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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue ¹ 12/2023
Contents of Issue ¹ 12/2023
Saprykina O.A. - Language Policy in Portuguese-speaking Countries: Institutional Aspect pp. 1-14



Abstract: The article examines the features of language policy in Portuguese-speaking countries. According to the author, language policy is the key to the solution of the linguistic problems of the national community and to the formation of the language environment. Language policy measures can be applied in three areas: institutional, educational and economic ones. In the field of institutional activity, legislative documents, especially the constitutions, are of primary importance. They determine the official or co-official status of the language. This study analyses the texts of the Constitutions and of the key acts of the Commonwealth of Portuguese Language Countries, which are the Declaration of Unification and the Charter. In addition, digital editions of the updated orthographic dictionaries were considered as a means to developing a unified spelling standard, which takes into account the national and territorial differentiation of the Portuguese language. The author notes that the language policy in Portuguese-language countries, being an instrument of nation-building and a symbol of the development of national culture, is at the same time a means to achieving political goals and a manifestation of historically marked identity. Through the analysis of the content of official documents, the author comes to the conclusion that Portuguese-speaking countries, being ethnically heterogeneous, are converging within the framework of language policy. Language policy, in turn, takes into consideration the priorities of youth policy, which involves the integration of young people with the help of the latest technological resources.
Eternal symbols
Il'chenko N.M., Chernysheva E.G. - ''Visible is a symbol'': Nature as an animated creature pictured by Russian and German romantics pp. 15-27



Abstract: The topicality of the research refers to the problem of national identity, national code, embodied among other spheres of spiritual life and in literature. Romantics' worldview was composed on the foundation of folklore, myth and literary tradition. The system of symbolic motifs of 'infancy' and 'pre-earth life', affinity of souls, joining in death and others became significant elements of the works in the Romanticism period. The study object is the collection of writings connected to natural-philosophic ideas of Nature as a living creature. The subject-matter of the research is national identity of Romanticism, manifested in the peculiarities of Nature perception. In the process of analysis, a comprehensive literary approach was used, combining historical-literary, historical-genetic, comparative-typological methods, which made it possible to establish the specifics of the embodiment of ideas about Nature by writers of Russia and Germany of the Romantic era. Presenting the natural-philosophic system of life conception, the writers relied on F. Schelling's philosophy. It is demonstrated that Russian romantics associate the origin of ideal female images with Heaven (angel-woman) and German romanticists – with the Earth (flower woman). Angel woman and flower woman help the characters to understand the essence of the existence. Natural symbols used in the works (sky, earth, flower atc.) and other symbolic images (melody, kiss, icon etc.) convey the specific mystic world understanding of the authors. Novelty of the research lies in the analysis of dominant images, that makes it possible to determine 'the independence of the face' of romantics in Russia and Germany, basing on the idea of a man dependent on Nature that existed in the developed national tradition. This approach makes it possible to specify the understanding of the particular characteristics of archetypic female images presented in ethnic-cultural sphere.
Shkalina G.E. - S.G. Chavain's novel "Elnet": the unity of the Mari language, folklore and traditions pp. 28-40



Abstract: The article contains an analysis of the genre content and poetics of the novel "Elnet" by the classic of Mari literature Sergey Grigoryevich Chavain in the unity of the Mari language, folklore and cultural traditions of the Mari people. The work is considered as a "linguistic metaphor", in the context of ideological issues of the epoch, as an intellectual novel in the Mari national literature. The author's concept associated with the archetypal image of the Elnet River, symbolically placed in the title of the work, is revealed, its connection with the writer's ideological plan, as well as with the Mari national and world cultural tradition, its literary and artistic context is revealed. Considerable attention is paid in the article to the consideration of this image as an expression of the traditional ancestral faith, the core of which is the worship of nature and the cultivation of the human in man in the bosom of the "accommodating and nurturing landscape" (the term of Lev Gumilev). The article is devoted to a comprehensive and interdisciplinary study of the classic novel of Mari literature. The content of the actual literary text of the novel is considered in a broad socio-cultural context, through the prism of the mythological, philosophical, and aesthetic views of the Mari people. 3. The article proves that the name of Sergei Grigoryevich Chavain is one of the most fateful for the Mari nation; the author of the novel "Elnet" was concerned about the state of the intellectual and cultural status of the nation, its world–building horizon; the writer remains today a "singer of the people", a vivid symbol of national life. For the first time in regional science, the question is raised about the main levels of the Mari world created in the novel "Elnet" by Sergei Grigoryevich Chavain, vividly traced in the title image – the image of Elnet; they are defined in the article as follows: 1) Elnet as a tributary of the Volga, one of the most beautiful rivers in the territory of the Mari territory; 2) Elnet as the motherland, the Ecumene; 3) Elnet as the "golden" world of wonderful Mari songs; 4) Elnet as the prophetic Path of the Mari people. The story of Mari, understood by S. Chavain, is a Road leading into the distance behind an open door, at the same time it is a spiritual process fueled by a rich cultural heritage, currents of the present, and a dream of accomplishment.
Kotliar E.R., Reznik O.V., Gotsanyuk N.Y. - L. N. Tolstoy's Pattern in the cultural landscape of Crimea pp. 41-54



Abstract: The cultural landscape as a concept is not a homogeneous formation, but, like a mosaic, includes patterns of cultures, both ethnic groups and state and other entities, religions, professional traditions, art, literature, science. Outstanding personalities who have contributed to the culture of the area have a separate role. The Crimean cultural landscape is rich and diverse, which is natural for a multiethnic region with a rich centuries-old history. Many outstanding figures of culture and art have contributed to the cultural landscape of Crimea, such as artists I.K. Aivazovsky, M.A. Voloshin, K.F. Bogaevsky, poets and writers A. Mickiewicz, A. S. Pushkin, I. Shmelev, architects A. N. Beketov, P.Ya. Saferov and N.P. Krasnov, composer A. Karamanov, ethnographer and sociologist N.Y. Danilevsky and many others. The subject of this article is the contribution to the cultural landscape of Crimea of the outstanding writer, cultural and philosophical figure, Leo Nikolaevich Tolstoy. Research methods used in the article are: the method of historicism in retrospect of the details of the cultural landscape of the Crimea, the method of historiography in clarifying the concept of cultural landscape, the associative-artistic method in comparing what L.N. Tolstoy wrote about the Crimea and its contribution to the cultural landscape. The scientific novelty of the research consists in understanding L. N. Tolstoy's contribution to the cultural landscape of Crimea. The cultural landscape of Crimea is rich and diverse due to both the unique natural and climatic zone and the geographical location of the peninsula on the way from east to west, which since ancient times has led to the polyethnicity, polylingualism, and multi-confessional nature of the Crimean cultural ecumene. The formation of the Crimean cultural landscape was influenced not only by communities, but also by prominent personalities who lived and/or visited the peninsula at different times. The contribution to the Crimean culture of the famous writer, philosopher, educator L. N. Tolstoy consists in his deep philosophical understanding of the local cultural flavor, expressed in the cycle "Sevastopol stories", as well as in the diaries of the writer, where he talks about Crimea as a place whose beauty and harmony embodies the philosophical harmony of thought, understanding by man and his the eternal pursuit of goodness and light as the goal of life.
Porol P.V., Porol O.A. - From the search for the "quiet girl" in N. Gumilev's poetry pp. 55-62



