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Semantic and Functional Potential of the Particle ALREADY and its Reflection in Translation into Vietnamese (Based on the Material of the Novel by M. A. Bulgakov "The Master and Margarita")

Erysheva Anna Yur'evna

ORCID: 0000-0001-9606-0603

Senior lecturer, Department of Pacific Asia, Far Eastern Federal University

690922, Russia, Primorsky Krai, Vladivostok, Russian Island, village Ajax, 10, of. D415

Tokarchuk Irina Nikolaevna

ORCID: 0000-0003-3324-3968

PhD in Philology

Associate professor, Department of Russian Language and Literature, Far Eastern Federal University

690922, Russia, Primorsky Krai, Vladivostok, Russian Island, village Ajax, 10, of. D927










Abstract: The article discusses typical semantic and pragmatic implementations of the particle "already" and the means of the Vietnamese language used in practice to convey the corresponding meanings. The relevance of the research is determined by its involvement in the problems of translating Russian particles as communicative and pragmatic signs into foreign languages. The object of the study is the particle "already". The subject of the research is syntagmatic, semantic and pragmatic features of this lexeme, as well as ways and means of translating statements from "already" into Vietnamese. The research material was M. A. Bulgakov's novel "The Master and Margarita" and the text of its translation into Vietnamese. The purpose of the work is to establish the range of types of use of the particle "already" presented in the text of the work under consideration, as well as to determine the features of ways to translate statements with this particle into Vietnamese. The paper uses a descriptive method, as well as elements of comparative and quantitative analysis. The novelty of the study is determined by the fact that for the first time the question of the functioning of the particle "already" and its Vietnamese analogues is considered on the material of the named novel by M. A. Bulgakov. It is established that when translating statements with the particle "already", a number of relevant Vietnamese words and service combinations are used, of which the most popular means of direct translation is đã, with non-predicative components, transmitting an assessment according to the parameters much, little, long, late, and with predicative components, the values are change in the situation, expectation and earlier than expected'. It is shown that the specifics of the semantic and functional capabilities of the Russian "already" and the service units of the Vietnamese language do not always allow for an adequate translation, and therefore they cannot be considered completely equivalent. The results of the study can be taken into account both in the study of other Russian particles, including in the comparative aspect, and in lexicographic practice.


function words, particles, semantics, pragmatics, meaning component, syntagmatic features, types of use, Russian, Vietnamese language, translation methods

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

Introductory remarksRussian particles as communicative and pragmatic signs have a capacious implicit semantics that allows expressing the speaker's attitude to the addressee and to the content of the message in an implicit form, which, however, creates certain difficulties when translating texts containing such words into other languages.

Thus, the analysis of a number of modal particles of five languages (Russian, German, English, French and Udmurt), conducted by E. S. Oshanova, suggests that such units "differ in specific untranslatability: each particle is translated not by the same equivalent, but in various ways" [13, p. 52]. I. S. Eremina comes to similar conclusions in the course of studying the English equivalents of a particle, as it were: there are many ways of translating this unit into English using different means (particles, conjunctions, adverbs, phrases and stable expressions), the choice of which is due to pragmatic, stylistic and other factors [6, p. 22].

The question of the degree of equivalence of such service units becomes especially relevant when translating texts of works of art. Thus, E. F. Kero Hervilla, speaking about the significance of the particle as if as an indicator of modal uncertainty in the language of F. M. Dostoevsky, draws attention to the fact that when translating the novel "The Brothers Karamazov" into Spanish, the particle can be "omitted", while the transfer of the semantics of this word is any of a number of available Spanish analogues "not only does not prevent adequate perception of the text, but even, without a doubt, contributes to the fact that the reader can fully feel the volume of the text" [7, p. 36]. In the work of S. S. Vaulina and L. V. Kokovina, the question of the adequacy of the translation into English of subjective modal particles on the material of N. V. Gogol's novel "The Overcoat" is considered [4]. In particular, the inaccuracy of translating the word already using the adverb already in the context of the official's last name was Bashmachkin is noted. Already by the name itself, it can be seen that it originated from the shoe, since the emphasis shifts from the noun in the original to the verb in translation when the position of the word-allocator changes, which "obscures the author's goal setting" [Ibid., p. 19].Similar problems occur when translating, for example, German particles into Russian [11; 21].

