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Reference:

Complex Words of the Coronavirus Era in Russian and Chinese: Word-formation Aspect

Li Syaoge

ORCID: 0000-0003-3002-6968

postgraduate student, Department of General and Russian Linguistics, Peoples Friendship University of Russia; assistant, Faculty of Russian Language, Institute of Foreign Languages, Inner Mongolia Normal University

117198, Russia, Moscow region, Moscow, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 10, bldg. 2

lixiaoge89@mail.ru

DOI:

10.25136/2409-8698.2022.9.38592

EDN:

MHFUNK

Received:

09-08-2022


Published:

07-10-2022


Abstract: The object of the study is the changes occurring in the vocabulary of the Russian and Chinese languages in the era of coronavirus, and the subject is complex words describing new realities during the pandemic of the new coronavirus infection COVID19, and the mechanisms of their creation. The material for the analysis was scientific sources in Russian and Chinese, from which 48 complex words formed in various ways were selected by the method of target sampling. Among them are 34 Russian words formed by addition, as well as addition or fusion in combination with suffixation; 14 Chinese lexemes formed by methods of addition, definition using suffixation and control. The purpose of the work is to determine the regularities of the formation of complex words of the type under study in two typologically different languages and to identify their similarities and differences. Special attention is paid to the comparison of word-formation mechanisms and the description of their similarities and differences in the two languages. In the work, along with general scientific methods of observation, analysis and synthesis, the following research methods were used: descriptive method, lexico-grammatical commentary, method of component analysis and comparative analysis. The results of the study show that due to the pragmatic needs for the designation of new phenomena, objects, actions, feelings, etc. A number of words have appeared in Russian and Chinese, which is currently defined as "coronalexica". The main conclusions of the study are the revealed phonetic, morphological and syntactic differences in the mechanisms of formation of complex words in two languages. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that for the first time a comparative analysis of the vocabulary of the coronavirus era in the word-formation aspect is carried out on the material of the Russian and Chinese languages, while the interpretations of new words are given.


Keywords:

compound words, vocabulary of the coronavirus, word formation, addition, modification, governance, comparative analysis, component analysis, Russian language, Chinese language

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

IntroductionAmong all levels of the language system, the lexical one is the most sensitive to external factors, besides lexical changes are the most noticeable for native speakers [3, p. 735].

Both in Russian and in Chinese, words continuously appear expressing new phenomena reflecting changes in the life of society in culture, technology and other spheres.

The pandemic of the new coronavirus, being a powerful medical and social phenomenon, could not but find its reflection in the language. There was a rethinking of already existing words (mask, distance, isolation, lockdown, etc.), as well as the emergence of new terms and commonly used words [2, p. 265]. The pandemic and the quarantine associated with it occupy a relatively short period of time, but in terms of the degree of influence on life, in particular on language and communication, it is actually a separate epoch [3, p. 736]. In this era, there is a rapid growth of neoplasms in many languages this is related to the relevance of this work, due to the need to research and describe new lexical units that have not yet been recorded in dictionaries. The study of the specifics of their word formation is of great theoretical and practical importance. Knowledge of the word-formation patterns of the language, the ability to determine the meaning of word-forming morphemes contribute to a better understanding of the meanings of lexical units that name new phenomena in all areas of human activity and replenish the vocabulary of the language.The practical significance of the research lies in the possibility of using its results in the teaching of university courses on the word formation of Russian and Chinese languages and their comparison, as well as courses on interdisciplinary research on the relationship between language and society.

In the course of the study , the following tasks were solved:1) to analyze the main ways of formation of complex words of the coronavirus era in Russian and Chinese, which appeared or became actively used since 2020 by the time of writing the article; 2) to identify similarities and differences in the word formation of the studied complex words in the two languages.

The theoretical basis of the research was the works devoted to the issues of ways of forming complex words (Russian Grammar 1980; Zhang Chinxiang, Liu Yan, 2008), important language changes in the vocabulary of the coronavirus period (Krongauz M.A., 2020; Severskaya O.I., 2020; Grevtseva N.V., Donskova O.A., Ivanyushina E.B., 2021; Ridetskaya Y.S., 2021; Hou Min, Teng Yonglin, 2020; Zhang Liping, Liu Zhenping, 2020; Xu Xinjian, 2020; Wang Han, 2021; Radbil T.B., Ratsiburskaya L.V., Paloshi I.V., 2021; Wang Xiaoyan, Xu Haoyu, 2021).

