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Reference:

"Sheklyanur text" in the novel by Yivan Osmin "Between Heaven and Earth"

Kudryavtseva Raisiya Alekseevna

Doctor of Philology

Professor of the Department of Finno-Ugric and Comparative Philology at Mari State University

424002, Russia, Respublika Marii El, g. Ioshkar-Ola, ul. Kremlevskaya, 44, kab. 503

kudsebs@rambler.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 

DOI:

10.25136/2409-8698.2023.11.69118

EDN:

NCNJAO

Received:

21-11-2023


Published:

28-11-2023


Abstract: This article is prepared as part of the study of the actual problem of local supertext in the literature. It examines the "Sheklyanur text" of the documentary-fiction (autobiographical, memoir) novel by the Mari writer Yivan Osmin "Kava den mlande koklashte" ("Between Heaven and Earth"). The author identifies, describes and analyzes the main components of the "Sheklyanur text" (the problems tied to the Sheklyanur plot line and the Sheklyanur part of the biography of the central character acting as a narrator, the system of characters and events, descriptions, administrative and geographical realities, ethnographic scenes and details, language features), their place in the artistic structure of the novel and also highlights the historical context of the "Shakespearean text", most clearly visible in its ring composition and having a dramatic and tragic orientation.The methodological basis of the research is the historical-genetic method and the structural-semantic analysis of the work. They made it possible to identify and adequately interpret the meaningful lines of the "Shakespearean text" to the maximum extent, to describe the key elements of its poetics. Yyvan Osmin's novel "Between Heaven and Earth" for the first time in regional and Russian science has become the object of special analysis, it is studied in the context of the actual, almost unexplored in Mari philology problem of local overtext in literature. The "Sheklyanur text" of the novel is considered as a focus of information about the specific aspects of the village of Sheklyanur (as a socio-cultural space) of the mid-1930s, sustained within the framework of an artistic and documentary (memoir, autobiographical, primary) narrative. The "Sheklyanur text" is filled with memorable everyday scenes of a personal and social nature, which, together with open ethnographic elements, recreate pictures of the Mari world and some features of its manifestation in a particular place of residence of Mari. The exceptional signs of the "Shakespearean text" were the authentic names of real characters, their destinies, topographical and administrative-economic realities, lexical features of the narrator's speech.


Keywords:

Mari literature, novel, poetics, Ivan Osmin, Autobiographical novel, Artistic documentalism, artistic structure, local text, Sheklyanur text, Chronicle composition

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

The novel "Kava den mlande koklashte" ("Between Heaven and Earth") was written by Yivan Osmin in 1992-1993 and published as a separate book in 1996, during the writer's lifetime (died in 1997). This edition was designated as the first two books of the novel, which the author intended to continue and had already written this continuation (in the published version, the work ends in the early 1940s), as evidenced by the phrase addressed to readers: Taken by Ludyn, ala tyat, ludsho ta?, my dechem ushanrak liat. Sadlan umbakizhe vozem, vozem, serem! [11, p. 261. Then this edition is quoted, the pages are indicated in the text in square brackets. R. K.] (Maybe, after reading what I wrote, you, a reader friend, will become smarter than me. Therefore, I continue to write, write, scribble!).

Yyvan Osmin's novel is documentary in style dominant, chronicling in composition, autobiographical in nature and degree of representation of the author's biography (external and internal), memoir in the artistic projection of the depicted time. In its main part, the narrative is lyrically sublime - this was emphasized by the author himself at the end of the second book, calling both his book and his life romantic. Romance is also indicated by the "Shakespearean text" of the novel, in which, indeed, there is a lot of beautiful and lyrical. As for autobiography, Yyvan Osmin has it "open" this is fixed in the subject-object sphere of the work in the form of a primary narrative, as well as the image of the narrator-character maximally included in the plot space, the reliable naming of all the actors, etc.

The novel is aimed at a young reader, whom the author would like to familiarize with his own biography, and through it with the peculiarities of the sociocultural era of which he is a part, and also sincerely wished to keep the Mari reading public and the entire Mari world on the wave of ethnic self-identification, which will preserve the language and culture of the people, as well as the people themselves - and all this, in turn, is a condition for retaining the interest of young people in writers who wrote in the Mari language, including him Yivan Osmin. This is what is discussed in the author's introduction to the novel: My ertysh ilyshem at tukymlan vozen-sretlen onchyktyn. Rvese kalyk u tukym we will have ludash t??alesh gyn, om kolo; kalykem yilmyzhym, kulturyzhym yomdaren ok yom gyn, myat om yom; tukym gych tukymysh ilash t??alam [p. 4] (I want to describe-sketch my past life. If the youth the new generation will read what I have written, then I will not die; I will live in generations).

Considering the "Shaklyanur text" as a variation of the local (regional) supertext, which, in relation to Mari literature in regional science, is specifically stated today only with respect to the "Morkinsky text" [6; 7], as well as the "national text" viewed in Russian translations of Mari poetry [17], we define its components (signs) based on the existing experience of studying such texts in Russian literature (St. Petersburg [10], Siberian [14; 15; 16; 18], northern [4; 5], Altai [1; 2; 3], Crimean [9], London [13], etc.). So, Z. G. Mints noted that "the presence of features of urban topography and everyday life is considered an indispensable condition for the work to belong to the category of "Petersburg" [10]. The artistic picture of the world, which is captured in the regional literary supertext, "includes a set of landscape characteristics, images of nature, man, his place in the world, general categories of space, time, movement, as well as a special way of thinking" [4]. It reflects the peculiarities of the mentality of the population, region, territory, "it turns out to be connected, on the one hand, with the individual author's, subjective and personal image of the world (arising in the work of individual writers, both natives of this region and those who assimilate it as a living territory), and on the other - with the national picture of the world, and its reconstruction is one of the most important tasks in the study of the phenomenon of each regional supertext" [4].

The "Sheklyanur text" of the novel is the focus of information about the specific aspects of the village of Sheklyanur in the mid1930s as a socio-cultural space (about events and people, about the features of the landscape, everyday life, cultural traditions, language). This information will be especially interesting for a sophisticated, contextually competent reader, for example, people from Sheklyanur, as the author of this article, or experts in his history due to professional or cognitive interests. Within the framework of the scientific approach to the "Sheklyanur text" in the novel by Yivan Osmin, the problems tied to the Sheklyanur plot line and the Sheklyanur part of the biography of the central character, the system of documentary characters and events, landscape descriptions, administrative and geographical realities, ethnographic scenes and details, language features (dialect speech, toponymy) will certainly be interesting. Let's consider the main components (signs) of the "Sheklyanur text" and its context.

The historical context of the "Sheklyanur text"

The "Sheklyanur text" in the novel is about 25 pages of book text [pp. 171-197], representing one period in the writer's life recreated in chronological sequence, shortlived (from August 1936 to early July 1937), but rich in events and emotions, described in detail in the context of the dramatic events of the Stalin era, which also affected the Mari edges. The growing pressure on the intelligentsia to a certain extent served as a reason for the departure of Yivan Osmin from the editorial office of the newspaper "Mari Commune" and for the emergence of the "Sheklyanur" page in his biography.

