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Reference:

Lexical homonyms in the Mari language.

Lastochkina Elena Grigor'evna

PhD in Philology

Associate Professor, Department of Mari Language and Literature, Mari State University

424019, Russia, Republic of Mari El, Yoshkar-Ola, pl. Lenin str., 1

antrolea@mail.ru

DOI:

10.25136/2409-8698.2023.11.68994

EDN:

FBRQIS

Received:

11-11-2023


Published:

18-11-2023


Abstract: The subject of the study is lexical homonyms in the modern Mari language. The material of the scientific work was the data of the 10-volume dictionary of the Mari language, the Mari-Russian dictionary, the author's card file, compiled by selecting materials from Mari works of art, oral folk art and periodicals. The aim of the work is to distinguish lexical homonyms from other groups of homonyms and to determine their conceptual and semantic relationship. At the first stage, a selection of words that belong to the category of lexical homonyms was carried out. At the next stage of the study, all lexical material was analyzed, this group of homonyms was divided into categories, and a quantitative analysis of lexical homonyms was performed.The research method was the analysis of homonyms based on lexicographic sources. A special contribution of the author to the study of the topic is the appeal to a wide range of works and the multidimensional nature of the study of the issue. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that lexical homonyms in the Mari language are analyzed for the first time. The result of the study lies in the conclusion that lexical homonyms are the most common group of homonyms in the Mari language, they can be divided into full and incomplete lexical homonyms, as well as substantive, verbal, adjectival, participial, adverbial and several examples with imitative words were distinguished by their relation to parts of speech. Lexical homonymy occurs among words of the same parts of speech. At the same time, two or more lexical homonyms (full or partial) have an absolute identity of the sound and spelling complex.


Keywords:

homonyms, lexical homonyms, Mari language, full homonyms, incomplete homonyms, substantive lexical homonyms, verbal lexical homonyms, adjectival lexical homonyms, participial lexical homonyms, adverbial lexical homonyms

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

Homonymy is most often associated with the level of words, which is why lexical homonymy has received the greatest reflection in the linguistic literature [see: 1; 2; 3-8].

The homonyms of the Mari language considered in our previous works, taking into account the lexical meaning and grammatical characteristics of words [9-12], are divided into the following types: 1) lexical homonyms; 2) morphological homonyms (homoforms); 3) orthographic homonyms (homographs); 4) phonetic homonyms (homophones) [9, p. 35].

In this article, taking into account the new Mari orthography [13], we will analyze the features of lexical homonyms of the Mari language, consider in detail the distinguishing features of lexical homonymy, using the definition of the concept formulated by M.I. Fomina: "Lexical homonyms are two or more words of different meanings that coincide in spelling, pronunciation, grammatical design" [14, c. 57]. For example: brocade I 1) the final part of the branch; twig; top, top of trees, shrubs, 2) ear brocade II material made of wool and gold and silver threads [15].

Complete lexical homonyms must meet several requirements: they must not be related in meaning, all their forms must be identical, identical forms must be grammatically equivalent [See. This is the work of L. V. Malakhovsky: 16; 17].

Morphological, phonetic, and spelling features are similar in homonyms, and the difference concerns only the lexical part. Lexical homonyms of the Mari language are divided into two types: full homonymy and incomplete homonymy. Homonyms that coincide in all their grammatical forms are called complete [11, c 124]. Full homonyms are words of one part of speech belonging to nouns, verbs, adjectives, participles, adverbs:

sh?r I edge, edge, edge sh?r II milk

shrim im. sushch., vin. p. shrim im. sushch., vin. p.

ailash I em occupy, occupy ailash II em dial. picky

interan I adj, woolen' interan II adj, having boundaries', and boundaries are the boundary of land plots.

poilme I 1) prich. from pualash I, 2) in the meaning of the entity. blow, 3) in the meaning of the essence. quenching poilme II 1) prich. from pualash II, 2) in the meaning of sushch. swelling, swelling, 3) in the meaning of. sushch. med. inflammation;

luyk I nar. 1) calmly, serenely, peacefully, 2) firmly, strongly, properly, significantly according to the degree of manifestation, 3) completely, completely, clean, without a trace (when it comes to an action performed in full) luyk II smoothly, plastically

current I razg.recently, recently, in a few days current II somehow, barely, with difficulty

We have noted several examples with imitative words that also form complete lexical homonyms:

tp I dial. subr. sl. imitation of the dull sound of something falling - tp II subr. sl. imitation of the immobility of someonesomething-L., motionless

chyy I podr. sl. imitation of gaze chyy II podr. sl. imitation of bird whistling, chirping: chiv'.