The collective monograph "The Russian Language of the Coronavirus era" systematically and comprehensively analyzes the neology of the pandemic period, as well as active word-making, intensive language play taking place on the Internet and in modern mass media [6, p. 2].This monograph is a natural continuation of scientific work motivated by the need to record and describe the facts of language development during the pandemic, to generalize and systematize observations aimed at identifying key and peripheral names of the crown epoch, the dominant trends in the process of dictionary renewal [1, p. 326].

Linguist M. Krongauz in his article "Screenlife in the era of quarantine" analyzed the process of borrowing an English wordZoom, the features of its mastering by the Russian language, in particular, the realization of its word-formation potential and the development of semantics [3, p. 735]. From the language material presented in this article, we have chosen two complex words:zoom meeting, zoom communication.In the article "Covidiots on quarantine: a coronavirus dictionary as a diagnostic field of actual discursive practices" O.I. Severskaya considered the so-called "coronavirus dictionary" in the context of actual discursive practices and determined the convergence of different types of discourses and speaking practices that motivate the creation of neologisms [7, p. 887].

Among the words and phrases given by the author as an example, we selected 18 complex words for analysis.

Russian Russian authors of the article "Active processes in the vocabulary and word formation of the Russian language of the coronavirus era: linguocognitive aspect" investigated semantic, lexical and word-formation features of the emergence and spread of new phenomena in the speech practice of native speakers of the Russian language of the latest period associated with the COVID-19 pandemic [4, p. 63]. Among the language examples given by the authors, we selected 14 complex words for analysis.

Russian linguists, describing the techniques of neologization, note that for complex words, the addition of the basics (coronapanics, covidosceptic, etc.) is productive.

The works of Chinese researchers (Wang Xiaoyan, Xu Haoyu; Wang Han; Xu Xinjian; Hou Min, Teng Yonglin; Zhang Liping, Liu Zhenping) analyzed the causes of the emergence and spread of the so-called "coronavirus vocabulary"and the peculiarities of their formation and use [9-13]. In Chinese, neologisms associated with the coronavirus pandemic appear mainly in two ways: 1) the formation of new values of already known units: "new increment" (new value: "new cases of infection"), 2) according to an already existing model (according to the "xxxx" model:online learning, etc.). Among the examples given by the authors as examples of complex and compound lexical units, we selected 12 complex words for analysis.

Methods of formation of complex words of the coronavirus era in Russian and ChineseRussian Russian Grammar 1980 says that complex words in the Russian language are formed both by pure addition of bases or whole words, and in mixed ways, including using a set of affixes (inflection systems)

[5, pp. 137-138].According to the "Introduction to the Modern Chinese language", among the ways of forming compound words in the Chinese language, one can distinguish addition; definition, including in combination with suffixation; control; addition and according to the "subject + predicate" model [14, p. 204].

We examined 48 complex words of the coronavirus era extracted by the target sampling method from the sources listed above, combined these lexemes into several groups in accordance with the word-formation method. It should be noted that among the lexical units studied by us, not all methods of forming complex words are implemented.

Analyzing Russian words with more than one motivating basis (34 units), we have divided them into two groups: 1) formed by the method of pure addition and 2)formed by the method of addition or fusion in combination with prefix or suffixation.

Addition (pure addition) is a method of word formation in which the supporting (last) component is equal to the whole word, and the component (or components) preceding it are the pure basis [5, p. 138].For example,

zoom meeting [3, p. 737]: the word zoom from the English Zoom, denoting a platform for organizing video conferences, which was developed by Zoom Video Communications [3, p. 737]. The word zoom-meeting is formed by adding two simple words zoom and meeting using a hyphen:zoom + - + meeting. The complex words of the thematic group "zoom" also include:zoom communications [3, p. 737], zoom party [7, p. 898], zoom lectures[ibid.], zoom classes[ibid.], zumbombing (connecting to someone else's network to disrupt a zoom conference) [7, p. 899].

covidophobia [4, p. 72]: the word covid is a transcription of the letter abbreviation COVID from the English COronaVIrus Disease 2019 (coronavirus infection of 2019).The word covidophobia is formed by adding two simple words covid and phobia using the connective vowel "o":covid + o + phobia. Recently, under the influence of the trend towards internationalization in the derivational processes of the modern Russian language, the model of the formation of complex words according to the agglutinative type has become more active [4, p. 72].The complex words of the thematic group "covid" also include covidopessimist [7, p. 897], covid show[ibid.], covidapocalypse[ibid.], covid-dissenter [4, p. 71], covid-patient[ibid.], covid-skeptic[ibid.], covid-separatism[ibid.], covid-hospital [ibid.],covid-resistance[ibid.].