The language of the works of M. A. Bulgakov, and above all, the novel "The Master and Margarita", is of considerable interest to linguists, including from the side of the peculiarities of the functioning of particles. In the works of L. A. Savelyeva, particles in the space of a given artistic text (exactly, that's it, only, yes, that's it, after all, after all, etc.) are evaluated as "markers of artistic images" based on the "index of occurrence of certain particles" in the speech of characters [15, p. 127], as a "tool for personifying the images of literary heroes" the Master, Ivan Bezdomny, Berlioz, Dr. Stravinsky, etc. [16]. The article by Deng Lijuan examines the pragmatic potential of particles literally, as well as some others, realized in the text of the novel by M. A. Bulgakov [5]. The object of research in Lan Sho's work is the particle here, and the subject is its typical functions due to the invariant meaning of the particle "attracting the attention of the addressee": for example, the particle is used in the language of this artwork "to indicate what is or is happening in front of the eyes", as well as "to express emotion or evaluation", to indicate difficulty in choosing words" [8, p. 82]. The presented studies are based on the material of the direct speech of the characters, i.e. the "reflected form of dialogue" [17, p. 51]. The semantic and functional potential of the object of our research - the particle already manifests itself in different forms of speech: in direct and in the author's, in dialogic and monological.

Semantic and pragmatic potential of the particle already and its reflection in translation into VietnameseThe particle is already characterized by a wide range of semantic and functional manifestations, which is due to the presence of a number of potentially invariant semantic components inherent in it: change in the situation, expectation, earlier than expected, late / later, much / more, little / less, long'.

These components are actualized in the appropriate contextual conditions with a certain syntactic compatibility and depending on the communicative intentions of the speaker. Taking into account these factors, the whole variety of particle uses can be reduced to thirteen (main) types [9, pp. 70-92], despite the fact that the boundaries between them are often mobile.

In the text of M. A. Bulgakov's novel "The Master and Margarita" [2, pp. 418-767], 273 cases of the use of the particle have already been recorded. Regardless of the form of speech, the marked uses of particles can be attributed to eleven types of this classification. These are mainly predicate uses with the meanings: the expected change in the situation has occurred; the change has occurred earlier than expected or would like (185 examples); the speaker reports that the expected change in the situation has occurred to the opposite until its termination or the expected change in the situation has not occurred / will not occur or the previously existing situation will not resume no longer (49 and 2, respectively); the described situation repeats itself (2). Uses with circumstantial components with the following values are less frequent: earlier than expected (9); long (14); a lot' (6); late' (3); the values long ago', little and little, but enough' 1 example each. In addition, the particle met twice in the composition of the expression, not to mention Dialogic colloquial uses in the promise of the type Don't worry, I'm already on my way and in the imperative utterance of the type Shut up already, enough!, highlighted in the classification [9, pp. 77-78], are not recorded in the text of the novel.

Bilingual dictionaries offer a number of units for translating statements with a particle already into Vietnamese [1, p. 994]. Analysis of the text of the translation of the novel by M. A. Bulgakov in Vietnamese language [22] suggests that 82% of the total number of statements already in the original novel when translating mainly used the following tools: (161 drink), ...r?i (16), and alsongay and the option ngay t? (4), the translation is already not kh?ng c?n n?a... options ...kh?ng n?a, kh?ng c?n, kh?ng ph?i...n?a, kh?ng th?...n?a, c? ... kh?ng n?a, c? th? kh?ng c?n n?a... (41). In addition, a single r?i was recorded 1 time. In 50 cases, or 18% of all recorded uses, Vietnamese statements corresponding to the original with already do not contain any means that would somehow correlate with the Russian already.

In most cases, statements with a particle already correspond to statements with a single word . It should be noted that in grammatical descriptions of the Vietnamese language, special attention is paid to this service unit and the question is raised about its relationship with Russian already. E. I. Tyumeneva qualifies this Vietnamese word as having the property of polyvalence, which means "the ability of the Vietnamese word to perform in different functions depending on the location in the sentence": for example, can be an "indicator of the past tense" (Em ?n I have already eaten) or "indicate an incentive to perform an action in the first place" (Em ! Eat first!) [20, p. 227]. In the work of M. B. Tashlykova and Bui Ha Thu, there are differences in linguists' assessment of the grammatical status of the word , the authors themselves qualify it as a "species marker" [18, p. 205]. It can be assumed that the d? has homonymous realizations and acts either as an analogue of the Russian already, primarily with nonpredicative components with the value of quantity, including time, or in predicate uses - as a kind-time indicator of non-future time [14, p. 235], or "an indicator of a realized action (in past, present or future)" [12, p. 699]. If d? acts as a rematizer for a component with quantitative semantics, then it can be attributed to communicative service words with pragmatic implicit semantics [14, pp. 181, 237]. Let's consider such uses using examples from the novel by M. A. Bulgakov.

The particle already realizes the value of the duration of the situation in cases like: Sergey Gerardovich, the entertainer addressed him, you have been sitting here for a month and a half, stubbornly refusing to hand over your remaining currency /.../. Placing himself in front of the circumstantial component with the meaning of time, he already expresses the speaker's opinion: sitting for a month and a half is a long time. In the corresponding Vietnamese utterance, the prepositive emphasizes the same component, cf.: Anh Sergei Gherardovich, /.../ h?n th?ng ri nay anh ng?i ? y /.../.At the same time, the peculiarities of the syntagmatic properties of the particle already and its Vietnamese counterpart cause differences in the translation of statements from already into Vietnamese.