The "Sheklyanur text" is framed by the spirit of tragic events in the country and in the Mari region. So, before its actual beginning, the author notes in the novel: 1936 iy augustyshto, Moskvashte Trotskyist-Zinovievsky centrym suditlime dech vara, Yoshkar-Olashte en ondak mari writer-vlak koklashte kugu kozhganymash tarvanysh. (...) 22 augustyshto "Mari Commune" newspaper Trotskyist-vlakym lyash suditlime shotyshto Vyshinsky ikteshlime mutsho da molo material ailenyt; 29 augustyshto "Mari Commune" edited by Golubkin Marobk bureau member candidate gych lukmo, Pasha gych koradime, editor Pavel Mokeev shogaltyme. Mari writer-vlak ikte pochesh vese, shkenyshtym svyatoesh shotlen, vesysht ?mbak lavyram kyshkash t??alynyt: "bourgeois nationalist", "kalyk tushman" yarlykym pyzhyktylynyt [p. 171] (In August 1936, after the trial in Moscow over the Trotskyist-Zinoviev center, great fear began in Yoshkar-Ola, first of all, among the Mari writers (...). On August 22, the entire newspaper "Mari Commune" was filled with a generalizing article by Vyshinsky and other materials about the court decision on the execution of Trotskyists; on August 29, the editor of "Mari Commune" Golubkin was removed from the candidates for members of the Marobkom, suspended from work, Pavel Mokeev was appointed editor. Mari writers in turn, considering themselves saints, began to throw mud at others: they stuck labels "bourgeois nationalist", "enemy of the people").

In this context, the further sheklyanur story of his life seems to the author to be "God's help", "a gift of life": Tev tygai tutkar t??alme zhapyshte mylanem yumo "polshysh": Mari writer ushemyn vuilatyshizhe P. K. Karpov (Pinchersky) mylam Moskvase M. Gorky l?mesh literary institute that in absentia tunemash t??alash characteristic puysh, yes my "Mari communes" gych shke kumylyn kayyshym; obono Sheklyanur (Medvedevo district) shimiyash shkolysh mari yilmym tunyktash koltysh [p. 171-172] (At the time when such a disaster began, God "helped" me: the head of the Union of Mari writers P. K. Karpov (Pinchersky) gave me a description for the start of correspondence studies at the Moscow Literary Institute M. Gorky, and I voluntarily left the "Mari Commune"; obono sent me to the Sheklyanur seven-year school (Medvedevsky district) to teach the Mari language). Yivan Osmin went to Sheklyanur with the blessing of his teacher S. G. Chavain, with a book of pre-revolutionary poems and stories by the Russian emigrant writer I. A. Bunin, banned in the country, with an attitude of caution, attention to the political situation and the importance of personal and ideological stability.

So, Sheklyanur was presented to the character-narrator as a kind of possibility of salvation, an opportunity to avoid tragedy, as well as as a kind of "oasis" for his professional (work as a teacher) and creative development (here he was preparing for admission to a Literary institute, had the opportunity to communicate with Mari writers), for family happiness (he was next to his beloved wife his daughter was born in Sheklyanur), as a free and favorable space, not devoid of social problems and dramatic circumstances, but, it seemed, far from direct political conflicts.

The final episode in the author's Sheklyanur biography, which is part of the tragic ring frame of the "Sheklyanur text", is a letter sent to Yivan Osmin in Sheklyanur and written in Russian (typewritten copy, dated June 15, 1937, No. 14/110) from Mikhail Kalashnikov, the ideologized secretary of the board of the Union of Mari writers, calling for the eradication of enemies of the people (The struggle against the enemies of the people the Trotskyist reptiles, Bukharin-Rykov scum should be the theme of the artistic works of our Soviet writers, we should smash these reptiles with our own works [p. 196]) and appeal to the writers personally to cast their vote, "speak out in the press" in favor of "exposing bourgeois nationalists and their henchmen" [p. 195], "in order to put an end to all kinds of evil spirits in the Mari Soviet literature as soon as possible" [p. 196]. The Shaklyanur part of the novel ends with the questions that the autobiographical character, the narrator, who is seriously concerned about this letter, asks himself on a Moscow train (going to the Literary Institute to take entrance exams: "Myym arrestatlat ale ogyt?" (...) "Myym kuchen na?gayyshash ulyt gyn, molan Kalashnikov gad-vlakym yrshyn torrash, nun works of yshtym osalyn lonchylash yodesh?" Ala tudo myymat tergynezhe: kalyk tushman-gad ulam ale uke? [c. 197] ("Will I be arrested or not?" (...) "If I have to be arrested, then why does Kalashnikov ask me to destroy the reptiles, analyze their works with anger?" Maybe he wants to test me too: am I a bastard-an enemy of the people or not?). In these matters, there is not only fear for one's life, but also a deep understanding of the radically changing political situation and the tragedy of the time.

In the main part of the narrative about the Shakespearean part of the author's biography, there are also dramatic situations and touches, but they are few and are given as a "deep" background (as if "in passing"). Anticipating them, Yyvan Osmin first captures his first painful impression of the social reality of the depicted space (My, Sheklyanuryshto shuzhen kolash ogyl manyn, olash m??gesh kurzhashat shonenam yle ... [p. 173] In order not to starve to death in Sheklyanur, I even thought about how to escape back to the city), and then, in the process of narration, he directly remarks: Sheklyanur is ikmard yal, but tushtat ilysh carousel dene modmo guy liyyn ogyl [p. 192-193] (Sheklyanur is an ordinary village, but life here was not like playing with a carousel). Ironically reflecting on the joy of the poor peasantry of Sheklyanur, freed from the "kulaks" (when organizing collective farms, richer peasants were "squeezed out" to the city or exiled to Siberia), singing a cheerful song together (...ilysh sae, merry [p. 193] ... life is good, cheerful), the author notes that it remained in extreme poverty. The narrator is genuinely concerned about the poverty of the Sheklyanur peasants, and he does not share the joy of the poor and lazy peasants about a new life; it is no coincidence that the word "laskan" (calmly) from a famous Soviet song in relation to the general picture of the Sheklyanur half-starved peasant life in the narrator's speech is enclosed in quotation marks and it is in the quoted version that it is repeated twice: Vara p?tyn Soviet el Keche food radio dene Muren: "Pesh kumdan sh?mbel elem sharlalyn, ulo l? chodyra, pasu, v?dat! My tygae weight elym om pale, kushto kalyk-vlak laskan ilat!". Pesh "laskan" ilen ulyna! ?shanyza! Kyzytat pesh "laskan" ilena! Pele shuzhen! [p. 193] (Then the whole Soviet country sang daily on the radio: "My native country is wide, / There are many forests, fields and rivers in it! / I don't know another country like this, / Where a person breathes so freely "Very "calmly" we lived! Believe me! And today we live very "calmly"! Half-starved!).

The tragic strokes of time penetrating into the "Sheklyanur text" become most noticeable by the end of the Sheklyanur narrative, for example:

in the history of the search for a name for the newly born daughter of the narrator character, first of all, in a dispute on this issue with the chairman of the village executive committee, who, in order not to affect the leader and not to anger his local functionaries, suggested correcting the variant of the name desired by Yivan and naming the child not Stalin, but Staliin (with two letters "and " and so that the stress changes place: ...vara stress " and "bukvash logalesh ... in this case, the stress will fall on the letter "and" [p. 192]);