coronasvadba [7, p. 900]: the word crown, formed as a result of truncation of the neologism corona virus, has become its unofficial, extremely popular variant [4, p. 68].Complex nouns included in the word-formation nest with the original word coronavirus are represented mainly at the second stage of derivation by words of the agglutinative type with the original word crown [6, p. 368].The compound word coronaswedding is formed by adding the nouns crown and wedding without using a hyphen and a connecting vowel. The complex words of the thematic group "crown" also include crown divorce [7, p. 900], crown-hot spot (in "folk terminology" this is the name of the focus of infection)[7, p. 898], coronaphobia [7, p. 897], coronapanica[ibid.], coronabezumie[ibid.], coronapause[ibid.], coronapocalypse[ibid.], coronapolis [4, p. 72], coronaisteria[ibid.], coronacrisis[ibid.], coronapsychosis [4, p. 73], corona-dating[ibid.], corona therapy[ibid.], coronation generation[ibid.].

Addition or fusion in combination with inflections:

Addition using prefixes and suffixes: for example, the word pre-coronavirus [7, p. 896] is formed by adding the roots corona and virus with the prefix before - and the suffix -h- and the ending of the adjective -th:up to + corona + virus + n + th. In a similar way , the word post - coronavirus is formed[ibid.]:post + corona + virus + n + th.

Fusion using suffixation: for example, the word sididomtsy [7, p. 898] (those who stay at home and strictly observe the isolation regime) is formed by merging the root of the verb sid, the noun dom, using the connecting vowel "and", the suffix -c- and the plural form s:sid + i + dom + c + s.

In Russian, complex words are often formed using a hyphen or a connecting vowel "o", "e", "and" with one strong accent:zoom + - + meeting ? zoom-meeting; covid + o + phobia ? covidophobia;cor she + wedding ? coronation wedding.

Motivating words in the formation of composites are the "keywords" of the pandemic era of the XXI century, including neologisms borrowed from the English language. First of all, it is the abbreviation itself, denoting coronavirus infection and presented in the usage using different graphic systems: Latin letters (COVID), Cyrillic letters (covid), as well as other units, primarily the word zoom, which have acquired particular relevance and served as the basis for creating new complex words [6, p. 389].

Analyzing Chinese compound words (14 units), taking into account the semantic relations between their constituent parts, we divided them into four groups according to the way of word formation. Russian Russian Translation When translating complex words from Chinese into Russian, we refer to their interpretations in the online dictionary "Big Russian-Chinese Dictionary" [1].

Addition (parallel combination)[12, p. 204]:complex words of this type consist of two (or more) bases, the meanings of which are either synonymous, relativistic, or antonymic. For example, 'isolation [10, p. 131] is formed by the addition of two verbs? 'to separate and ? to separate, the meanings of which are synonymous and can be explained one through the other:?separate + ?separate.

Definition (or subordination)[12, p. 204] the first word serves as a definition for the second, for example:

? 'new increment (new value:new cases of infection) [8, p. 131] is the sum of an adjective ? new and a noun ? increment: ?new + ? increment; turning point [8, p. 131] is the sum of an adjective ? turning and a noun ? time: ? turning + ? moment;

The online meeting [8, p. 131] is formed by adding the word in cloud format and the noun meeting, while the in cloud format' can be considered as a similar affix [11, p. 119]:- in the cloud format' + 'meeting'. This group includes the compound words ? ? online learning [7, p. 39], online life [7, p. 41], ? ? 'online hug[ibid.], the 'cloud era[ibid.], ? ? 'online broadcast[ibid.];

coronavirus era [9, p. 114] is the sum of an adjective coronavirus and the noun age: coronavirus + age.The complex words of the thematic group "?''coronavirus'" also include ? ' 'coronavirus poetry'[ibid.], 'coronavirus pneumonia[ibid.] etc.

Definition using suffixation [12, p. 204]: for example, a super-spreader (a person who is more likely to infect others than a typical infected person / refuses to observe the self-isolation regime and infects everyone around [6, p. 898]) [8, p. 132] is formed by adding the adverb 'super-, the verb 'to spread' and the suffix of the actor ?: super- + to spread + ? the suffix of the actor.

Management [12, p. 204]: the first word controls the second. For example, "decent"[10, p. 57] is formed by the addition of the verb "have" and the noun "order": "have" + "order".

In Chinese, words are combined in accordance with a certain structural principle and taking into account semantic and syntactic connections: this can be a synonymous, relational, antonymic relationship, as well as a relationship of definition, control, etc. Sometimes, when forming words, affixes are added to the basics.