If the location is already relative to the selected component of the utterance, despite the specificity of the preposition, it is still variable and allows postposition, since this component will be accentuated regardless of the place of the particle, then it is fixed in the preposition as a rematizer, cf.: Slapping the administrator in the face / .../ this is my direct specialty, but talking to women in love my humble servant. After all, I've been trying to persuade you for half an hour. So are you going and y, n?a gi? h?ng nay t?i nh v?t v?i ch? (see reverse translation: Here for half an hour I fight with you.). In this case, the conversational effect created by the inverse order of words in the original is reduced.

Special attention is given to the use of particles already in the adverb long ago, which can Express the value of (1) in the distant future, in the distant past when the verb perfective, for example: the Narrator was pointing somewhere to the side of the moon, which long ago already left the balcony and Ngi k? chuy?n ch? tay MOT v? n?i n?o ph?a m?t Trang (m? n? t? l?u kh?i l?n khu?t ban c?ng); (2) for a long time at the imperfective verb, for example: In the basement is already long lives of other people, and in General there is no way that everything was as it was and c?n h?m Trong nh? ?y t? l?u c? ngi kh?c s?ng,/.../; Hair Margarita a long time already stood the shock, and the moonlight whistling washed her body and Margarita c?a T?c t? l?u d?n l?i th?nh l?n d?i ph?a sau u,/.../. Accordingly expressed the values of long or long. As the examples above show, the particle can be located both before the selected component and after it, and the postpositive use already with the adverb has long been quantitatively dominant in the novel (10 out of 12 uses). In the corresponding Vietnamese statements, the position of also varies, but regardless of the position already in the original. Obviously, is a marker of the corresponding values only in the preposition to t? l?u (long ago).

As an indicator of the evaluation of the quantity as large, the particle already acts, for example, in the following cases: For the second time today, longing has fallen on it. The prepositive already allows you to express a subjective assessment of the quantity: the second time is a lot, from the speaker's point of view. The translation uses a single contact and prepositive in relation to communicative significant component of the quantitative value: Trong ng?y h?m nay, y l? l?n th? hai b? ng?i MOT n?i bu?n ch?n nh? v?y x?m chi?m. Note that the word l? is a bundle that "provides the words of subject semantics with the possibility of being predicated" [14, pp. 93-94], see the reverse translation of the fragment from : /.../ this was the second time he had felt such sadness.

As noted above, the value of the particle little / less and the associated little, but enough is presented in the novel 1 time. When translating this woman's statement, Afraniy did not stay for very long no more than five minutes a special service tool is not used, but the very meaning of the component marked with a particle and the presence of a clarifying component in the original and in translation explicates the time estimate by the parameter little, cf.: Aphrani ? nh? ngi n b? n?y c?ng kh?ng l?u kh?ng th? n?o qu? n?m ph?t. The described situation correlates with the situation in the preface: The guest spent a little time in the barracks, no more than ten minutes, /.../, and thanks to the particle, the circumstantial temporal components are already compared for a little time and not for long with the refiners.

Translated statements postpositivism already contains , but it acts more as a species-time indicator marking component t? th?n itself, which is much distanzierung, cf.: However, standing in the order of the serpent kilometer in length by itself already represented great temptation and led citizens to Garden in complete amazement and Nh?ng t? th?n h?ng MOT r?ng r?n d?i ng?t ngh?t s? c?y d? c? tr?t t? n m?y ?i n?a c?ng l? MOT s? quy?n r? v? i khi?n cho nh?ng ngi d?n tr?n ph? Sadovaia ph?i v? c?ng s?ng s?t.