Abstract: N. Gumilev's appeal to the theme of China can be traced in a number of his poetic texts, the pinnacle of which can be called the cycle of poems "Porcelain Pavilion" (1918). The study examines one of the dominant Chinese images in N. Gumilev's poetry – the image of a Chinese girl, clearly visible among the space of poetic texts created by the poet – both Chinese and Russian. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of poetic works, the semantics and functioning of the image of a Chinese girl in the poet's perception are analyzed. During the research, the authors of the article turn to the cultural and historical realities of China, its philosophy and mythology. China and Russia are separated in N. Gumilev's mind and, at the same time, merged into one in a number of works. The reasoning and conclusions of the authors of the article are based on critical research, a comparison of two cultures. The analysis of poetic works was carried out in the semantic aspect using the search for textual parallels. The study was carried out using the structural-semiotic method. What was new in the work was the identification and interpretation of the image of a Chinese girl in N. Gumilev's poetry. During the research, the following poetic works were analyzed: "The Queen" (1909), "I believed, I thought..." (1911), "The Girl" (1912), "The Moon on the Sea" (1918), "The Road" (1918), "The Three Wives of the Mandarin" (1918). In the cycle "Porcelain Pavilion", the image of a Chinese girl occurs nine times. The genesis of the "quiet girl" in the poems under consideration is revealed. It was found that the image of a Chinese girl corresponds to the "canons of the image" of Nothing ("The Queen"). The image of a Chinese girl symbolizes the outcome of human existence in a world without God, without being in its highest sense ("I believed, I thought..."). In the poem "Moon on the Sea", as in the subsequent poems of the cycle "Porcelain Pavilion" ("Connection", "Poet", "House"), N. Gumilev adheres to the Chinese tradition, comparing the female image with the moon.
Onufrieva E.S., Tresorukova I.V. - Discursive formulas of response in Modern Greek pp. 63-78



Abstract: The article is dedicated to the study of discursive formulas of response in Modern Greek. Discursive formulas of response, i.e. idioms which are used in speech as a reaction to what was previously said by the interlocutor and which reproduce some of the phonetic properties of the previous utterance, constitute one of the most language-specific layers of phraseology and pose a difficulty for a correct decoding and translation. The aim of the article is to describe the little-studied material of Modern Greek formulas of response, to determine their types and specific properties and to identify typical communicative situations in which they are used. The study is based on the instances of use of such structures in literary works, internet texts, movies and series in Modern Greek, along with data from dictionaries. Methods of structural, semantic, contextual and comparative analysis are used. The findings of the study provide evidence that in Modern Greek there exist structures corresponding to the definition of discursive formulas of response. Eight types of such structures can be distinguished based on the type of the initiating utterance: reactions to a question; reactions to an address; reactions to an expression of agreement or disagreement; reactions to an expression of opinion or an evaluation; reactions to a factual statement; reactions to a greeting, a farewell or a well-wish; reactions to an expression of gratitude; reactions to a directive. It is shown, however, that the key role in every case is played by the actual lexical make-up of the initiating utterances. From the authors’ point of view, what is particularly interesting for the comparative analysis of discursive formulas of response in different languages is the fact that some Modern Greek formulas of response have the form of a curse or of an ill-wish.
Character in literature
Belyaeva T.N., Guseva N.V. - The system of characters in the novel «Erenger» by Mari writer M. Shketan pp. 79-86



Abstract: This article is devoted to the analysis of the correlation of characters with each other, their individual characteristics in the novel by Yakov Pavlovich Mayorov (pen name is Shketan) «Erener». The artistic significance of literary characters in revealing the ideological and thematic content of the work, its problems, ways of expressing their character are revealed. Such heroes as Evai Petr, Vanka Savelyev, Verush, Orina, Shamrai Shumat, Klavdia Algaeva, being in the center of the prose writer’s attention and having a firm character and strong will, are actively transform the artistic reality. Through actions, deeds performed, external and internal manifestations of the personality of the main character Evai Petyr, the author’s basic concept of peace and man in it is expressed. This large art canvas reflects the history, life, culture of the Mari people of the early 20th century; the spiritual appearance and character of the Soviet people. The writer managed to reveal the individual originality of the character traits of each hero of the work, psychologically subtly outline his inner world, thoughts and experiences. Revealing the fate of typical heroes of different social strata: the social formation of communists, rural intelligentsia, wealthier peasants and merchants, poor peasants who were the first to support Soviet regime, M. Shketan tells about the life of the Mari people in the period before the October Revolution of 1917, in the first decade of Soviet regime. The wide coverage of political, social problems and deep coverage of life processes in all their complexity and versatility, a vivid character system determined the artistic significance of the work. The main feature in the depiction of the novel’s characters is that their life is shown in a creative relationship: influencing each other, changing the social system, the way of life, they change the heroes themselves.
Mezit A.E., Kattsina T.A. - Special vocabulary of the Russian sublanguage of social work in the stratification aspect pp. 87-95



Abstract: The article examines the vocabulary of the Russian sublanguage of social work from the standpoint of stratification terminology, identifies and characterizes the varieties of terminological vocabulary, as well as special names functioning in the lower case of the sublanguage. The object of the study is the sublanguage of social work employees. The subject of the study is the lexical composition of a special sublanguage of social work. The following methods were used in the course of the study: the method of selective receipt of special texts, the sociolinguistic method, the functional-semantic method and the method of linguistic description. The author considers the studied vocabulary from the standpoint of genesis, formal-structural criterion, motivation, on the basis of correlation with logical categories. The results of the study identified stratification categories of special vocabulary of the Russian sublanguage of social work, carried out the classification of special units by genesis, from the standpoint of formal structural criteria, on the basis of motivation and correlation with logical categories. It is revealed that the key functions of the special vocabulary in the studied sublanguage are nominative and cognitive. In the course of the research, the conclusion is made about the "maturity" of the special vocabulary of the sublanguage of social work and its high linguistic informativeness. The scientific novelty of the research lies in the fact that for the first time (within the framework of the problems of modern linguistics) a comprehensive analysis of the vocabulary of the Russian sublanguage of special work was carried out, stratification categories of professional vocabulary of the sublanguage of social work were identified.
Kuts N.V. - E. F. Rosen against Slavophilism: two articles on the "Moskovsky sbornik" of 1847 pp. 96-102



Abstract: The subject of the study is the perception by Baron E. F. Rosen - poet, playwright and critic, author of the libretto for the opera by M. I. Glinka "Life for the Tsar" (1836) - of the ideas of Slavophilism and pan-Slavism in the second half of the 1840s. The object of the study was two anonymous reviews of the Slavophile "Moscow Literary and Scientific Collection", published in 1847, the authorship of which was announced by Rosen himself during a printed discussion with S. P. Shevyrev about N. V. Gogol's book "Selected passages from correspondence with Friends" published in the same year. Other printed works by Rosen on the pages of the newspaper "Severnaya Pchela" and the magazine "Son of the Fatherland" are also used as material. The main research methods are hermeneutical and cultural-historical. Rosen's texts are considered in connection with the socio-political situation of the 1840s. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the introduction into scientific circulation of two texts not previously attributed to Rosen. The main conclusions of the study are as follows: 1) in 1847 Rosen treated the ideas of Slavophilism and pan-Slavism sharply negatively, but in 1848, apparently, against the background of news about revolutions in Western Europe, he drew closer to the Slavophiles in reasoning about the special beginning of the Russian people, "an unthinking sense of morality" opposed to Western European rationalism; 2) Rosen's differences with the Slavophiles were explained by his enlightening Westernism based on N. M. Karamzin and A. S. Pushkin; 3) the official ideology of the Nicholas reign imposed a certain imprint on Rosen's views; 4) the baron assigned a powerful civilizing role to the autocratic government.
Zhen C. - Content strategies of Chinese reality shows in the era of media convergence pp. 103-111



