Статья 'Русские и китайские фразеологизмы религиозной тематики с компонентами-числительными два и три ' - журнал 'Litera' - NotaBene.ru
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Russian and Chinese phraseology of religious themes with numeric components two and three

Din Lina

ORCID: 0000-0002-0379-6839

Postgraduate student, Department of General and Russian Linguistics, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia named after Patrice Lumumba

117198, Russia, Moscow, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 21

1042215065@pfur.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 
Lysyakova Marina Vital'evna

PhD in Philology

M.V. Lysyakova, Candidate of Philological Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of General and Russian Linguistics, Faculty of Philology, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia named after Patrice Lumumba

117198, Russia, Moscow, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 6

lysyakova-mv@rudn.ru

DOI:

10.25136/2409-8698.2023.11.69035

EDN:

EBOJUV

Received:

14-11-2023


Published:

21-11-2023


Abstract: This article is devoted to the linguistic and linguocultural study of numerative phraseological units with a religious component in the Russian and Chinese languages. The object of this research is the idioms of the Russian and Chinese languages of religious themes, which contain the components of the numerals two and three. The subject of this research is the linguistic and national-cultural features of Russian and Chinese phraseological units with a religious component. Such methods as the method of continuous sampling, the descriptive method, the comparative method, linguoculturological analysis and etymological analysis are used in the research. The scientific novelty of the research lies in the fact that the similarities and differences in the perception of the spiritual identity of the Russian and Chinese ethnos are revealed on the basis of phraseological units with numerals in the linguoculturological aspect. The result of the comparison of idioms with the numerical components two and three in the two languages is a confirmation of the opposite attitude to the numbers of the Russians and the Chinese, in particular, it is noted that the Chinese culture gravitates towards even numbers, and the Russian culture – towards odd numbers. The conclusions and materials of this article can be used in the preparation of general and special courses, the results of this work will facilitate and accelerate the integration of foreign students into the Russian and Chinese linguistic and cultural environment.


Keywords:

idioms, numerical components, religious themes, language and culture, linguoculturology, comparative analysis, Christianity, Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

Introduction

In modern linguistics, the relevance of research carried out in line with linguoculturology is increasing. The linguistic picture of the world is a set of naive knowledge about the world, fixed at different levels (sublevels) language system: lexical, phraseological, grammatical [1, p. 102]. Phraseological units play an important role in creating a linguistic picture of the world, fragments of the national mentality of native speakers are reflected in the mirror of phraseology. Our research is based on a broad understanding of phraseology formulated by N. M. Shansky: "A phraseological turnover is a ready–made linguistic unit consisting of two or more stressed components of a verbal nature, fixed (i.e. constant) in its meaning, composition and structure" [8, p. 192]. Along with phraseological phrases, proverbs, sayings, collocations, etc. are included in the phraseology.

The knowledge of the surrounding reality and the specific picture of the world of a certain people presupposes the comprehension of the essence and symbolism of numbers. The imagery of phraseological units with a religious cultural code arises not only through the reinterpretation of sacred quotations or plots, but also through the actualization of hidden linguistic and cultural information. Therefore, Russian and Chinese phraseological units with a numerical component on religious topics are of considerable scientific interest. The purpose of this article is to identify and describe the similarities and differences in the spiritual identity of the Russian and Chinese ethnos on the material of phraseological units with a component–a numeral in the linguoculturological aspect.

Russian Russian phraseological units extracted by continuous sampling method from K. N. Dubrovina's "Encyclopedic Dictionary of Biblical Phraseological Units (2010)" [3] and "Dictionary of Russian Phraseology, Historical and Etymological Reference Book" [5], as well as 200 Chinese phraseological units obtained from dictionaries: "Buddhist Phraseology" [5] served as the research material.10] and "The Chinese Great Dictionary of Chengyu: a historical and etymological reference book" [9].

 

In the Telegram No. 1, it is shown that the Russian linguoculture has the most frequent numbers one, two and seven, figuratively motivated by biblical texts, church and religious rituals; in Chinese linguoculture, the numbers one, two, three and six, endowed with divine meanings under the influence of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism, are frequent. As follows from the results of the conducted studies, reflected in Diagram No. 1, the most frequent phraseological units with components-numerals one (34% of all Russian phraseological units and 47% of all Chinese phraseological units), two (respectively 15% and 8%) and three (6% and 17%). The data obtained indicate that a greater number of coincidences are demonstrated by phraseological units representing the symbolic meanings of the numbers one and three. Phraseological units with component one were previously analyzed by us in the article "Russian and Chinese phraseological units of religious subjects with component-numeral one" [2]. This article is mainly devoted to the comparative analysis of phraseological units with numerical components two and three in two languages.