The typical usage with the meaning earlier than expected with circumstantial components is associated with the speaker's assessment of the very moment of the situation change as early, for example: As a matter of fact, the matter became clear already from yesterday, Friday, when the Variety Show had to be closed due to the disappearance of its administration and all sorts of outrages / .../. The word also prepositive to the corresponding adverbial component, however, is not directly in front of him, and before the predicate, expressing a particular species-temporary value; token the same adverbial component is a combination of particles ngay with the prepositiont?used to indicate the early period [1, p. 994], cf.: to perform the ra m? n?i, s? vi?c r? r?ng ngay t? ng?y h?m qua, net l? th? s?u, khi nh? h?t T?p K? bu?c ph?i ng c?a /.../. The word ngay meets postpositively already translated in the following example, but with a preposition to a component, Ms.: Yeah, love has struck us instantly. I knew it the same day already, in an hour when we were unaware of the city, near the Kremlin wall on the waterfront and /.../ T?i hi?u ra ?i?u ngay trong ng?y h?m ?y, khi MOT sau gi?, kh?ng nh?n th?y xung quanh th?nh ph?, /.../. The estimation of time as early is supported by the presence of a circumstantial component in the preface instantly (t?c kh?c), since the qualifier in an hour can be evaluated both as little (i.e. fast, earlier) and as much (i.e. long, later), and receive a neutral assessment by these parameters. In some other cases, the particle already has no direct equivalent in translation, when as vido-time indicator refers to the predicate and not to the adverbial component to the value, for example: /.../ and it was the word "schizophrenia" alas, already yesterday uttered damned foreigner at the Patriarch's ponds, /.../ and /.../ l? "sizophrenia", than ?i, t? ng?y h?m qua c tay nc ngo?i ng nguy?n r?a kia n?i ra ? c?ng vi?n H? Pat riarsi /.../; /.../ and already on the way realized /.../ (i.e. understood at the time, when I went) and /.../nh?ng ng d?c ?ng ta hi?u ra l? m?nh /.../.

Our material shows that the word can be used when translating statements from already with the meaning late, not fixed in Russian-Vietnamese dictionaries. In the following example, the particle already belongs to a component with a temporal meaning, but in translation does not label this component and refers to a verbal predicate: But there were more victims, and already after how they left the capital, and these victims were, sadly, black cats and Nh?ng ngo?i ra c?n c? nh?ng k? b? n?n kh?c, k? c? sau khi Voland r?i kh?i th? ; v? nh?ng k? b? n?n , /.../ (lit.: since Voland (already) left the capital).

Most often, is used in the translation of statements with a particle already expressing the meaning of the expected change in the situation has occurred; the change occurred earlier than could be assumed' with the predicative component. In this case, primarily acts as a grammatical indicator of the perfect meaning and indicates the beginning of the action before the moment of speech, but does not specify a specific period of time of the beginning of the action, therefore, V. S. Panfilov believes, it cannot be attributed to adverbs of time such as t?ng once, v?a recently, m?i only what [14, pp. 174-175]. Comparison of this word with the Russian already having the meaning "the onset of an expected event" showed that "the combination of the word with predicatives itself does not contain any subjective assessment in terms of 'expectation'", i.e. "of the two semantic components of the word, only the seme 'offensive' is really represented in the meaning of the word" [There same, p. 179]. However, V. S. Panfilov gives an example of the "restoration" of this subjective seven in the case when the fore the ratio of the two fast-moving action, for example: ng ta m?i ra i t? ch?c v? l?nh o cu?c u tranh r?t d?ng anh l? X? vi?t Ngh? Tinh (Party, barely emerged, has organized and led a heroic struggle for councils in the provinces)[Ibid., p. 180]. This makes it possible to make an assumption about the potential nature of the component expectation in the type under consideration, which, however, is not always updated, as is the related component earlier than expected'. Our article provides examples of inconsistencies occur in the context of implementing all three is inherent already components of meaning that is passed in the negative-adversative construction correlate stillreceiving direct translation in Vietnamese: now, since the rise of the procession on the mount more than three hours, and the sun already has over Mount Golgotha, but the heat stillwas notabout to submit and l? V?y, ng h? ba gi? tr?i qua k? t? khi ?o?n di?u h?nh leo l?n i, m?t tr?i h? th?p xu?ng tr?n ng?n N?i Tr?c, nh?ng s?c n?ng v?n c?n kh?ng khi?p kh?ng ch?u m?i, /.../.

The following cases are an illustration of typical verbal uses of the particle already, which is usually in the preposition to the verb: Because, the foreigner replied /.../, that Annushka has already bought sunflower oil, and not only bought it, but even spilled it. The word also before the verb: V? r?ng /.../ Annuska r?ng v? mua Dau hng dng, v? kh?ng ch? mua m? c?n l?m ra n?a. In this case, there is a contextual-situational actualization of the semantic components of the particle already changing the situation, expectation and earlier than expected (the expected occurrence of the situation for Woland, but unexpectedly earlier for Berlioz), which ensures the preservation of the described effects in the corresponding Vietnamese utterance. Less often, the particle appears in the postposition: the Master seemed to have been waiting for this already, while he stood motionless and looked at the sitting procurator. In translation preposition to the verb, cf.: Ngh? nh?n dng nh? ch? i ?i?u /.../.