Abstract: The scientific article is devoted to the study of content strategies used in Chinese reality shows during the period of media convergence. In the era of rapid media development and the merging of various platforms, the evolution of content approaches in Chinese reality programs is analyzed. The study focuses on the impact of this evolution on viewers and the role of reality TV in China's cultural and media landscape.The article is devoted to a detailed study of the content strategies of Chinese reality shows in the context of the modern era of media convergence. The authors analyze the impact of technological innovations and changes in the media environment on the development and presentation of reality formats, as well as the reaction of the Chinese audience to these changes. The article examines the various strategies used by producers to adapt to the new demands of the digital era and effectively interact with viewers.The article is based on the analysis of the study of content strategies that are actively used today in modern Chinese reality shows, during the period of rapid development of media convergence. To achieve this goal, a comprehensive methodological approach was applied, including an analysis of the content of reality programs, a review of relevant literature on the topic and interviews with participants and viewers. The study showed the evolution of content strategies in Chinese reality shows, reflecting the decisive influence of media convergence on the production and perception of content. The current key trends and changes in the representation of reality, as well as interaction with the audience, are analyzed. The results of the study can be used to improve strategies for creating and promoting content in modern conditions of media convergence, as well as in the field of cultural studies and media research. The work contributes to understanding the dynamics of changes in the content of Chinese reality shows in the context of media convergence, identifying unique aspects of this process in Chinese culture and society. The study confirms the importance of adapting content strategies under the influence of media convergence and puts forward proposals for the development of more effective content approaches in the modern Chinese media environment.
ZHANG Q., Sheremeteva E.S. - The derivative preposition "in the account": the specifics of functioning pp. 112-123



Abstract: The object of the study is the word form "in the account", which performs a prepositional function. The subject of the study is the lexical compatibility of this word form. The purpose of this article is to present the results of the analysis of the compatibility of this word form and, on this basis, to show the features of its functioning. One of the aspects of the review is the analysis of the lexicographic representation of the word form"in the account" in the dictionaries. The main attention is paid to the specifics of the lexical compatibility of the word form "in the account", which occupies the position of the right and left components of the structure formed by this word form, including the thematic groups into which vocabulary is combined in the context of the word form "in the account". Considerable attention is paid to the issues of grammaticalization in the aspect of the transition of nouns into prepositions. The signs allowing to determine the degree of grammaticalization of the described word form are considered. The research material was collected using the National Corpus of the Russian Language. The method of collecting the material included a lexical and grammatical search according to the specified parameters. The search was conducted mainly in the newspaper and pan-chronicle buildings. The study of the selected material was carried out using a descriptive method, with the inclusion of a contextual analysis technique. As a result of the study, a typical vocabulary was identified in the position of the right and left components of the construction with the word form "in the account", combined into the thematic group "finance". This allowed us to conclude about the limited, highly specialized compatibility of this word form. The novelty of the study lies in the fact that the analysis of contexts allowed us to establish both the typed compatibility of the word form "in the account" and the obvious signs of grammaticalization of the word form. These include decategorization and context expansion of the word form. These signs indicate the final stage of the grammaticalization process of the word form "in the account", functioning in constructions of a certain type. The revealed signs allow us to assert that the word form "in the account", if used in a prepositional function, is no longer a form of the noun "account" and should be included in the class of derived prepositions.
Shekhovtsova T.A. - The functions of Korean proverbs in the political discourse
of the English-language media of South Korea
pp. 124-143



Abstract: The research is devoted to the study of Korean proverbs functioning in the political discourse of the English-language media of South Korea, the definition of their communicative and pragmatic functions. The aim of the study is to identify the features of the Korean paremiological units usage in English-language political media texts. To solve the tasks set in the work, the following research methods were used: communicative-pragmatic analysis based on the interpretation of the meaning and functions of proverbs within the context of a contextual situation; comparative analysis of paroemias in the context of interlanguage communication. To determine the role of paremiological units in the political texts in the communication process, elements of discursive analysis were also applied. The scientific novelty of the study is determined by the fact that the functions of Korean proverbs are for the first time analyzed in the context of the English-speaking modern Internet media of South Korea. The development of the methodology for analyzing the functioning of the communicative and pragmatic functions of Korean proverbs in political mass media discourse should also be mentioned. According to the results, depending on the context, Korean proverbs in English-language media texts, performing a wide range of general linguistic and grammatical functions, are rarely used as exclusively directive statements. Based on the discursive situation and the personal intention of the author in highlighting a certain level of content of the proverb, the paremia can perform various functions. The multifunctionality of Korean proverbs allows the author to influence the reader regardless of belonging to the culture of the country. The research materials can be used to expand the content of practical courses for students of philological and linguistic specializations of universities, in applied educational activities.
Character in literature
Yuan X. - The concept of "way" as a characteristic of the image of the hero in the novel by A. A. Fadeev "The Rout" pp. 144-153



Abstract: The subject of the study is the representation of the concept of the "way" in the novel by A. A. Fadeev "The Rout". The purpose of the work is to describe the representations of the concept of "way" as a real space in the novel and as a metaphor for the changes of its characters. The space category reflects the topographical features of the Far East, helping to trace the path of the detachment in the coordinates of space through the point of view of the protagonist. The spatial frame of the narrative is built with the help of specific subject words and toponyms, which mainly represent the remote countryside and the physical geography of the Far East. The attributes that form the natural space in the novel correspond to the negative emotional changes of the characters, revealing the inherent cruelty of the Civil War. When expressing this type of spatial relationship, it is the verb that plays the dominant role, which is based on the separation according to the static/dynamic manifestation of locative semantics, at the same time, verbs of displacement significantly surpass verbs of position. The following methods were used in the course of the study: the method of linguistic description, the method of contextual analysis, and the method of semantic analysis. The text space, as an important part of the content of the novel, depicts fragments of reality, and through the spatial concept of the "way" builds a general spatial picture of the world. The concept of "way" in a metaphorical sense is a subconcept of the concept of "Civil War", in accordance with this, the results of this work enrich the figurative zone of the concept of "Civil War". An analytical algorithm for the study of text space can be applied to the spatial analysis of similar works of art. The result of the study was the conclusion that the "way" is one of the central concepts of the novel. The concept of "way" has a negative connotation, suffering occurs in the process of the detachment's retreat. In addition, A. Fadeev includes spiritual trials in the path of the revolutionary hero, the character completes internal changes in the affirmation of socialist values in external crises and complex character relationships.
Yang X. - Lexical units nominating women in the paremias about the gender inequality of the Russian language pp. 154-162