1. Numerical component two.

The numerical component two in phraseological units with a religious component in both languages is characterized by polysemantism. Phraseological units with different symbolic meanings were divided into groups.

           First of all, component two is part of phraseological units of biblical origin with the meaning of "testimony", which, in particular, is reflected in the expression to send the apostles in twos. The number two is repeatedly mentioned in the scriptures as a symbol of two witnesses (Numbers 11-16-17; Exodus 24:1, 9). The Lord also chose the other seventy [disciples], and sent them two by two before His face to every city and place where He Himself wanted to go ... (Luke 10:1). The Lord sends the Apostles two by two, both so that they can support each other, and so that the Jews believe their testimony more, for the law of Moses stated that the testimony of two is true (John 8:17; Deut. 19:15). This value also contains a composite of two cherubim that were installed at both ends of the lid of the Ark of the Covenant (Ark of Testimony).

The group of phraseological units with the meaning "more than one" includes the phraseological turnover ovom talent, ovom two (another talent, another two), in modern language meaning "everyone has different abilities; as predetermined from above, everyone is given according to his capabilities: one – less, the other – more… The expression goes back to the parable of Jesus Christ about talents (silver coins of great value), told by the evangelist Matthew. ... The parable also contains the idea that every person should develop and multiply the abilities and talents received from above, from God, and not bury them in the ground" [3, p. 453].

The group with the meaning "repeatedly" is allocated on the basis of the ordinal sequence of the numeral second and is the main key to understanding the phraseology before the second coming (to wait), which has the meaning "for a very long time, until an indefinite period".

Note that phraseological units with a component-the numeral two have the same cultural connotation in Russian and Chinese linguocultures – "duality; to be distracted, to scatter" [7, p. 168]. The Bibleism to serve two masters / servant of two masters functions in the meaning of "to serve, to please simultaneously two opposite or hostile parties (people, parties, directions, etc.); to be a traitor, a double-dealer" [3, p. 601]. In the phraseology of Confucian origin, ???? (conf. His qualities are changeable; his feelings are impermanent) the indicated value is also noted.

It is known that even numbers play an important role in the everyday life of the Chinese. Unit two, symbolizing the balance and interaction between two opposites – yin and yang, man and woman, is associated with a couple, partnership and is semanticized in the following phraseological units:

???? (conf. To get married. Connection of two families with different surnames);

????????? ( (conf. Unanimity is stronger than steel; Obr. in the meaning: friendship (mutual support, cooperation) is a great force; one in the field is not a warrior);

???? (conf. The grandchildren of Huigong (the Principality of Qi) compete in merits. Obr. in the meaning: both brothers as a selection, two outstanding brothers).

 Note that the biblical expression of every (every) creature in pairs in modern Russian is reinterpreted and used ironically in relation to a mixed, heterogeneous collection of things, people or animals.

2. Numerical component three.

It is believed that God blesses the number three, which, in particular, is reflected in the saying God loves the trinity. In different religions, the number three is accompanied by various associations. In the Bible, three acts as a symbol of the deity, denotes the Triune God – God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit: "Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit" [6]. The Holy Scriptures contain many expressions with the numerical component three in their composition, for example: three images of Transfiguration, three temptations, three immersion in water, three renunciations of Peter, three crosses on Calvary, three days of the death of Christ, three virtues: Faith, Hope, Love. The proverb three fingers cross is connected with the tradition of Orthodox Christians to make the sign of the cross with three fingers during prayer or worship.

Component three, denoting abundance and abundance, is used as in Russian biblical studies (to pour (shed) tears (streams of tears) <in three streams> – unrestrained, bitterly, profusely shedding tears (to cry)), and in phraseological units of Confucian origin, for example:

(conf. Think three times, and then act; Obr. in the meaning: measure seven times, cut once);

(conf. One day of separation is like three years; Obr. in the meaning: languish in separation; time slowly drags on);

(conf. Three sacrifices and five sacrificial tripods; Obr. in the meaning: beautiful and abundant products);

(conf. To break a hand three times; Obr. in the meaning of: a) about an experienced physician who has personally suffered many illnesses; b) about a great master of his craft, about a man of great experience).

Three is one of the positive numbers in the picture of the Chinese world. The ancient thinker and philosopher Confucius valued the number three, which is reflected in his works. In the book "Conversation and Judgment Xue Er", a disciple of Confucius Tseng-tzu said: "?????" (conf. I check myself daily in three ways: do I serve people faithfully, am I sincere in my relationships with friends, do I repeat the teacher's commandments?), this contributes to the formation and development of personality, helps a person achieve harmony inside and out [4, p. 3].

In the seventh chapter, "Conversation and Judgment of the Shu Er" contains the saying of the ???? (conf. Of the three, there will definitely be one from whom you can learn something), which serves as a guide for all educated and thinking people striving for knowledge and perfection [4, p. 51].