in the narrator's remarks and comments about the tragic news that was increasingly seeping into the village and instilling deep anxiety in him: Tygak liye shoshym, April tylzyshte. Sheklyanurysh shem uver tolo: "Mari kalykyn y?ratyme pisatelje Shketan ?myr lugych kolen..." Tunamak myyn sh?memlan rop chucho, vet myyn pesh chot y?ratym kugu yoltash, vozash tunyktyshem uke liyyn. "Mari Commune" gazetesh S. G. Chavainin oigan pochelamutsho printlalte, tudym ludyn, shinchavdem jorgen lekte [p. 193] (This happened in the spring, in the month of April. The black news came to Sheklyanur: "The beloved writer of the Mari people died suddenly..." At the same time, it became unpleasant in my soul, because my very beloved friend who taught me to write was gone. The newspaper "Mari Commune" published a mournful poem by S. G. Chavain, after reading it, tears flowed); Ya. P. Mayorov-Shketan kolymo dech vara myyn shem ik ganat laska liyyn ogyl: oigo pochesh oigo pernen. Selenurus cccadi WH-WH Shem sure toledan: "Shabdar Ocupam nagast", "Chavayna nagent", "Tynysh Ocupam nagent", "Karpov-Pnickies petereit", "Golubkina routenet..." Tigerskin, Caine idem Marius kalikan EN usana dir-ergize-vlakem solip machine the den tyrimas subsistent. Kidyshtym she?gek pidyn, orlandarymashke, kolymashke na?gaenyt. K?myt vara tyge tolashenyt? Takshym, nun shukyn palenyt. Mari oblastyshte ondak of the parties of the regional committee of the secretarysylan yytysh Yezhovin executioner-shamych, NKVD-N. "komissarzhe" Karacharov da molat. (...) Mutat uke, tunam my chylazhym tachys nare palen washed, but iktym rash shinchenam: Chavainat, Shabdar Osypat, actor-vlak Vasily Yakshovat, Anisim Mamutkinat, Alexander Yamaevat, Anastasia Filippovat myyn yoltash, tunyktyshem liyynyt. Sheklyanuryshto ulmem godym eshe Yalkay, Olyk Ipayym, Yyvan Kyrlyam "chekist-vlak" manme bandit kashak t?ken ogyl yle, but myyn chonem olmyzh gych sadak kusnen, shkat l?dyn ilenam, vet my chyla mari writer dene k?l?m kuchenam, "U tukym" leman knigamat lektyn, S. G. Chavainin creativeplan 30th temme anniversary payremym palemdymashte journalist semyn polshenam [p. 194] (After the death of Ya. P. Mayorov-Shketan, my soul has never been calm: trouble after trouble. Black news often followed each other in Sheklyanur: "Shabdar Osyp was taken away", "Chavain was taken away", "Tynysh Osyp was taken away", Karpov-Pinchersky was arrested", "And Golubkin was captured..." Thus, every night the smartest daughters and sons of the Mari people were secretly taken to prison by car. With their hands tied behind them, they were led away to suffering, to death. And who tried so hard? Actually, many people knew them. Yezhov's executioners, former secretaries of the regional party committee in the Maroblast, "commissar" of the NKVD Karacharov and others. (...) Of course, I didn't know everything then, as I do now, but I knew one thing for sure: both Chavain, and Shabdar Osyp, and artists Vasily Yakshov, Anisim Mamutkin, Alexander Yamaev, Anastasia Filippova were my friends, teachers. During my stay in Sheklyanur, the so-called "chekists", a group of bandits, had not yet touched Yalkain, Olyk Ipai, Yyvan Kyrly, but my heart was out of place, and I myself lived in fear, because I kept in touch with all the Mari writers, and my book entitled "New Generation" was published, as a journalist, he helped organize an anniversary celebration in honor of the 30th anniversary of S. G. Chavain's creative activity);

in the episode of the forced destruction of books in the Mari language by order of Rono: 1937 i May ala June tylzyshte rono gych kagaz tolo: chyla mari yilme textbook, Mari literature textbook tunemshe-vlak dech pogash da ylatash, ylatyme nergen aktym vozash da ronosh koltash. Me, Kardakov da Nagorskikh dene pyrlya ka?ashen, tunemshe-vlak dech ik uchebnikymat yna yod, myyn archivem technichke Maria Tarasova onchylno y?latash da aktesh tudymat subscribatlyktash liina. Tygak ytyshna. Marpa dene koktyn pacheryshtyn technicke onchylno myyn kagaz oramym "U viy" magazine-vlakym, writer-vlakyn seryshyshtym, Chavainin, Shabdar Osypyn, Savi-Mukhinin, Karmazinin, Tynysh Osypyn knigashtym tulan kogash kyshken shinchyshna, tulvondo dene pudyratylyn, shikshysh savyren, shinchavd dene tamykysh uzhatyshna [c. 194] (In In May or June 1937, a paper came from Rono: to take away from the students all textbooks of the Mari language, anthologies on Mari literature and burn them, write an act of burning and send it to Rono. Having agreed with Kardakov and Nagorskikh, we did not ask the students for a single textbook, we decided to burn my archive in the presence of Maria Tarasova's technician and ask her to sign the act too. And so they did. At home, before the technical school, the two of us sat with Marpa and threw a bunch of my papers into the burning stove magazines "New Power", letters from writers, books by Chavain, Shabdar Osyp, Savi-Mukhin, Karmazin, Tynysh Osyp, turning over with a poker, turning into smoke, spent with tears in hell).

Administrative and topographic realities. Sheklyanur in the faces

The toponym "Sheklyanur" is used in the "Sheklyanur" part of the novel 26 times. For the first time, he meets together with an indication that the village is part of the Medvedevsky district, and that Yyvan Osmin was sent there by the obo (regional department of public education) as a teacher of the Mari language.

In precise and capacious strokes, the author tells about the peculiarities of the location of the village, its management, about specific places associated with professional interests, household and social life of Yyvan Osmin. So, it immediately becomes clear that Sheklyanur was located close to Yoshkar-Ola (now it is considered that 20 kilometers from the city center); almost all the movements of the narrator between Sheklyanur and Yoshkar-Ola were carried out on foot: and the first appearance of a young teacher in the village with his young wife Marpa a student of the College of Arts (...Sheklyanurysh yolyn pyrly kayyshna [c. 172] ...We went to Sheklyanur on foot together), and his Saturday trips to the city for books (You seem to be shumatkechyn Yoshkar-Olash yolyn koshtash t??alym [c. 177] So every Saturday I started walking to Yoshkar-Ola), and meetings with writers (Yoshkar-Olash yolyn chymaltym. Olyk Ipai deke [c. 176] Rushed to Yoshkar-Ola on foot. To Olyk Ipayu).

Yyvan Osmin worked in a seven-year (basic) school; the author writes about its structure and location in the village with the utmost documentality: Shymkent schools p?rt yal pokshelne yle, tushto kum class gyn liyyn: 5-she gych 7-she yotke. 1-4 grade-vlak posna p?rtlash verlanenyt [p. 193] (The seven-year school was located in the middle of the village, there were only three classes: from the 5th to the 7th. Grades 1-4 were located in separate houses); Sheklyanuryshto schools ik pachashan vele, but tudo yal pokshelne nyl ugylan kugu pyrtym islen, tush purash front omsa dech posna eshe kum omsa yle. The school is a kum class [p. 173] (The school in Sheklyanur is only one-story, but it occupied a large quadrangular house in the middle of the village, there were three separate doors to enter it, in addition to the front door. There are three classes in the school).

At the initiative of Yivan Osmin, an "Evening school" was opened at the Sheklyanur seven-year school, where, as the author notes, girls who did not have the opportunity to attend primary school for various reasons were trained, and where Osmin began to work as a teacher of the Mari language, Mari literature and singing.

The "Sheklyanur text" recreates authentic images of school employees: the director and history teacher Alexander Ivanovich Kardakov (his wife Claudia Afanasyevna) and the head teacher (also a teacher of natural sciences, biology) Andrey Kirillovich Nagorskikh, who showed an exceptionally kind, sympathetic and understanding attitude towards Yivan Osmin; mathematician Alexander Sokolov, who teased Yivan Osmin, allegedly fell in love with the first beauty of the village; "technician" Maria Tarasova.