Full homonyms have the same whole system of forms. For example, nouns have the same case categories, numbers.

Homonyms are called incomplete if not all grammatical forms coincide. Incomplete lexical homonyms in the Mari language are extremely rare among nouns, verbs and adjectives. For example,

- iy I ice iy II year iy III chisel, iy I is not used in the plural form, unlike iy II iy-vlak ertat the years are flying and iy II Achamyn pashatizhe mogai-gyn iy-vlak uke ulyt My father has at work what only there are no chisels;

- malash I 1) sleep 2) numb, numb malash II 1) bake (about blood) 2) to be on guard, Malash II has no lead. tilt. and does not form a communion form;

- koshtyrtash I -em to make (make) rough, rough, rough, tough, weathered, rough koshtyrtash II -em to creak, creak, crunch, make a dull noise when moving, a synonym word for koshtyrtash I is the word koshtyradash to wind, and for koshtyrtash II koshtyrtatash to creak;

- yacha I 1) damp, raw, moist; soaked in moisture, 2) stringy, not baked (about pastries) yacha II razg. 1) adj. annoying, bothersome, picky, 2) in meaning. begging, begging, begging, insistent request, yacha I is not used in the meaning of the noun, while yacha II begging is used.

According to their structure, lexical homonyms of the Mari language are derived and non-derived. Derivatives are called such homonyms that have arisen as a result of word formation. Derived homonyms are also called word-formative. For example: tul+ymo I 1) prich. from tulash I, 2) in the meaning of the entity. mad leap'; tul +ymo II 1) prich. from tulash II, 2) adj. crumpled, processed with myalka 3) in the meaning of the entity. bashing, processing with a pulp'; tul +ymo III 1) prich. from tulash III, 2) adj. designed for pumping, swinging, pumping (water, liquid) 3) in the meaning of the entity. pumping, pumping'.

Non-derivative homonyms are those that have arisen as a result of the coincidence of the sound of different words that differ in semantics and have never had etymological proximity. Non-derivative homonyms are most often found in the circle of nouns. For example: shoshpyk I nightingale' and shoshpyk II whistle', avyz I tasting (about food) and avyz II dial. priest'.

According to their relation to parts of speech, lexical homonyms in the Mari language are divided into: substantive, verbal, adjectival, participial, adverbial and several examples with imitative words.

Substantive lexical homonyms. According to our calculations, substantive homonymous series make up the largest group, there are: 353. For example: avyz I tasting avyz II dial. priest; varysh I 1) a mixture, a product of mixing some substances 2)mash, mash varysh II dial. elevation, hill, hillock'; L?m? I glue' L?m? II sore, scab; optem I 1) yolk (in a bird's egg), 2) peren. core, core, root, meaning optem II bees. perga; flower pollen folded into honeycomb cells'; kava I sky' kava II etn., dial. spinning wheel' kava III anat. lower abdomen'; orzha I heat, heat' orzha II 1) mane (horse) 2) peren. about things and phenomena similar to a mane orzha III geogr. spit (shoal); VCH I 1) lips. the string (of haddock kand?ra), 2) Perrin. sight VCH II attachment for skis VCH III rafter (orally levadas istime aartis).

Verbal lexical homonyms. This group of lexical homonyms is also numerous and there are only 124 homonymic series. For example: ailash I em, occupy, occupy' ailash II em, dial. to be picky, to understand something; luklash I -em to make (make) an angle, bend (bend) an angle - luklash II -em mouth. measure out (canvas when embroidering a sharpan); moshtash Iem, to be able, to be able to do something (to do) moshtash -em II dial. get tired, get tired; vuilash I em give, give vuilash II em complete vuilash III em head; shuarash I -em 1) to harden; to harden, harden, harden; to give greater strength, elasticity, 2) to harden, give (give) greater hardness, elasticity, 3) peren. temper, harden, harden; by keeping it in the cold, then in the heat, 4) peren. temper, harden, harden; by proper physical education to make (make) strong, hardy, 5) peren. to temper, harden, harden; to make (make) hardy, capable of overcoming difficulties, hardships, unfavorable conditions, etc. shuarash II-em G. upset, upset; undermine, undermine (health) shuarash III-em G. water, water something.

Adjectival lexical homonyms. We have identified 44 two- and three-component homonyms with adjectives. For example: a?an I with a neck a?an II striped, with a stripe; interan I woolen; interan II having boundaries, and boundaries - the boundary of land plots; yacha I 1) damp, damp, moist; absorbed moisture, 2) stringy, unfinished (about baking) yacha II razg. 1) adj. annoying, bothersome, picky, 2) in meaning. begging, begging, begging, insistent request; leman I G. leman. 1) by name, by name, by name, by nickname, by name, called by some name, having a name, 2) with ranks, titles, having a rank, title, titled, 3) famous, famous; noble, eminent, 4) allotment (land), related to allotment, 5) gram. nominal leman II with sores, with scab, with ulcers, having sores, ulcers leman III with glue, sticky, having glue; chatan I dial. lame chatan II dial. branched chatan III dial. crackling (about frost).