It should be noted that when translating, the author's accents placed in the original with the help of a particle can be transmitted quite accurately, despite the structural differences between Russian and Vietnamese utterances. So, in the following case, it is already before the verb, but refers significantly to the adverbial circumstance characterizing the action, marking it as a communicatively significant component, since it is with this indicator of the degree that the described change in the hero's state is associated, the very fact of the change is supported in the context by the semantics of the words today and was different: But today's Ivan was already significantly different from Ivan yesterday, and the first way seemed doubtful to him: what good, they will take root in the idea that he is a violent madman. In translation, is located before the verb kh?c (to differ), and the adverb with the meaning of a high degree of manifestation of the sign (action) nhi?u is located after the verb, thanks to which the emphasis is placed on the nature of the changes: Nh?Ng Ivan ng?y h?m nay kh?c nhi?u so v?i Ivan ng?y h?m qua, /.../.

Use already with the denial is not presented in the novel the two species associated with the expected change in the situation: (1) the situation has ceased to exist: Cool, too Pilate was looked at through the eyes of the prisoner, and in those eyes already not been born, it's got all the familiar sparks and t ng?t, Pilat tr?ng m?t nh?n xo?y v?o m?t ngi b? b?t, ?nh nh?n trong gi? y kh?ng c?n v? n n?a, m? xu?t hi?n nh?ng tia l?aquen thu?c v?i t?t c? m?i ngi; the space That he had just passed, i.e. the space from the Palace wall to the platform was empty, but ahead of Pilate square already not saw it ate the crowd and C?i kho?ng kh?ng gian m? ng?i v?a m?i vt qua /.../ Pilat kh?ng tr?ng th?y m?t qu?ng ng?i trng ? u n?a, /.../; (2) the existing situation will not resume (with the verb in the future tense): no, No, it's not sad, ' said Woland, nothing happened already not will and Kh?ng, kh?ng, kh?ng ?i?u ng bu?n, Voland n?i. S? kh?ng c?n g? ng s? n?a h?t; // And you will not be able to drive me away and /... / V? anh s? kh?ng c?n xua ?u?i em ?i. As can be seen from the examples given, it is no longer usually translated using a combination of kh?ng c?n...n?a and its variants kh?ng...n?a, kh?ng c?n for both meanings is no longer.

The use characteristic of the particle when pointing to a situation (action) that is being repeated at the moment is noted twice in the text of the novel, for example: The same incomprehensible longing that already came on the balcony permeated his entire being. The translation used by single preposition to the verb , Ms.: MOT n?i bu?n kh? hi?u, m? l?c n?y xu?t hi?n tr?n ban c?ng, ch?t bao tr?m l?y to?n t?m h?n city, South Central coast ng?i.

Of the ways offered by dictionaries to translate particles already, especially with predicative components, the text of the novel also uses the combination ...r?i, for example: Forgive, please, muffled voice responded entered, closing the door, I thought you already left and Xin l?i anh, Varenukha bc v?o, ng c?a l?i, MOT p b?ng gi?ng kh?n kh?n, t?i ngh? r?ng anh ?i v? nh? r?i. The expected change (the source of the speaker left) came from the point of view Varenukha; it occurred earlier than you might expect from the point of view of Rome. The use of this combination is explained by V. S. Panfilov as follows: since the "species-temporal j?" is not able to express the meaning of 'already', the role of the "compensating agent" was assumed by the particle r?i, "expressing this value regardless of the presence of any correlates", occupying a postposition to the isolated component, but not marking it as remu [14, p. 181]. This modal particle "indicates that the situation named in the sentence is fully realized by the time of speech" [3, p. 76]. See also other examples: "How did I not notice that he managed to weave a whole story?.. thought the Homeless Man in amazement, after all, it's already evening! /.../" and /.../ K?a, tr?i b?t u t?i r?i; These ten seconds seemed extremely long to Margarita. Apparently, they have expired already, and nothing has occurred and Mi gi?y Margarita c?n l?i c?m th?y sao qu? d?i. C? v? nh? mi gi?y qua r?i, m? v?n ch?a c? g? x?y ra.

The method of translation with a single r?i in our material is presented 1 time: I returned the next day, just as I had promised, but it was already too late S?ng h?m sau m?nh quay l?i, ng nh? h?a, nh?ng mu?n m?t r?i. For transmission combinations late in the translation of the novel more popular , for example: Looking at yourself in the mirror, Nikolai desperately and wildly howled, but it was alreadytoo late and Nh?n th?y m?nh trong gng, Nikolai Ivanovich r? l?n tuy?t v?ng v? man d?i, nh?ng mu?n. In the first case, the combination of the particle r?i with the word m?t makes it possible to express a greater degree of missed opportunity, despite the fact that in both examples given in the original it is equally strong.