In the chapter "Conversation and Judgment of Ji Shi," the image of a noble husband corresponding to the moral principles and foundations of Confucianism is created (conf. Three things that cause fear of a perfect person: the command of heaven, a great dignitary, the word of a sage), which a low person despises.

This chapter is also the source of expressions such as:

????????? (conf. Three types of friendship (see being friends with a person or direct, or honest, or having great insight) are beneficial and three (see being friends with a person or insincere, or quirky, or glib in language) are harmful) and

?????? ( ( (conf. Three kinds of joy bring benefits and three kinds of harm. When you rejoice at the fact that you either act in accordance with the ritual and music, or talk about the good deeds of people, or enter into friendship with wise people, it brings benefits. When you experience joy from either indulging in waste, or idleness, or feasting, it brings harm) [4, p. 135].  These phraseological units reflect the principles of social interaction, the laws of interpersonal relations for future generations. A follower of Confucius, philosopher and writer Menzi put forward the idea of ????, denoting various types of filial disrespect for parents. In the future, the proverb ????, ????? (conf. Among the many types of filial disrespect for parents, the most malicious is childlessness). 

In feudal society, moral and ethical principles of Confucianism prevailed, such as:

(conf. The three foundations (the three foundations (the absolute power of the sovereign over the subject, the father over the son, the husband over the wife – the ethical norms of old China)) and five unshakable rules (?? - five constancy (five virtues)); 

(conf. The threefold humility (see:) and the four virtues (women: virtue, modesty in speech, femininity, diligence – the traditional formula of requirements for a woman in old China)).

The mystical number three plays an important role in the construction of the basic concepts of Buddhism. First of all, it is in the concept of time that has developed in the religious beliefs of the Chinese people, especially Buddhist ones, for example:

(Buddha. Three time periods: past, present and future) and

 (Buddha. Three lives: former existence, present existence and subsequent rebirth), reflecting the concepts of samsara and retribution for deeds.

The basic concept of Buddhism in the Chinese language corresponds to the phraseology of the "Buddha". To have happiness in three existences. Obr. meaning: about especially happy people). Also in Buddhism there is an expression of the (Buddhas. Three categories according to the stage of development of conscious beings: having desires, having sensuality, having neither desires nor sensuality). It is believed that by freeing oneself from feelings and desires, a Buddhist can achieve nirvana.

 In the phraseological unit ?????? ( (Buddha. There is no need / trouble / misfortune to go to the temple) the Senbao Temple is the main place intended for performing various Buddhist rites and practices, in which three buildings were erected separately: for the worship of Buddhas, the preservation of the Buddhist canon and the residence of monks. Suffering caused by attachment and (Buddha. Three troubles and eight misfortunes. Obr. meaning: about many misfortunes, for example, morbidity in childhood), is a basic concept for an adequate understanding of the Buddhist worldview. Therefore, in the deepest meditation, one should strive to get rid of illusions, delusions and associated suffering, which is reflected in Chinese phraseological units:

(Buddha. To free oneself from worldly passions, to allow the heart and mind to calm down. Obr. in the meaning of: a) easily and freely achieve Samadhi, for example. about the bodhisattva. b) the ability (skill) to arrange games. c) in modern Chinese - "treat everything easily and playfully");

??? ( (Buddha. To achieve a state of contemplation with the help of mental concentration and the elimination of extraneous thoughts. Obr. meaning: subtle understanding, insight into the very essence of something). The image of the Buddha is contained in a phraseological turn, which in modern Chinese has a positive emotional and expressive coloring: (Buddha. About three heads and six hands. Obr. meaning: miraculous abilities).

In the phraseological unit, (three teachings - Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and nine currents (schools) - Zhu (Jia) (Confucianism), Mo (Jia), Tao (Jia) (Taoism), Ming (Jia), fa (Jia) (Legism), Yinyan (Jia), Nun (jia), zongheng (jia), jia (jia), xiaosho (jia). Obr. meaning: all strata of society; people of various professions) the main religions and philosophical trends involved in the formation and development of Chinese worldview views on the surrounding reality are presented.

Conclusion

Thus, in this work, the numerical components of phraseological units are defined as cultural phenomena: they reveal the features inherent in the collective picture of the world of a certain ethnic group, with the help of which a native speaker translates positive, neutral or negative emotions. Russian Russian and Chinese linguocultures comparative study of phraseological units with components-numerals on religious themes has revealed both fundamental differences in the ideas of these numbers among the speakers of the two cultures, and the similarity or proximity of traditional beliefs related to numbers, for example, to the number three, among Russians and Chinese.

So, numerical components in the composition of phraseological units of religious themes are an integral part of the Russian and Chinese language pictures of the world. The study of numerical symbols of Russian and Chinese phraseological units contributes to a deeper understanding of their national and cultural specifics in intercultural communication.