Participial lexical homonyms. Another group of lexical homonyms has 19 examples. For example: ayman (I 1) prich. from aymanash I. 2) adj. bruised, wounded aymanysh II dial. 1) prich. from aymanash II. 2) adj. shy, timid; poilme I 1) prich. from pualash I, 2) in the meaning of the entity. blow, 3) in the meaning of the essence. quenching poilme II 1) prich. from pualash II, 2) in the meaning of sushch. swelling, swelling, 3) in the meaning of. sushch. med. inflammation; punchalme I 1) prich. from punchalash I, 2) in the meaning of sushch. squeeze, pushup; squeeze, push-up - punchalme II 1) from punchalash II, 2) in meaning. sushch. decision, resolution.

Adverbial lexical homonyms. There are 8 adverbial lexical homonyms in total: luyk I nar. 1) calmly, serenely, peacefully, 2) firmly, strongly, properly, significantly according to the degree of manifestation, 3) completely, completely, clean, without a trace (when it comes to an action performed in full) luyk II smoothly, plastically; current I g. current recently, recently, in a few days current II somehow, barely, with difficulty; chuige I intently - chuige II writhing (about smoke).

Onomatopoietic lexical homonyms. And finally, the last group of lexical homonyms, where there are 4 examples with two-component homonyms. For example: tp I dial. podr. sl. imitation of the dull sound of something falling - tp II podr. sl. imitation of the immobility of someonesomething-L., motionless; chy I podr. sl. - imitation of gaze chy II podr. sl. imitation of bird whistling, chirping: chiv.

Thus, lexical homonymy occurs among words of the same parts of speech. At the same time, two or more lexical homonyms (full or partial) have an absolute identity of the sound and spelling complex, that is, the external structure and all (or part of) grammatical forms (the initial change in cases, the presence of the same number forms in three words that are full lexical homonyms.

The source of lexical homonyms are the following parts of speech: noun, verb, adjective, participle, adverb and imitative (onomatopoietic) words.

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The article "Lexical homonyms in the Mari language" submitted for consideration, proposed for publication in the journal "Litera", is undoubtedly relevant, due to the author's appeal to study the lexical features of the language of one of the nationalities living in the Russian Federation. In this article, taking into account the new Mari orthography, the author analyzes the features of lexical homonyms of the Mari language, examines the distinctive features of lexical homonymy, using the definition of the concept formulated by M.I. Fomina. The article is innovative, one of the first in Russian linguistics devoted to the study of such issues. The article presents a research methodology, the choice of which is quite adequate to the goals and objectives of the work. The author refers, among other things, to various methods to confirm the hypothesis put forward, namely the comparative historical method, the method of generalization and the method of semantic analysis. Unfortunately, the author does not specify the volume of the research body, as well as the principles of its sampling. Theoretical fabrications are illustrated with language examples, as well as convincing data obtained during the study. This work was done professionally, in compliance with the basic canons of scientific research. The research was carried out in line with modern scientific approaches, the work consists of an introduction containing the formulation of the problem, the main part, traditionally beginning with a review of theoretical sources and scientific directions, a research and a final one, which presents the conclusions obtained by the author. It should be noted that the conclusion requires strengthening, it does not fully reflect the tasks set by the author and does not contain prospects for further research in line with the stated issues. The bibliography of the article contains 17 sources, among which works are presented in both Russian and foreign languages. Unfortunately, the article does not contain references to the fundamental works of Russian researchers, such as monographs, PhD and doctoral dissertations. It should be noted that the article violates the generally accepted alphabetical order of sources according to GOST. The comments made are not significant and do not detract from the overall positive impression of the reviewed work. In general, it should be noted that the article is written in a simple, understandable language for the reader. Typos, grammatical and stylistic errors have not been identified. The work is innovative, representing the author's vision of solving the issue under consideration and may have a logical continuation in further research. The practical significance of the research lies in the possibility of using its results in the teaching of university courses in phraseology and lexicography, as well as courses in interdisciplinary research on the relationship between language and society. The article will undoubtedly be useful to a wide range of people, philologists, undergraduates and graduate students of specialized universities. The article "Lexical homonyms in the Mari language" may be recommended for publication in a scientific journal.
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