The novel also shows a number of real persons who were outside the school, but are fully included in the "Sheklyanur text" as the chronology of events that are somehow connected with the Sheklyanur biography of Yivan Osmin is presented, for example:

Chairman of the village executive committee Volkov Ivan Andreevich (supported the idea of opening an evening school, which was advocated by a visiting teacher, and also convinced him that it was not necessary to call his daughter Stalin, striking the narrator with his political literacy and foresight);

chairman of the collective farm "Chodyra Mari" Gennady Komarov, who spoke about the need to open an evening school;

Kudryavtseva Pelageya Fedorovna (in reality Fedotovna, her father Fedot Zakharovich is the grandfather of the author of the article; at the time of the events described, she was about 16 years old), who invited a young and "the most respected teacher in Sheklyanur" together with his wife to a girls' holiday. Plagiy (the Mari equivalent of the name "Pelageya") immediately struck him with her extraordinary beauty: Myyn "oryeem" ik kastene tugai motor ?dyrym pacheryshkem konden purtysh onchen, sheret ok tem. ?rynam vele vatem shkezh dech cheverym muyn [p. 181] (My "bride" brought such a beauty to my house one evening you won't see enough. I was even surprised my wife found it even more beautiful than herself). Here are fragments of a detailed dynamic portrait description available in the novel, saturated with psychological details and also given through the prism of perception of the narrator character (in this case, a 21-yearold evening school singing teacher), fascinated by the girl, her alluring beauty and natural feminine charm: Kudryavtseva Plagiy shkolysh telym portyshkem dene tolesh yle, and Murash-kushtash t??almeke, kudash kudalta da sumkazh gich katam luktyn chiya. Adakshym en motor tuvyrzhym chien tolesh (...). Plagiy topkatarak kapan, tyrtysh shorgan oshdyr yle. Kydaleshizhe pe?gyd ?shtym former dene ?shtalesh, kydalzhym vichyjemda. Chot ovarten k?ktym? tyrtysh sukyr gai koesh. Horym murash tunyktymem godym Plagiyyn shemalge yuzo shinchage myyn uzhargyrak shincham dech oyrlen ogyl. Tyge kachym ya vatan p?rymat yuzo shinchazh dene ik gana sh?ten onchalesh gynat, p?r? loktylalt kertesh [p. 184-185] (Kudryavtseva Plagiy in winter came to school in felt boots, and before singing and dancing she took off and put on shoes, taking them out of her bag. In addition, she wore her most beautiful dress (...). Plagiy was a stocky girl, white, with a round face. She buckled a strong belt at the waist, thinned her waist. It looked like a very bloated baked loaf. When I was teaching the choir to sing, the dark magic eyes of Plagias did not leave my greenish eyes. If even once he pierces the groom or even a married man with his magic eyes, the man can deteriorate). The grateful kiss of the girl on the cheek for the fact that the teacher helped relieve her toothache with some strange medicine that blinded her eyes and for taking her home at her request, sunk into his memory for a long time, and the seeing off to the gate, similar to an unexpected fleeting romantic date with Plagi, became an occasion for endless village rumors and the angry, tearful indignation of the narrator's pregnant wife and, as the author humorously noted, he almost died because of all this (he was ready to strangle himself with shame, only a half-liter bottle of vodka saved him, saved and given to him by his wife); addressing his reader, the author urges to avoid such "adventures". With factual certainty, the author presents the location of the Plagiarism house on the same street as the school, only at its end (Tudo yal muchashte ila [p. 185] She lived at the end of the village);

midwife Galya, a Russian girl who responsibly performs her duties, knows a little Mari language and is the most respected in the village;

The cry of kuva, in whose house a girl's party was held. This house, along with school buildings, houses in which Yyvan Osmin lived, also becomes a topographic element of the "Sheklyanur text: 1936 iyishte mylanem Sheklyanurishto tygai "?dyry?ksh" payremyshte liyash logalyn. Payremje yal pokshelnyrak kok oknan toshto p?rtysht? ertysh. Tushto sho?gyrak ?dyramash shket ilen. Tudym "Cry kuva" manyt yle, marije Kyrlya ulmash. (...) Tunam yalyshte club liyyn ogyl. Yalsovet executive committee pelen ludmo p?rt gyn ulmash, sandene ?dyr-kache-vlaklan vash-vash palyme liyash mogai-gynat yn k?lin [p. 180] (In 1936 I managed to visit Sheklyanur on such a "maiden's holiday". The holiday was held about in the middle of the village, in an old house with two windows. An elderly woman lived there alone. She was called "The Cry of Kuva", her husband was Kyrlya. (...) There was no club in the village then. There was only a hut-reading room at the executive committee of the Village Council, so girls and boys needed some way to get to know each other);

Ivan Baklanov, a talented artist, at the time depicted by the author, a student of Yyvan Osmin (Vizymshe klassyshte tunemshe ik tale yocham [p. 188] One of my strong students), fascinated by his first meeting with Olyk Ipai and called the event organized by the teacher a holiday; tried to hide (not to give the student-intern to the literary faculty of the Pedagogical Institute) liked a portrait of Pushkin made by a teacher to him; performing a teacher's task, he drew a school birch in the lesson, which in his picture turned out to be more beautiful than in reality (Ivan Baklanov, onchyl kuem sretlen, lum yrshan uksher koklashkyzhe uzhar o?an kisa den yoshkar o?an ?rsh-vlakym shyndylyn. Sret motkochak sylne liyyn! Chyn kue dechat motor! [p. 193] Ivan Baklanov painted a school birch, put green-breasted tits and red-breasted bullfinches on its snowy branches. The drawing turned out to be very beautiful! More beautiful than a real birch), which prompted the teacher to show the picture to the class as a manifestation of genuine art. Later, we read in a short comment by Yyvan Osmin, Ivan Vasilyevich Baklanov will graduate from the Volga Forestry Institute, having received the profession of an engineer, will be known to the people as a very talented cartoonist.

The places of residence of the author-narrator in Sheklyanur and the owners of rented housing are recreated with documentary accuracy. Here's how, for example, described in the novel, the first place of his residence: Meat schools Director Ivan Kardakova polymer paces Hiking SAI acherim mum: Shogo kresnik Vasily Markovich Krasnov den of ilash tal [p. 172] (And I through school Director Ivan Aleksandrovich Kardakov found a very nice apartment to live with the old farmer Vasily Markovich Krasnova); Tudin IR Kuga Plamen prestige omsider OA Dan istime izi plenge YLE [c. 173] (the Studio of his house, near the door, was built of planks small room); Inde Milana colachel guy TIGI izi premista iliman ogul [p. 183] (Now we could not live in such a small room, as kiln space). Sometimes the author calls this place of his dwelling a closet, where alone he indulged in a variety of reflections. About the owner of the house, Vasily Markovich Krasnov, he writes that it was Marie of high stature, gentle (meek), always moved exclusively on foot. In the text of the novel, his daughter Anuk is also mentioned (in the episode of processing blackbirds shot by Olyk Ipai). Vasily Markovich sincerely respected him and all his guests. I treated them to selpovsky beer, for example, in the situation of Olyk Ipay's arrival in Sheklyanur: Pacher oz, memnam pagalen, ik buckets puram (kavak cheese) numal tolo [c. 178] (The owner of the house, respecting us, brought one bucket of beer).

About his second rented dwelling, where the author-narrator moved with his pregnant wife, he remarks as follows: Tudo peshak umdylan [p. 183] He (an empty house. R. A.) with a lot of bedbugs. The hostess of the house the school "technician" Maria Tarasova, unable to cope with the annoying parasites, resigned herself to them, left home, lived right in the school, in one of its premises.

The surroundings of Sheklyanur mentioned in the narrative appear as the topographic context of the "Sheklyanur text".:

My southguns of a Bunch of chodyr gych meram len tolam yle [p. 183] (I sometimes brought a hare shot in the Kuchkinsky forest). Kucki is a village near the forest and the YoshkarOla- Kozmodemyansk highway, about 6 kilometers in a straight line from Sheklyanur; during the stay of Yivan Osmin in Sheklyanur, it housed the Kuchkinsky school, founded in 1917 in the status of a zemstvo primary school, a sawmill that sent lumber to the YoshkarOla railway station and a collective farm "Kuchkinsky" [8] (now there is none of this, as there is no Sheklyanur school, in which Yyvan Osmin worked, and all agricultural enterprises that ever included the Sheklyanur population).