Abstract: Russian linguistic and cultural community gender stereotypes reflecting the inequality between men and women in the Russian linguistic and cultural community, verbalized by the paremias of the Russian language; the subject of the study are such nominating components as "woman", "wife", "daughter", "mother—in-law". The material under study forms part of the national picture of the world, of which the paremic corpus is a part. Special attention is paid to the verbalization of gender stereotypes in the studied parodies. The aim of the study is to describe the lexical units that nominate women and are used as part of the Russian language related thematically to the linguistic markers of gender inequality. The relevance of this study is determined by both linguistic and extralinguistic parameters. The first group includes an interest in the linguistic and cultural analysis of the paremiological fund, including in a comparative aspect. The second group of factors includes a social demand to satisfy the need to understand the mentality of representatives of the Russian linguistic culture. The following methods were used in this article: systematization, generalization, description, semantic analysis, conceptual analysis, linguistic and cultural analysis. The novelty of the study lies in the fact that for the first time it presents in a generalized form gender stereotypes that take place in the Russian language community and which are verbalized in paremias with nominating components "woman", "wife", "daughter", "mother-in-law", indicating a social role of a woman (wife, mother, mother-in-law, daughter). The main conclusions of the study are the following : historically, the Russian linguistic and cultural community has developed a pejorative view of a woman as a member of society. Russian language parodies with such nominating components as "woman", "wife", "daughter", "mother-in-law" most often actualize negative connotations that are expressed at the explicit level. This is confirmed by currently existing Russian gender studies, which show that there are certain patterns of male and female verbal behavior in the Russian language, the differences in which are probabilistic in nature.
Author's view
Cheng S. - Ecological consciousness in the works of writers of small peoples of Russia (on the example of Yu. Rytheu, E. Aipina, Yu. Shestalov) pp. 163-175



Abstract: The article analyzes the ecological consciousness in the works of writers of the small peoples of the North of Russia. The subjects of the study are the works of Yu. Rytheu, E. Aipina. Yu. Shestalov. Unlike ecological works, ecological consciousness in the works of these writers is more connected with national continuity and cultural heritage. Globalization and modernity have had a huge impact on all spheres of development of national minorities, and they were forced to integrate into the modernization process, whether through active choice or passive acceptance.Modern economic means of industrialization, programming and rationing have an impact on the traditional ways of supporting ethnic minorities. Writers from small nations, as representatives of the advanced intelligentsia of various ethnic groups, were the first to feel this crisis and expressed their concern in their works. This article mainly uses the method of text analysis to analyze ecological consciousness in the work of writers from small peoples. The main contribution of the author is that he offers new methods of studying the literature of small peoples. Ecological consciousness in the works of writers of national minorities differs from other ecological literary works. Ecological consciousness in the works of writers of ethnic minorities is ultimately a matter of survival and sustainability of an ethnic group. At a time when the problem of globalization and modernity is becoming obvious, writers from ethnic minorities use their own literary works to raise this environmental alarm and arouse readers' attention to this problem. The author analyzes the works of writers belonging to small peoples, pointing out the various means and ways in which writers express their ecological knowledge.
Kuprin A.S. - The poetic specificity of Gilda's "On the Death of Britain" and the "Hesperica Famina": a pragmatic aspect and a dominant analysis. On the 135th anniversary of the birth of B. I. Yarkho (1889-1942) pp. 176-189



Abstract: Τhis article deals with the work of the British writer Gildas the Wise "On the Ruin of Britain" and the poetic text "Hisperica Famina", written in the British archipelago (presumably in Ireland). Both works are written in Latin and represent milestones in the history of the Hiberno-British literature of late antiquity and the early Middle Ages. There is no consensus about dating to a year or at least a decade for both texts. "On the Ruin of Britain" was written presumably in the late V — early VI centuries; the Hisperica Famina are usually attributed to the second half of the VII century. "On the Ruin of Britain" contains a brief historical sketch and an protracted invective against the kings and clergy of Britons. The Hisperica Famina represent the Latin versification practice of Hibernian scribes. The methodological ideas of Boris I. Yarkho (1889-1942), set out in his fundamental work "A Methodology of Precise Literary Studies", serve as a conceptual basis for this research. On its basis, the author of the article identifies complexes of stylistic features and their compositional distribution which reflects poetic dominants common to Gildas and the author of the Hisperica Famina (so called faminator). The tendency of syntactic interlocking in the Hisperica Famina regularly prevails over the same tendency in "On the Ruin of Britain", it indicates that a specific attitude to the syntactical style, usual for the faminator and his poetic circle, began to form back in the Gildas's era. The common features of both texts show the prevalence of certain poetic dominants and can serve as a serious argument in defense of the thesis of the continuity from Gildas or writers of his circle to the faminator. The stylometry method may be very useful for comparing texts even if they they differ in genre and era.
Automatic language processing
Golikov A., Akimov D., Romanovskii M., Trashchenkov S. - Aspects of creating a corporate question-and-answer system using generative pre-trained language models pp. 190-205



Abstract: The article describes various ways to use generative pre-trained language models to build a corporate question-and-answer system. A significant limitation of the current generative pre-trained language models is the limit on the number of input tokens, which does not allow them to work "out of the box" with a large number of documents or with a large document. To overcome this limitation, the paper considers the indexing of documents with subsequent search query and response generation based on two of the most popular open source solutions at the moment – the Haystack and LlamaIndex frameworks. It has been shown that using the open source Haystack framework with the best settings allows you to get more accurate answers when building a corporate question-and-answer system compared to the open source LlamaIndex framework, however, requires the use of an average of several more tokens.    The article used a comparative analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of using generative pre-trained language models in corporate question-and-answer systems using the Haystack and Llamaindex frameworks. The evaluation of the obtained results was carried out using the EM (exact match) metric. The main conclusions of the conducted research on the creation of question-answer systems using generative pre-trained language models are: 1. Using hierarchical indexing is currently extremely expensive in terms of the number of tokens used (about 160,000 tokens for hierarchical indexing versus 30,000 tokens on average for sequential indexing), since the response is generated by sequentially processing parent and child nodes. 2. Processing information using the Haystack framework with the best settings allows you to get somewhat more accurate answers than using the LlamaIndex framework (0.7 vs. 0.67 with the best settings). 3. Using the Haystack framework is more invariant with respect to the accuracy of responses in terms of the number of tokens in the chunk. 4. On average, using the Haystack framework is more expensive in terms of the number of tokens (about 4 times) than the LlamaIndex framework. 5. The "create and refine" and "tree summarize" response generation modes for the LlamaIndex framework are approximately the same in terms of the accuracy of the responses received, however, more tokens are required for the "tree summarize" mode.
Mukabenova Z.A., Kharchevnikova R.P., Monraev M.U., Suseeva D.A., Bitkeev P.T. - The linguistic and cultural aspect of color in the Kalmyk and Korean languages pp. 206-215



