a mental crisis in the mind of the hero, since he cannot fully feel his belonging to any of the cultural components.
Yi L. - Fashion and the buzzword in scientific coverage (based on the material of Russian and Chinese) pp. 200-216



Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of fashion and buzzwords in scientific coverage, the task of which is to identify the concept of "fashion" in various scientific fields and the characteristics of the buzzword in the discourses of the Russian and Chinese languages. The article describes the manifestation of the fashion category in philosophical discourse. A comprehensive analysis of the philosophers' points of view on fashion allows us to identify the load of meanings of the concept of "fashion" in clothing, its connection with the concepts of "prestige" and "taste" and characters (total, changeable). Separating the semiotics and semiology of fashion, R. Barth proves the inseparability of fashion and language. Semantic and cognitive analysis of the concept of a fashionable word in two languages shows common characteristics: relevance, mass character, prestige, transience, news, expressiveness. The study allows us to conclude that the concept of "language fashion" and "fashion word" is closely related to the category of fashion in culture and in civilization. In the philosophical discourse, the most important characteristics of the fashion category were highlighted: its inseparable connection with the category of taste, the social nature of fashion, its inclusiveness and changeability. In semiotics, fashion was defined as a sign system put at the service of the economy and social stratification of society. Language fashion is a powerful means of manipulating and influencing human consciousness. The buzzword is a significant dynamic linguistic phenomenon, it simultaneously creates a problem of lexicography and performs powerful functions. The author considers the concept of "fashionable word" in the everyday life of Russian linguistics in comparison with Chinese, which determines the novelty of the study.
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