The analysis of the material shows that in 18% of cases, in the Vietnamese utterance corresponding to the Russian utterance with a particle, there is no special word or service combination directly correlating with the already. In a number of such statements as an indicator of what the situation or action presented in pretexte in the previous statement or in a previous part of a complex sentence, which involves the same species-temporal interpretation and sayings that fits with statement already in the original, for example: the Water in the pond had turned black, a little boat already slid on her and the splashing of oars and the laughter of a citizen in the boat and Nc trong h? tr? n?n ?en th?m, MOT chi?c thuy?n con nh? lt tr?n m?t h?, nghe ti?ng v?ng l?i m?i ch?o v? nc /.../. The word stands in front of the predicatetr? n?n ?en th?m (lit.: was the blue-black), which leads to his absence before the verb lt (slide).

The basic component of semantics already change of situation' can be reflected in the general semantics of the corresponding Vietnamese utterance by fixing the moment of change with the help of appropriate time indicators both in the original and in translation, or in the absence of such in the original by introducing them into the translation text. So, in statements with, there may already be a temporal indicator marking the sequence of unfolding events that change each other. The moment of change is fixed lexical style media then, now, now , etc., example: the Night started to close down a black scarf forests and meadows, the night was lit by a sad light somewhere far below, now already notinteresting and notneed any Margarita, not the master, other people's lights the change is due to the fact that the situation has ceased to exist (then now), Ms. translation: /.../, m t?i th?p l?a nh?ng ?nh bu?n th?m, MOT th? lng ? n?i n?o r?t xa ph?a di, nh?ng ?nh l?a xa l? b?y gi? tr? n?n v? v? v? kh?ng c?n thi?t i v?i c? Ngh? Nh?n l?n Margarita. In the following fragment, the particle is presented three times: Of course, to the police, Ivan answered not so firmly and a little lost under the professor's gaze / .../. So what should I do? "What's the matter?" he asked timidly this time. /.../ But he must be caught! Ivan exclaimed prayerfully already. The lack of translation in the last two examples direct matches particles already kompensiruet the presence of such funds in the first case (similar 't already), and the value of a change in the situation is realized due to the presence of temporal index in the original (this time) and translation (l?n n?y), and presents a series of characteristics of speech acts Ivan (not so firmly shy malade), cf.: T?t however, t?i s? n n c?ng an, Ivan tr? l?i kh?ng c?n th?t qu? quy?t l?m h?i v? b?i r?i di c?i nh?n c?a gi?o vi?n s?. /.../ Th? t?i ph?i l?m g Ivan h?i, l?n n?y v?i gi?ng r?t r?. /.../ Nh?ng c?n ph?i b?t gi? h?n ta! Ivan th?t l?n v?i v? c?u kh?n. In the next case, we can also talk about explication in the context of the components expectation and earlier than expected, because it seemed to the public that the bicycles would fall into the orchestra pit, but they stopped abruptly, cf.: But the bicycles stopped just at the moment when the front wheels were already threatening to slide into the abyss on heads to musicians.

In the translation of the word s?p s?a (here, here, soon) to send a value earlier than expected: Nh?ng c? ba chi?c xe p d?ng s?ng l?i ng v?o c?i kho?nh kh?c khi c?c b?nh trc c?a ch?ng s?p s?a u trt xu?ng c?c nh?c c?ng ? ph?a di h? s?u. In addition, in the preceding predicative part of this complex sentence, there is an element in the typical function of the type-time indicator before the predicate d?ng s ? ng l?i (stop), which eliminates the need for its duplication in the second part.

The dynamics of changing the situation or the nature of the action can be shown by changing the location, for example:No one made an attempt to repel the convicts either in Yershalaim itself, flooded with troops, or here, on the cordonedoff hill, and the crowd returned to the city, because, indeed, there was absolutely nothing interesting in this execution, and preparations were already underway in the city for the great Easter holiday coming in the evening - cf.: here, on the cordoned-off on the hill there, in the city. The expectation of change component is also explicated in the context (preparations were underway for the great Easter holiday coming in the evening). These meanings are reflected in the translation: /.../, c?nl?c trong th?nh ? ph? l?i ?ang chu?n b? n bu?i i l? Vt Qua chi?u nay (lit.: and at this time the city was preparing to celebrate)