Abstract: This article discusses the semantics and symbolism of primary colors in Kalmyk and Korean traditional cultures. The subject of our research is the content of the basic concepts of color terms in the linguistic picture of the world of Kalmyks and Koreans. Linguistic and cultural analysis of color terms in the languages under consideration allows us to determine the universal and specific features of the linguistic picture of the world, which represent the historical, cultural, social experience of two peoples, accumulated as a result of their development. The research material is proverbs and stable expressions of the Kalmyk and Korean languages. The study of basic colors in these languages is based on the theory of Yin-Yang and the Five Elements, which symbolize opposites that are closely related to each other. A comparative analysis of Korean and Kalmyk material identified and revealed valuable information related to the mentality, traditions and customs of these peoples, and showed the important role of color in the linguistic picture of the world of the two peoples. Color affects the social, religious, moral, emotional and interpersonal relationships of people. Despite the fact that each nation has its own way of seeing the world in its own way, analyzing various phenomena of the surrounding reality, the analysis of the material made it possible to establish that the worldview of the two peoples in terms of spiritual and moral values indicates their related cultural ties. The author examines in detail the power of the influence of color on the worldview of different peoples through the language of folklore, which will bring a fresh perspective to this area. The following methods were used in the study: comparative, comparative-typological, structural-semantic, comparative-historical, etymological and the method of complex conceptual-semantic analysis.
Mutalov R.O. - Postfixal expression of the category of grammatical class in the attributive forms of the Dargin languages pp. 216-224



Abstract: The article is devoted to the peculiarities of class markers functioning in adjective and participial suffixes of the South Dargin languages (Dargin branch of the Nakh-Dagestan languages). The Dargin languages are characterized by a complex and extensive system of grammatical categories, however, the categories in numerous Dargin languages and dialects remain still unstudied, and that is the relevance of this study. The purpose of the study is to identify the cases of usage the changing markers of class and case in the postfixal position in the Dargin languages. To achieve this purpose, the following tasks are followed: a) to study the category of grammatical class in archaic South Dargin languages; b) to study the peculiarities of the functioning of class-numerical exponents; c) to identify the attributive words the class indicators of which function in the postfixal position; d) comparative analysis of Dargin word forms with changing class-numerical elements. The use of both field linguistics methods, as well as the comparative method and the method of synchronic analysis is needed to solve the above-mentioned issues. The novelty of the study is in the first attempt of comparative analysis of class-numerical indicators’ functioning in the postfixal position of attributive forms. A similar phenomenon was described only in the Kubachi language earlier. As a result of the study, all cases of postfixal use of changing class exponents in the South Dargin languages and dialects are identified. In particular, in the Chirag language these affixes are revealed in the present and past tense forms. In the Itzari dialect they are revealed in attributes derived from the demonstrative pronouns, in the Sanzhi dialect - in adjectives denoting a high degree of quality. The results of the study can be useful for compiling a comparative historical grammar of the Dargin languages.
World literature
zhao Y. - The City of the Future in the novels by V.F. Odoevsky "Russian Nights" and "The 4338th year pp. 225-235



Abstract: The article offers a comparative consideration of two social models in the fiction of V.F. Odoevsky. The researcher focuses on the unfinished novel "4338" and the insert novella "The City without a Name" from the novel "Russian Nights" by Odoevsky. When comparing both texts, the article points to the indissoluble semantic unity of the author's cultural and social views on the proper (ideal) future society.  If "Russian Nights" is entirely turned to the present, so that the dystopian paintings in the short stories "The City without a Name" and "The Last Suicide" are needed only to properly look at the modernity of the 1840s and the consequences of mistakes that can be made in the present, then "4338" really aspires and into the future and projects a new scientific and social world. "4338th year" can only be considered a utopia in part. In the light of satirical criticism in the novel "Russian Nights" and other works by Odoevsky, "The 4338th year" turns out to be not so unambiguous a text as was commonly believed in literary studies of the early twentieth century.
Kornysheva P. - Features of Monetization of Internet Media: on the Example of Internet Periodicals of the Belgorod Region pp. 236-245



Abstract: This article is devoted to the study of methods of monetization of online periodicals, the study of its features, as well as the analysis of online periodicals of the Belgorod region for the use of various approaches to the issue of monetization. The subject of the research in the article are the Internet periodicals of the Belgorod region, leading the rating of the Information and analytical online service "Medialogia" for 2020, as the most cited periodicals of the Belgorod region for the specified year. The research method includes content analysis and comparative analysis of the techniques and methods used to monetize online media. The main objective of the study was to identify current ways of monetization of online periodicals and to detect trends in their further development.  Such a study of online periodicals of the Belgorod region was carried out for the first time, which explains its significance and novelty. During the analysis, the following conclusions were made: currently there is no single business model for monetization of online media. However, further expansion of the range of advertising services offered is inevitable: almost any media outlet has an electronic analogue on the Internet, which means it is becoming increasingly difficult to compete. In order to attract advertisers and audiences, online publications need to take a comprehensive approach to monetization issues and regularly analyze feedback. Online publications of the Belgorod region mostly offer advertisers exactly this approach, but banner advertising is predominant. The least used way of monetization is a paid subscription to content.
Korotkevich D.O. - Linguistic means of forming the image of the head of a foreign state in the American media (based on the material of The New York Times) pp. 246-258



Abstract: This article is devoted to the study of linguistic means of forming the image of the former president of the Federative Republic of Brazil – Jair Bolsonaro. The purpose of this study is to study the linguistic means of forming the image of the head of a foreign state, who receives representation on the pages of The New York Times. The subject of the study is the lexical and semantic field (LSF) of Personal Names as a model of representation of knowledge about the leader of a foreign state, as well as the contexts of the linguistic implementation of the core of the studied LSF. The main objectives of the study included the study of the structure and composition of the lexico-semantic field of Personal Names, as well as concordance analysis of the contexts of the linguistic implementation of the Personal Names LSF core. The research material is presented by The New York Times newspaper's 2019 issues of articles about Brazil.  Using the method of corpus analysis of the texts of articles using the Wmatrix computer program made it possible to identify the lexical and semantic field of Personal Names in the structure of the cognitive matrix Brazil. Concordance analysis of the contexts of the linguistic implementation of the Bolsonaro lexical unit allowed us to identify 3 leading typical arguments that are formed by the newspaper around the name of the politician. The novelty of the study lies in the choice of the material and the subject of the study: the image of President Jair Bolsonaro in the American media has not been studied by linguists to date. The results of the study showed that the image of a politician is formed, among other things, by building contextual connections between the core of the lexico-semantic field under study and the units that make up the structure of this field, while the majority of lexical units relate to figures of political figures in Brazil and foreign countries who do not support the policy of J. Bolsonaro. The nature of the typical arguments identified by examining the concordance of the core of the studied LSF allows us to confirm that the image of this politician, formed by The New York Times newspaper, tends to be negatively biased. Readers are being shown the image of Jair Bolsonaro as a politician advocating the disappearance of the Amazon forests, being an ultra-right populist and not supporting the rights of the indigenous peoples of Brazil.
Tabatabai S., Bulgarova B.A. - The Power of Memes in Crisis: the potential for emotional contagion of memes during a crisis pp. 259-280