Marpa, Mitkinysh kaen, numal kertmyzh nare shinchalym kondysh. Maria Tarasovan p?rtk?rgyzhym shinchalan shoksho v?d dene kogartash t??ale ... [p. 183] (Marpa, having gone to Mitkino, brought as much salt as she could. I started scalding the interior of Maria Tarasova's house with salty hot water). In this case, the locality of Mitkin is mentioned. Mitkin is the Mari name of the village Krasnooktyabrsky (three kilometers from Sheklyanur, through the forest), preserved in everyday speech to the present and echoing the Russian designation of this settlement at its formation Mitkin foreman's point (belonged to the association "Mariles"), which began "with the barracks of loggers and a small office and mentioned "in the lists of settlements of the Executive Committee of the Council of Workers' Deputies of the Mari ASSR of February 1, 1932 and April 26, 1939, and the latter indicates the official status of this name" [12].

Problematics and tonality of the "Sheklyanur text" proper

Dramatic and tragic pathos, powerfully stated, as we noted above, in the ring composition, is present in separate strokes in the main part of the narrative, that is, in the "Shakespearean text" itself. However, the basis of the "Shakespearean text" itself is not tragic scenes and facts, but narrative episodes and reflections of the narrator, colored by romance and exalted lyrical tonality. A number of problems raised by the author are connected with such an artistic world of the novel.

One of such problems is the problem of the high content and specifics of the teacher's work, as well as the problems of professional growth and professional joy and happiness associated with it. In the "Sheklyanur text" of the novel, we find the reflections of the narrator character about the teacher, that he should be an example for students and the village population, about the high professional reputation of the teacher, for which everything is important - his appearance, his actions, and his relationship with children, with all subjects of society, both pedagogical "tricks" and methodical skill: ...Uremyshte motoryn oshkylam, sho-vlak dene pervyak salamlaltam, shkolysh yolym sayyn shtyn purem, yocha-vlakym veselan vashliyam, klassyshpym sayyn sheryn purem. Urokym vigak om t??al, mom-gynat o?ayim kalasem, tidlan kok-kum minutym om chamane. Urokshat sayyn ertyzhe, shonem, kalaskalyme godym ikshyvyn omyzho ynzhe shu, kolyshtdymo yocham ikanashte torzhan om vurso... Ikmanash, chyla tide pedagogyn creative ynzh, tudym k?lynak eskeryman. (...) yocha tyym yratizhe manyn, acha-ava decat mastar liyman [p. 174] (I walk beautifully down the street, greet the old people first, I go to school, wiping my feet well, cheerfully meet the children, I go to class well-combed. I don't start the lesson right away, I tell something interesting, I don't regret two or three minutes for this. I think about how the lesson went well; so that during my story the child does not feel sleepy, I do not immediately scold the child who does not listen to me rudely In a word, this is all the creative method of the teacher, it needs to be monitored. (...) for a child to love you, you need to be a master even more than your parents).

Yivan Osmin, working as a teacher, experienced all the joys of pedagogical work: Pasham myym kuandarysh. Tidee kuanymashem my piallan schotlenam [p. 174] (My work pleased me. I considered this joy happiness). Working at the school helped to realize his natural organizational abilities, which turned out to be especially successful in the direction of creative development of children, their physical and intellectual growth. The evening school students really liked his singing lessons. Yyvan Osmin created a vocal ensemble and was very worried that it "fell apart" during his illness. But he is not discouraged and will immediately come up with a new hobby for children (to equip a stadium for skating), and when the children get tired of snow removal at the stadium, he will find even more interesting activity for them: My adakat nun weight yn dene kuandarash shonen pyshtyshym: levash yymalne kiyshe iktazh-mogai kugu oravam (tyrtyshym) muash. Muyn kondysht. Me tudym stadium pokshelan kylmykten shogaltyme k?chyk me?gysh keryn shyndyshna, orava ?mbak kuzhu lomashym pe?gydyn kylden pyshtyshna. Memnan pesch chaplet "carousel" liye: lomash muchasheshizhe kok izderym pyzhyktena da lomashetym sh?ken kurzhyna. Orava perdesh, kok yocha kok izderyshte shincha. Tyge yocha-vlak cheret dene munchaltat yle. Ynde lumym kuash ok k?l, kech-mogai poran liizhe modysh korno t?rlana vele. Tidyn dene myat samyryk to the chonim kuandaren [c. 187] (I decided to please them again with a new trick: to find some big wheel (circle) lying in the barn. They found it and brought it. We stuck it in the center of the stadium on a frozen short stick, a long pole was firmly tied to the wheel. We got a wonderful "carousel": two sleds were attached to the end of the pole and ran around pushing this pole. The wheel is spinning, two children are sitting on two sleds. So the children took turns riding. Now there was no need to clean the snow, in any blizzard the game track will still come back to normal. This pleased me and my young soul). Yyvan Osmin appears as a talented and interested teacher-organizer who knows how to arrange a holiday for his students. One of these holidays will be their meeting with the poet Olyk Ipay. The result of the highly professional work of the teacher is the recognition of students and local residents, who will prepare the most honorable place for him at the main holiday of the village: "?dyry?ysh" payremym pochmashte en pagalyme kugye? liyman. Ty Sheklyanurishto en pagalyme teacher ulat. Tidym chyla yocha oyla [c. 181] ( The most respected adult should be at the opening of the "Maiden's Holiday". You are the most respected teacher in Sheklyanur. Every child speaks about it).

The problem of human relations (attention, kindness, compassion, help, etc.) becomes the most important part of the problems of the "Sheklyanur text". In Sheklyanur, the young teacher experienced true joy from the kind and sympathetic attitude of a huge number of people towards him. For example, Yyvan Osmin describes the understanding and help from the school management. The young teacher of the Mari language and literature (only 12 hours), so that he could live tolerably, added hours of drawing, drawing, physical education and singing to full load, and also assigned additional work as an accountant, so that he could visit his student wife on a horse every month on the way to the bank.

Yivan Osmin repeatedly notes wise advice and paternally caring attitude towards him from the owner of the house in which he lived at first. Vasily Markovich and his wife cooked hare meat for him and ate it all together, as in a family circle; Vasily Markovich was deeply saddened when he escorted his lodger to another house, and continued to take care of him and help him with the arrangement of new housing; for the teacher's newborn daughter, he almost immediately "dragged" a cradle made of bark is attached to it, with a ring and a spring to attach it to the mat.

Young teacher father and his wife helped the whole village: Sensorische "Marusya" lman "Ketchikan" Azam istemirem cholecyst, wool-vlak scolia the Technicals Maria Tarasova priskar of ictin of Cochin coladas tal, carnage that SRIM, then Jim, ictai-moguy Emim Konda. Marusan kasagi YLE, kasam pussynylon-iktimal of Marplan Caine lstes GUC IR glass SRAM wieszak ICTA ale, and inde pervyj tudo melnam Cestas Tue, Cesar Kogalym Yes many comarcales" [p. 190] (When Chiclanera learned that the "pilot" named "Mary" gave birth to a child, women alone, two by two, began to come into the house school Technicals Maria Tarasova, each would bring milk, butter who who some medicine. Marusia had a goat, for the maintenance of the goat from each milking she forcibly gave Marpa a glass of milk, and now the first thing she started baking pancakes, cooking carrot pies and the like). Just as amicably and with the intention of helping, they chose a name for his daughter in the village. Teve "iya faces" mogai poro ulmash! [p. 190] (That's how kind the "Damn Hole" turned out to be!) the narrator character declares admiringly and gratefully, as if responding to his wife, who, once angry at her husband, called Sheklyanur a "hellhole".