 

 

References
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Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

The subject of the research of the reviewed article is quite interesting, new and relevant. The author turns to the analysis of the component numerals "two" and "three" in phraseological turns of religious subjects. The Russian and Chinese languages are chosen as the language bases. It seems that the comparative version of the methodology is quite appropriate and constructive. The relevance of the research can be explained by a small number of similar scientific studies, and the material can be productively used in university practice, when forming / writing new works of a related thematic focus. I would like to note that the work is quite competently structured, the text is divided into proper semantic blocks. This allows the reader to follow the researcher, comprehend the topic fully and objectively. In part, the author is focused on the scientific style itself. For example, this is manifested in the following fragments: "in modern linguistics, the relevance of research carried out in line with linguoculturology is increasing. The linguistic picture of the world is a set of naive knowledge about the world, fixed at different levels (sublevels) the language system: lexical, phraseological, grammatical. Phraseological units play an important role in creating a linguistic picture of the world, fragments of the national mentality of native speakers are reflected in the mirror of phraseology," or "the numerical component two in phraseological units with a religious component in both languages is characterized by polysemanticism. Phraseological units with different symbolic meanings were divided into groups. First of all, component two is part of phraseological units of biblical origin with the meaning of "testimony", which, in particular, is reflected in the expression to send the apostles in twos. The number two is repeatedly mentioned in the scriptures as a symbol of two witnesses (Numbers 11-16-17; Exodus 24:1, 9). The Lord chose the other seventy [disciples], and sent them two by two before His face to every city and place where He wanted to go... (Luke 10:1). The Lord sends the Apostles in twos, both so that they can support each other, and so that the Jews would have more faith in their testimony, for the law of Moses stated that the testimony of two is true (John 8:17; Deut. 19:15). This value also contains a composite of two cherubim, which were installed at both ends of the lid of the Ark of the Covenant (Ark of Testimony)," etc. The actual production of data is recorded in schematic and graphical form, visualization is quite appropriate and legitimate. However, when quoting sources, it is necessary to use the standard of introduction – "..." [1, p. 111], this manifests the correctness of the reference. Russians Russian phraseological units extracted by continuous sampling method from K. N. Dubrovina's "Encyclopedic Dictionary of Biblical Phraseological Units (2010)" and "Dictionary of Russian Phraseology, historical and Etymological Reference Book", as well as 200 Chinese phraseological units obtained from dictionaries: "Buddhist Phraseology" and "Buddhist Phraseology" served as the research material.The Chinese Great Dictionary of Chengyu: a historical and etymological reference book". In my opinion, there is enough illustrative background, it is diverse, accessible, and generally used. The content grade is informative, no serious factual inaccuracies have been identified. The literal references are kept within the norm: "the group of phraseological units with the meaning "more than one" includes the phraseological turnover one talent, one two (another talent, another two), in modern language meaning "everyone has different abilities; as predetermined from above, everyone is given according to his capabilities: one less, to another– more… The expression goes back to the parable of Jesus Christ about talents (silver coins of great value), told by the evangelist Matthew. ... The parable also contains the idea that every person should develop and multiply the abilities and talents received from above, from God, and not bury them in the ground," or "component three, denoting abundance and abundance, is used as in Russian biblical studies (to shed tears (streams of tears) <in three streams> – unrestrained, bitterly, profusely shedding tears (to cry)), and in phraseological units of Confucian origin, for example: Think three times, and then act; Obr. in the meaning: measure seven times, cut once); One day of separation is like three years; Obr. in the meaning: languish in separation; time slowly drags on); (conf. Three sacrifices and five sacrificial tripods; Obr. in the meaning: beautiful and abundant products); To break your arm three times; Obr. in the meaning of: a) about an experienced physician who has personally suffered many diseases; b) about a great master of his craft, about a man of great experience)", etc. In the final block, it is stated that "in the work, the numerical components of phraseological units are defined as cultural phenomena: they reveal features peculiar to the collective picture of the world of a certain ethnic group, with the help of which a native speaker translates positive, neutral or negative emotions. Russian Russian and Chinese linguocultures comparative study of phraseological units with components-numerals on religious topics has revealed both fundamental differences in the ideas of these numbers among speakers of the two cultures, as well as the similarity or proximity of traditional beliefs related to numbers, for example, to the number three, among Russians and Chinese," etc. I think that the material may be of interest to students and graduate students who study the specifics of the Russian and Chinese languages in the comparison mode. There is a database of sources, but it could be presented in an expanded way. And yet, with that said, I note that the article "Russian and Chinese phraseological units of religious subjects with components-numerals two and three" can be recommended for publication in the journal "Litera".
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