Abstract: The subject of the research is the study of the influence of memes during crises. Internet memes as a communication tool and new media languages are able to create and spread emotions that can promote social cohesion, as well as increase social confidence, which is considered vital during crises. Given the importance of Internet memes as a powerful tool to strengthen social cohesion and trust in difficult times, it is important to give an idea of how memes and emotional contagion can be used in crisis communication. The aim of the study is to provide a more complete understanding of the role of Internet memes, especially during crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, in emotionally affected Iranian social media users. To achieve this goal, the study used a mixed-method approach, content analysis including COVID-19 memes on Iranian social networks and a quantitative survey using a questionnaire developed by the researchers. The statistical sample of the study consisted of 150 Iranian social media users who were randomly selected. The novelty of the research lies in the study of the function of memes in crisis communication and emotional contagion, especially in the context of Iran. The study expands the boundaries and offers new insights into how memes can be an effective tool to strengthen social cohesion and increase trust in difficult times. The focus of the study on the Iranian context also adds to its novelty, as it provides specific information that is not available in the existing literature. The study provides empirical support to politicians, especially Iranians, in tracking public opinion on critical topics, or in managing collective emotions via the Internet and stimulating and mobilizing public action by individuals. Memes can be used for crisis communication and public participation. The results of the study indicate the widespread use and recognition of memories in Iran during the COVID-19 pandemic, in terms of income tax information for expressing feelings and interest. Emotional contagion through memes is moderate and mostly mental, with respondents believing that memes are more effective, fast, and desirable than other types of messages and posts.
Bulgarova B.A., Tabatabai S. - Leveraging the power of internet memes for emotional contagion as effective strategy for environmental communication pp. 281-305



Abstract: The article aims to address the research gap in the field of environmental communication by integrating the advances in emotional influence sciences to understand the mechanisms and pathways via social media by which emotions impact pro-environmental behavior. This research investigates how environmental communication can integrate research's results to design a more effective communication strategy that leads to environmental actions. Hence, the methodology of the article is an exploratory review of previous research on emotion in crisis and environmental communication, particularly on the role of social media and internet memes in promoting pro-environmental behavior through emotions and emotional influence. The findings are organized into three themes. First, we present the theory of emotional influence as a lens that can shed light on the underlying mechanisms in social media that awaken users' sentiments to modify or rectify their environmental behavior as well as entice their engagement in environmental preservation. Next, the main factors affecting emotional contagion in environmental communication are analyzed. Finally, we examine the empirical evidence of pro-environmental communication strategies that were successful under emotional contagion mechanisms. The article concludes that emotional influence by internet memes is a proper strategy, particularly for new generations, in crisis and environmental communication. This research contributes to science by highlighting the significant role of emotional influence and internet memes in environmental communication, emphasizing their potential to influence public attitudes and behaviors towards environmental issues, and providing a comprehensive understanding of how these factors can be leveraged to design effective communication strategies that lead to environmental actions, offering valuable insights for researchers and practitioners in the field of environmental communication and crisis management.
Feng W., Perfiliev A.K., Hu P. - Translation of medical terms into Chinese pp. 306-314



Abstract: The subject of this study is the peculiarities of translating medical terms into Chinese. The purpose of the study is to analyze strategies for translating medical terms into Chinese, as well as to identify the most effective and frequent methods of translation of medical terms. The research material is medical terms (60 hieroglyphic names of medicines and medical equipment) and their translation into Chinese. The article analyzes the four most commonly used ways of translating medical terms: phonetic, semantic, graphic and mixed. The analysis also focuses on alphabetic words of the Chinese language: full alphabetic words and partial alphabetic hieroglyphic words. The features of translating medical terms of Latin origin into Chinese and medical terms borrowed from English are compared. To achieve this goal, the following methods were used: descriptive method, method of analysis of theoretical literature, as well as methods of systematization of material and classification. The novelty of the study lies in the fact that with the advent of new medicines and medical equipment, the question of translating new concepts into other languages, in particular into Chinese, has become acute. The article provides examples illustrating typical ways of translating medical terms into Chinese. The authors conclude that when translating borrowings from Latin into Chinese, preference is given to the phonetic method, while when translating English medical terms, phonetic-semantic, semantic and graphical methods are mainly used. The semantic method allows you to convey the meaning of borrowed words most fully, as well as create a pragmatic effect. The frequency of using the graphical translation method is significantly lower, since English and Chinese have different types of writing, which also introduces limitations for the transmission and interpretation of information.
Sun X., Chzhan C. - Russian and Chinese national personalities: based on the material of phraseological units, proverbs and sayings with the concept of "family" pp. 315-327



Abstract: This article is devoted to the characteristics of Russian and Chinese national personalities based on the material of phraseological units, proverbs and sayings with the concept of "family". The subject of this study is the Russian national personality (RNL) and the Chinese national personality (CNL). The object of the study is the universal and national-specific linguistic and cultural features of Russian and Chinese national personalities. The practical significance of the work lies in the fact that the lexico-semantic and linguocultural analysis of phraseological units, proverbs and sayings of family subjects can be used in educational activities in courses of lexicology, linguoculturology, linguistic and cultural studies, sociolinguistics. The provisions and conclusions of the study can be applied in lexicographic practice in compiling dictionaries of phraseological units, as well as in the practice of teaching Russian as a foreign language, spreading Chinese culture in Russia. To solve the problem, the following research methods are used: the method of continuous sampling of material from dictionaries of the Russian and Chinese languages, the method of linguistic and cultural commentary and the comparative-contrastive method. Russian and Chinese national personalities are considered for the first time in the article, which has not previously been described in a comparative aspect, the traditional spiritual and cultural value of the family of Russian and Chinese personalities is analyzed for the first time, their stereotypical ideas and attitudes towards marriage, love, woman, man, wife, husband, parents, children, and relations to relatives are indicated which indicate common or different cultural attitudes among representatives of both linguistic cultures. This is the scientific novelty of this study. The study shows that phraseological units, proverbs and sayings with the concept of family recorded in Russian and Chinese lexicographic sources differ in quantitative and substantive terms. Russian and Chinese personalities view such traditional family values as marriage, love, woman, man, wife, husband, parents, children, relatives, etc. in different ways. For the Chinese, family and kinship relations are of great importance, the preservation of which is carried out with the help of such cultural values as marital harmony, procreation, filial piety, fraternal friendship, peaceful family relations.
Barinova B.V., Kharchevnikova R.P., Pyurbeev G.T., Bitkeev P.T., Monraev M.U. - Kalmyk meteorological vocabulary of the off-season in comparison with closely related languages pp. 328-337



Abstract: Kalmyk meteorological vocabulary related to lifestyle, environment and mentality belongs to the primordial stratum, as in other closely related languages of the Altai family. The commonality of the grammatical foundations of this vocabulary is confirmed by lexicographic data recorded in old Mongolian, Kalmyk and Turkic sources. The object of the study is nominative units (words, phrases and phraseological units) in the Kalmyk language, denoting the weather phenomena of the off-season. Special attention is paid to the meteorological vocabulary of the off-season of the autumn-winter intermediate period. The relevance of this study is related to the study of meteorological vocabulary in the Kalmyk language, the identification of the features of the linguistic picture of the world of the people as a whole and its influence on vocabulary. The linguistic and cultural analysis of meteorological vocabulary makes it possible to consider the life and culture of the Kalmyk people. This article uses a descriptive method, a comparative method, a method of linguistic and cultural analysis of lexical units. The meteorological vocabulary of the off-season is considered in this article taking into account the modern linguistic and cultural orientation and is presented in the aspect of an interdisciplinary category: a) the role of this phenomenon in human life (natural landmarks and human locations); b) the vocabulary of the off-season and related human economic activity; c) the comparative and evaluative feature of the use of this vocabulary in oral and written samples in the languages under consideration. The Kalmyk meteorological vocabulary of the off-season is an independent integral category that is present in all Mongolian and Turkic languages, recorded in old-written sources and has retained its original meaning in the modern Kalmyk language. This vocabulary reflects the peculiarities of the linguistic picture of the world and worldview, the specifics of the way of life and the inner world of the Kalmyks and is universal for other closely related peoples belonging to the Altai linguistic community.
Automatic language processing
Zhikulina C.P. - Siri and the skills of encoding personal meanings in the context of English speech etiquette pp. 338-351