In the "Sheklyanur text" the problem of the Mari national creative intelligentsia and the realization of creative interests of a person sounds. Hence, a considerable place is occupied in it by the enthusiastically described scenes of meetings and creative communication of Yivan Kirli with his contemporaries-writers (Olyk Ipai, to whom he went to the city every Saturday to buy books to prepare for admission to the Literary Institute; with the writer Grigory Efrush, who worked as a teacher of the Tsibiknur school during the described period) or a respectful mention of them names (for example, M. Shketan, with whom a series of "black news" began in Sheklyanur). It contains many truly entertaining and informative stories about the lives of famous writers: about the real author of the famous Mari song "Oh, lui modesh ..." (Oh, the marten is playing), about the origin of the pseudonym "Olyk" by I. S. Stepanov, about the dispute between Olyk Ipai and the critic Pinchersky about the name "Nikolai"). The names of the editor of the Marknigoizdat Kuzma Flegontovich Smirnov and the musician Nikita are mentioned (in reality, apparently, Kuzma, since at this point in the narrative the publishers in the book posted a photo of the composer K.A. Smirnov [c. 177]) Alekseevich Smirnov, with whom Yyvan Osmin "washed" his new double-row accordion ("kok radaman khromkym"). The incredible joy and creative rise of Yivan Osmin are connected with this accordion, which is emphasized in the episodes of the return to Sheklyanur, given in romantic and sublime tones. The first episode (I was riding a horse with my wife after the bank): Me koktyn, orvash shinchyn, Sheklyanurysh kudalna. Marfushem, sapym kuchen, imnym viktar, and my accordion shoktem [p. 176] (The two of us, sitting in the cart, went to the village. My Marfusha, holding the reins, guides the horse, and I play the accordion). The second episode: Ikana Ipay my denem pyrlya, accordion shokten-shokten, Sheklyanurysh yolyn kayash kelshysh. Korno muchko erkyn oshkylyna. Ipay era "Oh, lui modesh..." muro seven shokta, noymekshe, accordion soap shuyalta [p. 178] (One day Ipay agreed with me to go on foot to Sheklyanur. We walked slowly all the way. Ipai played the melody of the song "Oh, the marten is playing ..." all the time, tired, the accordion hands me).

The problems of love, family, family relations and family happiness are revealed in a number of episodes related to the "Shakespearean text". Love, respect and care for his wife are also manifested in the episode with the chrome skin left by his father, from which Yivan decided to sew not clothes for himself, but a jacket for his wife (Already wet, Marfushan ?mbalnee coat mo? Shovyr k?zhgyt vele. Marpalan tuzhurkym urgyktem [p. 176] Do you see, is it a coat on Marfusha? The thickness is only like that of a canvas cover. I will sew a jacket for Marpa); and in a situation of a maiden's holiday, when Yivan admires his wife, an "artist" who dances and sings, yielding to no one; and in an episode of jealousy (swears in love, shows a sincere desire to save the family); and in a psychological episode of his wife's childbirth (worried about her health and life, deeply sympathizes with her). Yivan's correct reflection on his sudden interest in the first beauty of the village of Plagiy and on a "chaste" date with her, which became the reason for a quarrel with his wife, only strengthened the narrator in his great love and devotion to his wife.

The creation of a sublime romantic narrative style in the "Shakespearean text" is maximally facilitated by the humor used by the author, to a greater extent it permeates the sphere of personal, family relations, as well as relations with the writers closest to him. Lesson pytymek, my pacheryshkem tolyn puryshym gyn, vashtareshem vatem ogyl, ala-mogai pilot shoga. Vuyyshtyzho chrome upsh, ?mbalnyzhe chrome coat-tuzhurko, ?shtyzh prezha yilgyzhesh, yolyshtyzhat chrome kem ... [p. 179] (After the end of the lesson, I came home, not my wife was standing in front of me, some pilot. On her head is a chrome hat, she is wearing a chrome jacket coat, a belt with a shiny buckle, and on her feet are chrome boots ...), this is how Yivan Osmin writes about his wife. The means of creating humor in this portrait feature are the comparison of the wife with the pilot and the repeated repetition of the word "chrome", which is unusual for Mari hearing. The self-reflection of the narrator's character in relation to his wife is also often sustained in a humorous style: Myym, samyryk motor rvezym, en samyryk tunyktyshym, Sheklyanuryshto watemlan verchynat eshe chot pagalash t??alych: "Oh, Osmynn vatizhe is a pilot!" (...). "Kuze tudym kuandarash?" - vuyyshtem shonysh p?rdesh. Vatem unzhe yokroklane manyn, mom-gynat shonen luktash k?lesh [c. 179] (I, a young handsome guy, the youngest teacher, was even more respected in Sheklyanur because of my wife, too: Oh, Osmin's wife is a pilot!" (...) "How to please her?" a thought is spinning in my head. So that the wife does not get bored, we need to come up with something). Humorous colors are also felt in the history of the purchase of harmony and in the description of Olyk Ipai's stay in Sheklyanur.

Ethnographic and folklore components of the "Sheklyanur text"

"Sensorki text" contains the description of one of the most important traditions, revered for centuries in the village of Decleor, feast "dirickx" or "dirickx" (in the novel used both writing and in speech Plage found a third option "dirges"). This is a maiden's holiday (a variant of the all-Russian holiday "Maiden Feast"), which was celebrated (now not celebrated in Sheklyanur) in late autumn, after the Intercession, before the October holiday (October payrem Mndyrn). Pokro erten [p. 180] The October holiday is far away. The cover has passed); typologically, it is similar, as the narrator reflects, to the Morkinsky "dyr pura", which has gone into the past, with the Sernur "?dyry?sh". Osmin Yivan thus represents the content and ritual basis of this national holiday and its transformation in time: ...mari-vlak shke tukymysht dene toran-toran shinchyltshe ilemlashte ilymysht godym shem shyzhym t?tyretpuchym pualtenyt. ?dyr, kapesh shumekshe, ilem gych lektyn, t?tyretpuchym pualten: tu-tu-tu-u!.. Tygai kuzhu ykym puymekshe, izish vucalta. Ves ilem gychat tygai yok shokta. tunam ?dyr-rvese-shamych vash-vash puig y?k dene palenyt: ?dyr ale kache pualta. ?dyr k?chykynrak ik gana yo?galtara da vara vashtares y?kym vuchen shoga. Vashtareshizhe puch yk kum gana poche-poche shokta gyn tide kache pualta. Vara is your-your "kutyrash" t??alyt: ?dyr kachym ?zhesh, kach - ?dyrym. (...) Vara semyn mari kalyk tukym den tukym, iktysh ushnen, yal, agun, sela-vlakym choen, vash-vash poshkudo liyyn ilash t??alynyt. Tunamzhe t?tyretpuchym shem shyzhym so gina pualtenyt. Teve tygai mari yla varazhym Charla voktene, Shernur kundemyshte ilyshe mari-vlak koklashte "dyry?shysh" savyrnen. "Y?ysh" tidee "y?, y?ash" verb gich participle savyrnen, yuzho verezhe "y?ysh" olmesh "y?ksh" manyt [p. 180] (...mari, when they lived away from their relatives in far-away places, in the gloomy autumn they blew a duda. The girl who has entered the age, coming out of the dwelling, blows a pipe: tu-tu-tu-u!.. Having made such a long sound, he waits a little. Such a sound is heard from another dwelling. Then girls and boys recognized each other by the sound of the duda, who was playing a girl or a guy. The girl made a short sound once, then stood and waited for a counter sound. If the sound of a pipe was heard three times one after the other, then it's a guy blowing. Only then will they start "talking" to each other: a girl calls a guy, a guy calls a girl. (...) Then the generations of Mari began to live together, organizing villages, sheep, villages, becoming neighbors. And then they were already blowing a pipe in the black autumn just for the form. Later, such a Mari tradition among the Mari who lived near Charl, on the Sernur side, turned into "dyry?shysh". "Y?ysh" is the verb "drink, drink" turned into a participle, in some places they say "y?ysh" instead of "y?ysh").