The semantic component earlier than expected can be explicated due to the semantics of the time available in the context of the circumstance with the meaning little, for example: A completely sick and even aged poet entered Griboyedov's veranda no more than two minutes later. It's already empty. The change in the situation related to the dynamics of the poet's actions happened very quickly, which extends to another situation the room emptied, obviously, unexpectedly quickly too. The corresponding figure in the Vietnamese variant(sau ch?a y hai ph?t), as well as the introduction of the word gi? (currently) allows you to transfer part of the existing in the original semantics, and species-time indicator located in the first part of a complex sentence before the verb bc l?n (lit.: stepping up), cf.: Sau ch?a y hai ph?t, nh? th? nhu?m ho?n to?n b?nh v? th?m ch? r?c gi? ?i bc l?n ng?i c?a h?ng hi?n nh? Griboedov gi? tr? n?n tr?ng v?ng (cf reverse translation: No more than two minutes absolutely sick and even the aged poet was raised on the porch Griboyedov, which currently is empty). The following fragment describes the rapid alternation of actions of the restaurant staff serving Woland's retinue, which is marked in the context by lexical means with the corresponding semantics of the speed of the changes taking place: An old tablecloth in yellow spots immediately disappeared from the table, another one, white as a Bedouin burnous, shot up in the air, and Archibald Archibaldovich was already whispering softly, but very expressively, leaning close to Koroviev's ear: // One was already offering a match to the Hippopotamus, who took a cigarette butt out of his pocket and put it in his mouth, the other flew up, ringing with green glass and exposing glasses, lafitniki and thin-walled glasses from which narzan drinks so well under the awning // The brilliantly washed salad leaves were already sticking out of a vase with fresh caviar... a moment later, a misted silver bucket appeared on a specially pushed separate table... Translated statements One already brought the match Behemoth lack of analogue particles already substantiated the above contextual factors, and the presence before verbs in the other two statements, relevant in the original statements with already, Ms.: /.../, c?n Artribald Artribaldovich r?t kh? th? th?m nh?ng y ? ngh?a c?nh tai Koroviev: /.../ Beghemot Th?y t?i r?t ra t? trong MOT m?u thu?c l? t v?o mi?ng, MOT ngi li?n mang n di?m; ngi th? hai t?i bay v?i, /.../ Nh?ng chi?c l? x? l?ch c r?a s?ch b?ng ra th?i t? chi?c b?nh ng tr?ng c? ti /.../.

In this regard, special attention should be paid to the way of translating some statements from the already, which do not contain a temporal indicator in the original, but which is introduced into the translation text. For example, this is an adverbial combination l?n n?y (this time), compensating for the absence of a direct analogue of the particle and ensuring that the meaning of the change in the situation is preserved in the general semantics of the statement. See a number of statements in which the particle already marks the circumstantial component with the meaning of the changed nature of the action: Here the guest has arrived already riding on a mule and L?n n?y, ngi ci la kh?ch ?i n y; Those he bent towards him from both sides, he said, but without any accent, which he, God knows why, then disappeared, then appeared: /.../ and Berlioz Bezdomnui v? t? hai ph?a nghi?ng u l?i g?n gi?o vi?n s?, v? ?ng ta c?t ti?ng n?i, nh?ng l?n n?y c?i gi?ng l? l? nc ngo?i, m? kh?ng hi?u sao l?c c? l?c kh?ng ?ng ta ?, bi?n m?t ho?n to?n. When translating the example Is it possible for him to take off his glasses for a second? 'asked Margaret, clinging to Woland and trembling, but already curious (previously trembled from fear) in the statement introduces a temporal index b?y gi? (now): Th? c? th? anh ta b? k?nh ra MOT gi?y c kh?ng? Margarita h?i, d?ch s?t v?o g?n Voland, ngi run l?n, nh?ng b?y gi? l? v? t? m?. It should be noted that the semantic component there has been a change in the situation is also explicated in the last two examples due to the opposite construction with the conjunction but, which is reflected in the proposed translation options. A similar effect can be achieved by means of a negative-negative construction and a designation in the preface of the situation that existed before the described moment, which is preserved in the Vietnamese text, for example: The same woman appeared in the doorway, and both Rimsky and Varenukha rose to meet her, and she took out of her bag not a white one, but some dark leaf. /.../ Ch? ta r?t t? t?i ra l?n n?y kh?ng ph?i chi?c phong b? con m?u tr?ng n?a, m? l? m?t t? gi?y ?en th?m. In addition to the direct correspondence to the service elements in the original, the temporal indicator l?n n?y (this time) is no longer ...a (kh?ng ph?i...n?a, m?) is included in the translation.

Our observations on such contexts confirm, on the one hand, the opinion that the absence of a word an analogue of a particle does not allow us to accurately convey the author's meanings, as shown by the example of the translation into Vietnamese of I. A. Bunin's story "Natalie" [10, p. 131]. On the other hand, the presence of a as a grammatical indicator is irregular, since it is not mandatory in a number of cases, for example, when the context contains an indicator of a change in the course of events (adverbs suddenly, suddenly, unexpectedly, and under.) including when translating Russian statements from already; if there is a time circumstance indicating the implementation of the action in the past; when describing a situation with a sequential change of actions, etc. [18, pp. 212-213]. A number of translated statements from the novel by M. A. Bulgakov, which we have considered, are obviously an example of such cases when the absence of a service element in the context of a certain service element is justified.

ConclusionsRussian Russian and the corresponding Vietnamese utterances revealed a number of regular ways of translating statements with a particle already into Vietnamese, taking into account the types of its use and the structural and semantic specifics of Russian and corresponding Vietnamese utterances, which allows us to complement the overall picture of the functioning of this lexeme in modern Russian - against the background of the Vietnamese language.