Abstract: The subject of the study is the content of personal meanings of greeting questions in the context of English communication formulas of Siri. The object of the study is the ability of the voice assistant to simulate spontaneous dialogue with a person and the adaptation of artificial intelligence to natural speech. The purpose of the study is to identify the features and level of Siri's language skills in the process of communicating with users in English. Such aspects of the topic as the problem of understanding that exists in two types of communication are considered in detail: 1) between a person and a person; 2) between a machine and a person; the use of stable communication formulas by artificial intelligence as responses to the question «How are you?»; determining the level and speech-making potential in the responses of the voice assistant. The following methods were used in the research: descriptive, comparative, contextual, comparative method and linguistic experiment. The scientific novelty is that the problems related to encoding the personal meanings of the Siri voice assistant have never been studied in detail in philology and linguistics. Due to the prevalence use of voice systems in various spheres of social and public life, there is a need to analyze errors in speech and describe communication failures in dialogues between voice assistants and users. The main conclusions of the study are: 1) the machine is not able to generate answers based on the experience of past impressions; 2) deviations from the norms of English speech etiquette in Siri's responses are insignificant, but often lead to communicative failures; 3) the one-sided encoding of personal meaning was found in the responses: from the machine to the person, but not vice versa.
Maikova T. - On the Concept of Translation Unit in a Machine Translation Framework pp. 352-360



Abstract: The article looks at the question whether the concept of translation unit might apply to the sphere of machine translation and whether the size of the unit influences the quality of translation. While modern machine translation systems offer an acceptable level of quality, a number of problems mainly related to the structural organization of the text remain unresolved, hence the question posed in the paper. The article offers a review of modern readings of the concept and pays special attention to the question whether the scope of the term changes depending on whether the object of research is the target text or the translation process. The paper also provides a quick look on the research methods for both text-oriented and process-oriented approaches, such as comparative analysis of language pairs and Think Aloud Protocol. Based on a review of existing machine translation models, each of them is analyzed to answer the question whether a unit of translation can be defined for a given system and what its size is. It is concluded that a unit of translation can be viewed as either a unit of analysis or a unit of processing with respect to text-oriented and process-oriented perspectives on to the study of translation. The unit of translation has a dynamic character and influences the quality of the target text. In machine translation, the unit of translation as a unit of analysis is not applicable for systems based on probabilistic non-linguistic methods. For rule-based machine translation systems, both readings of the unit of translation concept are applicable, but hardly go beyond a single sentence. Accordingly, at least one type of translation problem – intra-textual relations resolutions – remains largely unaddressed in the present state of affairs in machine translation.
Literary criticism
Duktava L.G. - Representation of cultural meanings when using national cultural codes in fiction pp. 361-371



Abstract: The article is devoted to the consideration of the representation of cultural meanings when using national cultural codes in fiction. Research objectives: to substantiate the use of the category of cultural code in the analysis of a literary work; to characterize the features of the functioning of the national cultural code in relation to cultural universals; to show the specifics of national images associated with spatial and temporal cultural codes. Methods (historical and literary, structural, semantic) and methodological basis of the work are the works of Russian, Belarusian and foreign scientists in the field of philology (Yu. Lotman, R. Jacobson, M. Epstein, N. Tolstoy, S. Tolstaya, etc.), cultural studies and sociology (K. Rapay, J. Murdoch). The result of the work is that the main approaches to the definition of the cultural code are identified, cultural meanings, translated using national cultural codes, associated with images of the Motherland, small homeland, and Fatherland are identified on the example of works of Russian and Belarusian literature. The scientific novelty of the work lies in the fact that the features of the representation of cultural meanings when using national cultural images in Russian and Belarusian literature are analyzed. The practical scope of the results of the work is seen in the possibility of using this material for deep understanding and studying such academic disciplines as "History of Russian Literature", "History of Belarusian Literature", university historical and literary courses, during independent research work of students, when writing term papers and theses.
Rakhmanikhalilelakhi Z. - Artistic Conflict in the Short Story 'Prince Oldenburg' by Fazil Iskander. pp. 372-383



Abstract: The subject of the study is the examination of artistic conflict in the short story 'Prince Oldenburg' by F. Iskander. The aim of the research is to explore the use of literary devices in conveying the emotions and thoughts of the characters. The relevance of the themes touched upon in the story 'Prince Oldenburg' by F.A. Iskander is manifested in several aspects. Firstly, the narrative addresses issues of ecology, power, and manipulation, which remain relevant in real society. The author raises the problem of the conflict between the pursuit of economic development and progress, and the protection of nature and traditions. This is a topical theme in modern society, where there is a constant confrontation between economic interests and environmental preservation. Secondly, the story discusses issues of social conflicts and misunderstandings. Prince Oldenburg faces a lack of support and understanding from St. Petersburg, as well as resistance from local residents. This reflects the current problems of society related to differences in views, values, and interests among various social groups. The research methodology is based on an analytical approach, involving a detailed analysis of the story's text and reference to the socio-cultural aspects highlighted by the author. The study of the short story 'Prince Oldenburg' by F.A. Iskander introduces novelty in several aspects. Firstly, it analyzes the internal conflicts and external challenges faced by the prince, exploring their interconnection with social and environmental issues. Secondly, the study focuses on the use of literary devices such as dialogues, internal monologues, contrasts, and sarcasm to convey the emotions and thoughts of the characters. This allows for a deeper understanding and analysis of the characters' personalities and motivations, as well as the author's stance on sociocultural and political issues.
Shi L. - Emotional-evaluative communicemas in contemporary prose pp. 384-395



Abstract: The subject of research in this article is emotional and evaluative communicemas in two works of modern literature: M. L. Stepnova’s «The Garden» and E. S. Chizhova’s «The Time of Women». The object of the study is communicemas – communicative, non-predicative units of syntax related to the level of syntactic expressiveness. Author pays special attention to the structural composition and semantic functional characteristics of the communicemas in a literary text-dialogue in order to display the psychological emotions, states and relationships of the characters, thereby increasing the tension and reality of the situation. The purpose of the work is to identify the connection between communicemas as a means of expressing emotional assessment and social and speech characteristics of characters in texts of modern literature. The article identifies the main types of communicemas used by the heroes of the works «The Garden» and «The Time of Women», proposes their classification depending on the functional role in the character’s speech and in the dialogue. The methodological basis of the study consists of structural-semantic, descriptive, comparative and classification methods. The theoretical basis of the study is work in the field of linguistic description of means of expressing emotional assessment, in particular, communicemas as ways of transmitting an emotional reaction through speech. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the comprehensive analysis of the semantic structure and pragmatics of emotional-evaluative communicemas within the framework of modern prose dialogic contexts. As a result of the study, it was revealed that communicemas as a phenomenon of living speech are one of the forms of conversational and dialogical speech and are indispensable as a means of effective expressiveness of the author in literary works. The results of the study can be used to provide information to students during classroom teaching, as well as for scientific research. By analyzing dialogue situations in literary works, one can better understand the author's intentions and the emotional characteristics of the characters. At the same time, it helps students improve their literary reading abilities and better understand the subtext of literary works and the cultural and historical background behind them.
Literary criticism
Zakharova N.V. - The theory of Chinese narrative prose in the early twentieth century. pp. 396-402