As one of the variants of such transformation, the novel makes sense of the Sheklyanur holiday "dyry?ksh", in which Yivan Osmin became a participant and experienced all the most important, including unexpected for himself, elements of the ritual (in the "Sheklyanur text" a simplified version of the traditional holiday of Mari girls is presented): Me kumytyn Cry kuvan P?rtyshkyzh? oshkylna. Tushto has already torn kalyk shy?-shy? pogynen; mari accordion pesh silnyn yo?ga. Myyn mien purymekem shyplanysht. Vatem dene kogynnam siyan ?stelt?rysh purten shyndysht, poro mutym oylash yodych. My kynel shogalymat, kalasyshym:

tygay ?dyr paremym the first gana Sheklyanuryshto uzham. Payremda pialan lije! manym da ik mug puram y?yn koltyshym.

Pura shonet? P?r? ulmash! Vara mom oylymemzhym om sharne. (...) ?dyr-kache-vlak dene pyrlya kushtash lekna, myyn artistkemat pesh kertesh. (...) Tyge t?shkan kushten murymek, kache den ?dyr, vash shogalyn, ?chashen murat da tavalten koltat [p. 181-182] (The three of us walked to the house of the Scream kuva. A lot of people had already gathered there; the Mari accordion sounded very beautiful. When I came in, everyone was quiet. My wife and I were seated at a table rich in treats, asked to say kind words. I stood up and said:

This is the first time I see such a celebration of girls in Sheklyanur. May your holiday be happy! said and drank one mug of beer.

You think beer? It turned out, braga! I don't remember what I said next. (...) they went out to dance with the girls and guys, and my artist was also strong. (...) After such a general singing and dancing, boys and girls, sitting opposite each other, compete in singing, stomping).

The author reproduces folk songs that accompanied the holiday and reflect its primordial, deep "ideology" a demonstration of the readiness of girl brides for marriage. It is expressed according to the principle of psychological parallelism:

In?d voktene uzhar shudym

Mogai sae solaltash.

Cheever shinchan sai motorym

Mogai sae yeratash [c. 181]

(Green grass near the water

How to mow well.

A good beauty with beautiful eyes

How good it is to love).

The singing competition of brides and grooms demonstrates the desire for love and happiness, which is in harmony with the deep idea of the holiday:

?pet kudyr, mogai Chechen,

Niyaltalmem led the shu'esh.

T?rvet vichkizh, mogai chever,

Shupshalalmem vel shuesh [p. 182] (the groom's song)

(Your hair is curly, how beautiful,

I want to stroke them.

Your lips are thin, how beautiful,

I want to kiss them).

Osh shovichem, osh shovichem

Churiemlan kelshalesh.

Oh, yoltash, motorlyket

Mylanem peshak kelshalesh [p. 182] (the bride's song)

(My white handkerchief, my white handkerchief

It fits my face.

Oh, my friend, your beauty

I really like it).

One of these songs includes the toponym "Sheklyanur":

Shiy vuyang shiy shergashem

The guy yyzhy? koklashte.

Sheklyanuryn ik motorzho

Sh?mem-kylem koklashte [p. 182]

(My silver ring with a silver head

Between the joints.

One Sheklyanur beauty

In my heart).

The "Sheklyanur text" recreates the features of the national dress of the Mari depicted area. Thus, the elements of the Mari national costume (women's dress) are represented in the portrait of Plagias: Adakshym en motor tuvyrzhym chien tolesh, urvaltyshtyzhe kum pachash porsyn tasma shonanpyl decat motoryn koesh; koklashtyzhe T?rl? t?san chinche-vlak yylt-yolt koyt [p. 184] (In addition, she wore her most beautiful dress, three rows of silk on the hem ribbons look more beautiful than a rainbow; multicolored sequins sparkle between them).

The author draws attention to the traditional cuisine of the Sheklyanur mari, which he tasted while living with them: dishes from a hare, which he caught in the Kuchkinsky forest, blackbird soup, pura. In the house of Vasily Markovich Krasnov, the Mari poet Olyk Ipai was staying, on behalf of Yivan Osmin, he hunted fat thrushes from Berdyanka, which gathered in a flock in the owner's garden: Pakchashte kuksho vuyan kugu sholo shoga. Sholo vuesh logo tishka, pyzlygichkym kochkyn temmekysht, shemyn koyyn shinchyn chogymatat. Ty iktazh hiv koya logym volten shu, vara logo shrim kochkyna [p. 178] (In the garden there is a tall elm with a dried top. On the top of an elm tree, having eaten rowan berries, a flock of blackbirds sat down in black and chirped). Olyk Ipai played with the Mari word "logo" and sometimes even called Osmin himself "Logo"; it was the thrush (a specific element of the Sheklyanur fauna) Yyvan Osmin sends his dear guest's wife, Zina, as a gift.

Yyvan Osmin recreates in detail in the novel the folk-household tradition of removing bedbugs from a village house with the help of salt, Vasily Markovich Krasnov remembers it well and offers to implement it for cleaning the new rented teacher's dwelling: Chot shinchalan shoksho v?dym p?rtk?rgysht? chyla vera shyzhyktylash k?lesh. (...) Shpalerzhym chyla kushkedyn, t?rgaltaren, ko?gash y?latiza. Vara chyla pyrdyzhym, k?varym shoksho shinchalan v?d dene mussa. Shinchalym ida chamane. Tyge p?rtk?rgym mushmek, v?d koshkymo semyn pyrdyzhyshte koshkysho shinchal lumla koesh. Tunam also umdyla pyta [p. 183] ( It is necessary to sprinkle strongly salted hot water everywhere in the house. (...) Having stripped the wallpaper everywhere, peeling it off, burn it in the oven. Then wash all the walls and floor with hot salt water. Do not spare salt. After such a washing of the room, as it dries, the salt on the wall will look like snow. Only then will the bedbugs disappear). As a result, the house was so cleaned and equipped that it became similar to the lord's (the author retains the dialect word "payar", which means "master, rich man", common in the speech of the Sheklyanurians): The tyl'ze gich p?rtk?rg? payaryn gai liye sang [p. 183] (After half a month, the interior of the house became like the master's).

The Sheklyans brewed beer (kvass), it was an obligatory ritual element of the maiden's holiday depicted in the novel, such beer in reality was a braga (strong drink). "Pura shonet? P?r? ulmash" [p. 181] (Do you think beer? It turned out to be braga), says Yyvan Osmin, who visited this holiday, tasted this beer, following his guest traditions, and noticeably intoxicated from it. Note: Yivan Osmin in his narration captures the well-established name of this drink "pura", used in Sheklyanur (Tyshte cheese pura manyt [p. 180]). Meanwhile, in the linguistic consciousness of Yivan Osmin, who was committed to the literary element, this word meant something completely different: Pura tide pyrnya dene cho?ymo oknadyme p?rt, klat, moncha, v?ta ... [p. 179] (Pura is a house built of logs without windows, a crate, a bathhouse, a stable ...).

In addition to the above-mentioned words of the Sheklyanur area of distribution (pura, ?dyry?ksh, payar), in the "Sheklyanur text" there are also dialectisms yombal (the author explains to the reader that this is a baby, that is, a diaper for a baby) and karash (meaning to scream).