In general, the results of this study correspond to our observations on the peculiarities of the use of the particle already in the language of M. A. Bulgakov's novel "Fatal Eggs" and its functional analogues in the translation of this work into Vietnamese [19] and confirm the assumptions made on a more extensive material.

Direct translation into Vietnamese is used in 82% of the total number of uses of the particle already in the original of M. A. Bulgakov's novel "The Master and Margarita" and is implemented using a number of tools presented in bilingual dictionaries: the service word , the combination ...r?i, the particle ngay (ngay t?), the combination kh?ng c?n...n?a and his options. With components with the value of quantity, the j? acts as a proper communicative word with the function of a rematizer, as close as possible to the Russian particle already, making an estimate of quantity, including the amount of time, according to the parameters much / more, little / less, long, late / later', long. The ngay particle (ngay T?) specializes in expressing the meaning of early / earlier, also acting as a rematizer in the preposition to the marked component. With predicative components, it primarily implements its inherent kind-time semantics, however, the possibility of updating the semantic components expectation and earlier than expected in certain contextual conditions indicates the potential acquisition of communicative and pragmatic properties by this service word. A parallel with Russian communicative words (particles) can be drawn on the basis that the semantics of the latter are functional and are implemented only in context.

The identified inaccuracies in the translation of statements from are already due, in particular, to the possibility of a postpositive arrangement of the particle in relation to the selected component in the original in order to create certain stylistic effects and the absence of such in the original.

The method of translation into Vietnamese, which is used in 18% of the total number of uses of the particle already in the text of the work under consideration, can be qualified rather as indirect, since there is no special word or service combination directly correlating with the Vietnamese in the corresponding Russian utterance with the particle. At the same time, the basic component of the meaning is already a change in the situation, as well as earlier than expected, is reflected in the general semantics of the corresponding Vietnamese utterance by using appropriate time indicators or in the absence of such in the original by introducing them into the translation text, as well as by other lexical means in the context.

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The article submitted for consideration "The semantic and functional potential of a particle ALREADY and its reflection in translation into Vietnamese (based on the material of M. A. Bulgakov's novel "The Master and Margarita")", proposed for publication in the journal "Litera", is undoubtedly relevant, especially in the translation aspect. As the author notes, the language of the works of M. A. Bulgakov, and above all the novel "The Master and Margarita", is of considerable interest to linguists, including from the side of the peculiarities of the functioning of particles, which is what the study presented for consideration is devoted to. These problematic issues are what the author is trying to solve in the course of his work. Russian Russian and the corresponding Vietnamese utterances revealed a number of regular ways of translating statements with a particle already into Vietnamese, taking into account the types of its use and the structural and semantic specifics of Russian and corresponding Vietnamese utterances, which allows us to complement the overall picture of the functioning of this lexeme in modern Russian - against the background of the Vietnamese language. The object of this study is the stylistic potential of the particle "already" in the Russian text and its Vietnamese version. The author provides both theoretical data from other researchers and his own classification of the identified features. It should be noted that the postulated by the author is illustrated by language examples with explanations. However, the volume of the studied language corpus, the principles of sampling and the analysis of the results raise questions. Getting acquainted with the text of the article, I note that in some places a citation is presented, in others it is unclear whether the author presents his own conclusions or borrowings? The article does not present a clear research methodology. This work was done professionally, in compliance with the basic canons of scientific research. The research was carried out in line with modern scientific approaches, the work consists of an introduction containing the formulation of the problem, mention of the main researchers of this topic, the main part, traditionally beginning with a review of theoretical sources and scientific directions, research and final, which presents the conclusions obtained by the author. The disadvantages include the lack of clearly defined tasks in the introductory part, the ambiguity of the methodology and the course of the study. The bibliography of the article contains 21 sources, among which mainly works are in Russian and only 1 in a foreign language. The absence of foreign works artificially isolates the work in question from global science. Unfortunately, the article does not contain references to fundamental works such as monographs, PhD and doctoral dissertations. The practical significance of the research lies in the possibility of using its results in the process of teaching university courses in the Russian language, as well as the theory and practice of translation. In general, it should be noted that the article is written in a simple, understandable language for the reader. Typos, spelling and syntactic errors, inaccuracies in the text of the work were not found. The comments made are not significant and do not affect the content. The work is innovative, representing the author's vision of solving the issue under consideration and may have a logical continuation in further research. The article will undoubtedly be useful to a wide range of people, philologists, undergraduates and graduate students of specialized universities. The article "The semantic and functional potential of a particle ALREADY and its reflection in translation into Vietnamese (based on the material of M. A. Bulgakov's novel "The Master and Margarita")" can be recommended for publication in a scientific journal.
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