Abstract: The subject of the study is critical articles by Chinese writers and literary theorists of the early twentieth century. They are dedicated to ways of transforming traditional literature. The object of the study is the evolution of the views of Wang Guowei, Lu Xun, Hu Shi, Yu Dafu, who in the process of creating modern Chinese literature (Xiandai Wenxue) set tasks for the national intelligentsia. The article proves that the interpretation of the main constants of modern Chinese literature was based on the ideas of Western, primarily German and English literary criticism and aesthetics. The article pays special attention to the discussion between Lu Xun and Hu Shi on the issue of the ideological position of writers, and Yu Dafu's articles on the role of the reception of Western aesthetics. The research methodology is based on the theoretical principles of historical-literary, historical-cultural, historical-functional, comparative-historical analysis. Elements of intertextual and receptive approaches are used. The main conclusion of the study is that the transition from the literary language of classical Confucian monuments (wenyan) to the spoken language (baihua) has become an important vector for Chinese literary theorists. However, their views on the future of modern national literature differed. Lu Xun insisted that the future of literature depended on the class affiliation of the literati. Yu Dafu believed that writers should use the experience of the best prose writers of classical literature in Western countries, and also take into account the literary inclinations of readers. The novelty of the study lies in the fact that for the first time in Russian Sinology, a comparative analysis of critical articles by prominent Chinese writers and literary theorists becomes the object of study.
Semenov V.B. - The multi-genre structure of J. Metham's poem “Amoryus and Cleopes” (1449) and bestiary motifs in the “encyclopedic” episode of its plot pp. 403-418



Abstract: The subject of research in this article is a multi-genre composition, and the research material is the medieval English poem “Amoryus and Cleopes”, underestimated by modern literary criticism: essays by English researchers about it are extremely few, and works by foreign researchers, apparently, are completely absent; in the 108 years since its first publication, it was published once again in Middle English, but was never translated not only into other languages, but also into modern English. There are also no scholars specializing in the work of its author, the mid-15th century writer John Metham. Meanwhile, this is definitely an interesting work, since it varies the plot from the Fourth Book of Ovid’s Metamorphoses, the story of Pyramus and Thisbe, and its creator copies Ovid’s material not mechanically, but quite creatively, including it in a genre- and stylistically variegated composition of plot episodes. In the process of research, we identified the boundaries of these episodes and focused attention on one of them, within the framework of which the poet Metem put into the heroine’s speech a lot of information of the “encyclopedic” type, obviously gleaned from various bestiaries and works of medieval zoologists. Our goal was to identify motifs transferred into the poem from the most famous of these works. Along the way, Metham's verse forms were described, and his free handling of the Chaucerian heptath used in the poem was revealed. Our article shows that the traditional attitude to the 15th century as a “barren age” is not entirely justified and that between the death of Chaucer and Lydgate and the appearance of the Scottish “Chaucerians” at the end of the century, there were English authors with an original style and works with individual poetic features.
Wang L. - The specifics of conditional conjunctions in modern Russian pp. 419-430



Abstract: The subject of research are the conjunctions used in a complex sentence to convey conditional relations. In the Russian language, the group of conjunctions capable of expressing the meaning of a condition is quite voluminous. In this article we turn to an insufficiently deeply developed issue, namely, the analysis of conjunctions located on the periphery of the means condition expressions. The purpose of the study is to identify conjunctions based on lexicographic sources and speech contexts that can express a conditional relation, and, using the example of a conjunction "äîáðî áû", describe its semantic and pragmatic potential. The article uses the descriptive method, as well as the method of definitional analysis and elements of component and transformational analysis. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that 1) the analysis of dictionary entries of conditional conjunctions is given, the grouping of conditional conjunctions is described; 2) the experience of a comprehensive analysis of the conjunction of "äîáðî áû" is demonstrated and its additional meanings (presumptive condition, conditionally opposed), as well as modal shades (assessment and desire) are revealed. The conclusions and materials of the study can be used in lectures, special courses and special seminars for students of philological and pedagogical specialties, in improving school curricula, creating textbooks, collections of exercises. The relevance of the study lies in the fact that, despite the many scientific papers devoted to specific conjunctions that are located in the central zone of the means of expressing conditional relations, the question of the interpretative potential of peripheral conditional conjunctions (the number of which is very large) has not been worked out deeply enough.
Kostoeva A.M. - Genre features of historical legends of the Ingush pp. 431-438



Abstract: The author examines in detail the features of the variety of Ingush prose – historical legends. In the analysis of the genre features of oral folk tales about historical legends based on certain historical facts, it is demonstrated that, despite the hype and the presence of elements of exaggeration, embellishment, they are mainly dominated by the attitude of authenticity. The Ingush have a rich history and a unique colorful culture. Studying the folk traditions and history of Ingushetia is an important way to preserve the historical heritage, the ancient roots of which are associated with the Scythians and tribes of the North Caucasus. Today, the Ingush preserve their traditions and culture. Taking into account the peculiarities of the historical traditions of the Ingush people, the groups of historical legends reflecting the historical past of the people are analyzed. The study also provides a brief description of the most important texts of historical legends. The research methodology is based on textual analysis using comparative typology, comparative history and variational methods. The author's special contribution to the study of the topic is the fact that the idealization of the heroes of historical legends has undergone significant changes over time. The almost fabulous heroes were replaced by characters close to reality. There is an obvious trend in the artistic work of storytellers, who sought to depict the events of the heroic-historical plan with a focus on authenticity. In modern conditions, when the desire for the formation of culture is extremely increasing in society, the appeal to the historical memory of ancestors acquires special importance. The historical traditions of Ingushetia, written by different collectors of folklore and recorded in different eras, are valuable not only for researchers of oral creativity, but also for historians. These are stories about important events that have happened, about people with illustrated biographies or about those who played a memorable role in the fate of the people.
Zipunov A., Valganov S.V. - From the structure of the scientific text to the 1950s-80s bard song genesis pp. 439-460



Abstract: The main purpose of this article is to clarify some controversial questions about the genesis of the bardic songs. This cultural phenomenon is seen as a system of "author-listeners". It has already been noted that the macro-structure of the dialectical opposition "private-universal" manifests itself much more often in bardic song than in other cultural directions. The hypothesis that the bardic song originated in the scientific intelligentsia is put forward in this article. In order to confirm the hypothesis, a brief analysis of scientific texts in the context of the identification of "private-universal" structures is carried out. As a result, it is shown that the structural rhythm "private-universal" is originally characteristic of the scientific tradition. Its presence is an invariable factor across all cultures. Moreover, it is also an integral part of the style of scientific thinking. This way of thinking affects the whole social community and defines the bardic song of listeners and authors. The mechanics of the emergence of this cultural phenomenon have been the subject of research. The verification of the results was carried out by applying the scientists number dynamics in the country to the creation dynamics of the bard songs. Once linked to the structural analysis results, the identified correlation was converted into a dependency rank. Thus, the hypothesis of how the Bard's Song got started was confirmed.
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