Summing up the results of the study, we note that the "Sheklyanur text" is filled with memorable everyday scenes of a personal and public nature associated with the Sheklyanur page of the author's biography and colored with lyricism ("date" with the first beauty of the village of Plagiy, a maiden's holiday), romance (drawing lesson, reflections on school and children, etc.), humor (wife in the outfit of a "pilot", an episode with blackbirds), drama (coordination of the daughter's name in the village executive committee) or psychologism (the birth of his wife). Everyday scenes, coupled with open ethnographic elements, recreate pictures of the Mari world and some features of its manifestation in a particular place of residence of Mari.

The exceptional signs of the "Shakespearean text" were the authentic names of real characters, their destinies, natural-geographical and administrative-economic realities, lexical features of speech, as if by itself "wedged" into the narrator's speech.

Due to the bright literary "pieces" (information and cases from the life of writers, a detailed story or mention of the author's meetings with them), the "Sheklyanur text" turned out to be a unique material, simultaneously inscribed in the literary life of the region, due to ethnographic episodes and details, folklore and song material in the general cultural tradition of the region, due to the introduction the tragic background for the Shakespearean event layers (author's comments, reflections, facts, letters, etc.) in the general historical and political context of 1936-1937.

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Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

The reviewed text is an independent study of the novel "Kava den mlande koklashte" ("Between Heaven and Earth") written by Yivan Osmin in 1992-1993. The author notes that "Yivan Osmin's novel is documentary in terms of style dominance, chronicling in composition, autobiographical in nature and degree of representation of the author's biography (external and internal), memoir in terms of the artistic projection of the depicted time. In its main part, the narrative is lyrically sublime - this was emphasized by the author himself at the end of the second book, calling both his book and his life romantic." "The novel is aimed at a young reader, whom the author would like to familiarize with his own biography, and through it with the peculiarities of the sociocultural era of which he is a part He also sincerely wanted to keep the Mari reading public and the entire Mari world on the wave of ethnic selfidentification, which will preserve the language and culture of the people, as well as preserve the people themselves - and this, in turn, is a condition for maintaining the interest of young people in writers who wrote in the Mari language, including him To Yyvan Osmin." The relevance of the research lies in a point-by-point assessment of the specified work, in a non-trivial analysis of the specifics of the novel by Yivan Osmin. The author is interested in a layer of cultural and historical significance, because it is noted that the "Shakespearean text" in the novel is about 25 pages of book text representing one period in the writer's life recreated in chronological sequence, short-lived (from August 1936 to early July 1937), but rich in events and emotions, described in detail in the context the dramatic events of the Stalinist era, which also affected the Mari region. The increasing pressure on the intelligentsia, to a certain extent, served as a reason for the departure of Yivan Osmin from the editorial office of the Mari Commune newspaper and for the emergence of the "Sheklyanur" page in his biography." The text of the work is replete with quotations and references: the "Sheklyanur text" is framed by the spirit of tragic events in the country and in the Mari territory. So, before its actual beginning, the author notes in the novel: 1936 iy augustyshto, Moskvashte Trotskyist-Zinoviev center judges the dech vara, Yoshkar-Olashte en ondak Mari writer-vlak koklashte kugu kozhganymash tarvanysh. (...) On August 22, this is the name of the "Mari Commune" newspaper Trotskyist-vlakim Lyash judges the shot of the shot of the Vyshinsky ikteshlime mutsho da molo material ailenit; on August 29, this is the "Mari Commune" edited by Golubkin Marobk bureau member candidate gich lukmo, Pasha gich koradime, edited by Pavel Mokeev shogaltyme. Mari writer-vlak ikte pochesh vese, shkenyshty svyatoesh shotlen, vesysht ?mbak lavyram kyshkash t??alyt: "bourgeois nationalist", "kalyk tushman"yarlykym pyzhyktylynyt". In my opinion, there is enough factual material, the necessary artistic cut is made legitimately. The variations of the analytical sense are quite interesting and thought out: "Sheklyanur was presented to the character-narrator as a kind of salvation opportunity, an opportunity to avoid tragedy, as well as as a kind of "oasis" for his professional (work as a teacher) and creative development (here he was preparing for admission to a Literary Institute, had the opportunity to communicate with Mari writers), for family happiness (he was next to his beloved wife, his daughter was born in Sheklyanur), as a free and favorable space, not devoid of social problems and dramatic circumstances, but it seemed far from direct political conflicts." The expansion factor for the author becomes the main one, in fact, this is observed throughout the work: "the toponym "Sheklyanur" is used in the "Sheklyanur" part of the novel 26 times. For the first time, he meets with an indication that the village is part of the Medvedevsky district, and that Yivan Osmin was sent there by the obo (regional department of public education) as a teacher of the Mari language. In precise and succinct strokes, the author tells about the peculiarities of the location of the village, its management, about specific places associated with professional interests, household and social life of Yivan Osmin. So, it immediately becomes clear that Sheklyanur was located close to Yoshkar-Ola (now it is considered that 20 kilometers from the city center); almost all the movements of the narrator between Sheklyanur and Yoshkar-Ola were carried out on foot: and the first appearance of a young teacher in the village with his young wife Marpa, a student of the College of Arts (...Sheklyanurysh yolyn pyrly kayyshna [c. 172] ...We went to Sheklyanur on foot together), and his Saturday trips to the city for books (You seem to be shumatkechyn Yoshkar-Olash yolyn koshtash talym [c. 177] So every Saturday I started walking to Yoshkar-Ola), and meetings with writers (Yoshkar-Olash yolyn chymaltym. Olyk Ipai deke [c. 176] Rushed to Yoshkar-Ola on foot. To Olyk Ipayu)" etc. I believe that the research methodology does not contradict current modern research, no actual violations have been identified in principle. The article is divided into semantic fragments, which allows a potentially interested reader to move after the author. The style of research correlates with the scientific type itself: "the creation of a sublime romantic narrative style in the Shakespearean text is maximally facilitated by the humor used by the author, to a greater extent it permeates the sphere of personal, family relations, as well as relations with the writers closest to him. Lesson pytymek, my pacheryshkem tolyn puryshym gyn, vashtareshem vatem ogyl, ala-mogai pilot shoga. Vuyyshtyzho chrome upsh, ?mbalnyzhe chrome coat-tuzhurko, ?shtyzh - prezha yilgyzhesh, yolyshtyzhat chrome kem... [p. 179] (After the end of the lesson, I came home, not my wife stood in front of me, some kind of pilot. On her head is a chrome hat, on her is a chrome jacket coat, a belt with a shiny buckle, and on her feet are chrome boots ...), this is how Yivan Osmin writes about his wife. In this portrait description, the comparison of the wife with the pilot and the repeated repetition of the word "chrome", unusual for Mari hearing, become the means of creating humor. The summary correlates with the main block: "summing up the results of the study, we note that the "Sheklyanur text" is filled with memorable everyday scenes of a personal and public nature associated with the Sheklyanur page of the author's biography and colored with lyricism ("date" with the first beauty of the village of Plagiy, a maiden's holiday), romance (drawing lesson, reflections on school and children, etc.), humor (the wife in the outfit of a "pilot", the episode with blackbirds), drama (coordination of the daughter's name in the village executive committee) or psychologism (the birth of the wife). Everyday scenes, coupled with open ethnographic elements, recreate pictures of the Mari world and some features of its manifestation in a particular place of residence of Mari." The subject of the work corresponds to one of the magazine's headings, the main requirements of the publication are taken into account. The work has a completed form, its main goal has been achieved, the available volume makes it possible to reveal the problems fully and holistically. I think that the article "The Sheklyanur text" in Yivan Osmin's novel "Between Heaven and Earth" can be recommended for publication in the magazine "Litera" of the ID "Nota Bene".
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