ConclusionWe analyzed 34 Russian compound words, among which 31 units are formed by the addition method, 2 by the addition method with prefix and suffixation, and 1 more by fusion with suffixation.

Among the 14 Chinese compound words analyzed by us, 1 is formed by addition (parallel combination), 1 by the definition model with suffixation, 1 by the control model, the remaining 11 units are formed by the definition model.

The conducted research allows to reveal similarities and differences of word-formation mechanisms of formation of complex words in Russian and Chinese:

In both languages, among the ways of forming the complex words under consideration, the word composition has great productivity. In the Chinese language, the method of subordination by connection of the definition is more frequent, including in combination with affixes.

There are more transliterations from foreign languages in Russian than in Chinese:zoom, covid, crown, etc.

Prospects for further research may consist in the description of semantic typology and structural models of "coronalexics" in Russian and Chinese.

References
1. Gekkina E.N. (2021). The coronavirus epoch in the mirror of language // Steps /Steps. Vol. 7. No. 4. Pp. 322-331.
2. Grevtseva N.V., Donskova O.A., Ivanyushina E.B. (2021). Features of word formation of units of the thematic group "COVID" in the media space of 2020-2021. // Language and culture in the era of integration of scientific knowledge and professionalization of education: the multipolarity of modern linguistic research. No. 2 (1). Pp. 265-270.
3. Krongauz M.A. (2020). Screenlife in the era of quarantine // Communicative research. No. 4 (7). Pp. 735-744.
4. Radbil T.B., Ratsiburskaya L.V., Paloshi I.V. (2021). Active processes in the vocabulary and word formation of the Russian language of the coronavirus era: linguocognitive aspect // Scientific Dialogue. No. 1. Pp. 63-79.
5. Russian Grammar. T. I. Phonetics. Word formation. Morphology. (1980). Moscow: Nauka. 783 p.
6. The Russian language of the coronavirus era. Collective monograph. (2021). / ed. Ridetskaya Yu.S. / Institute of Linguistic Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Saint Petersburg: Institute of Linguistic Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 601 p.
7. Severskaya O.I. (2020). Covidiotes on quarantine: a coronavirus dictionary as a diagnostic field of actual discursive practices // Communicative research. No. 4 (7). Pp. 887-906.
8. BKRS Large Chinese-Russian Dictionary (大汉俄词典. [线上资源) [Electronic resource]. URL: https://dabkrs.com (Accessed: 08.07.2022-15.08.2022).
9. Wang Xiaoyan, Xu Haoyu. (2021). A study of the use of the fashionable Internet word 云for COVID-19 // Bulletin of the National University of Qiannan. (王晓燕, 徐浩宇. (2021). 新冠疫情下网络流行语云的使用研究 // 黔南民族师范学院学报). No. 5 (41). Pp. 38-44.
10. Wang Han. (2021). Analysis of hot words in the era of coronavirus from the point of view of ecological linguistics // Culture of the Chinese character: discussion and discussion. (王涵. (2021). 生态语言学视角下新冠疫情热词分析 // 汉字文化: 讨论与争鸣). No. 1. Pp. 130-135.
11. Xu Xinjian. (2020). Analysis of popular words on the Internet during coronavirus // Bulletin of Guangzhou University. Series: Social Sciences. (徐新建. (2020). 人类语词共同体: 新冠疫期的网络热词分析 // 广州大学学报: 社会科学版). No. 4. Pp. 113-129.
12. Zhang Liping, Liu Zhenping. (2020). A study of the group of words "云xx" as constructions // Bulletin of the Western Anhui Institute. (侯敏, 滕永林. (2020). 词述中国抗疫. // 语言战略研究). No. 6. Pp. 119-124.
13. Hou Min, Teng Yunlin. (2020). Words about the fight against the epidemic in China // Strategic Language Research. (张丽萍,刘振平. (2020). 云x构式探析 // 皖西学院学报). No. 5. Pp. 50-61.
14. Zhang qingxiang, Liu Yan. (2008). Introduction to Modern Chinese. Shanghai: Shanghai University. (张庆翔, 刘焱. (2008). 现代汉语概论. 上海: 上海大学). 401 p.

First Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

The article "Complex words of the coronavirus era in Russian and Chinese: a word-formation aspect" submitted for consideration, proposed for publication in the journal "Litera", is undoubtedly relevant, due to the increasing interest in learning Chinese in our country, as well as the need to fix linguistic changes during the coronavirus pandemic, namely those lexical units which came into use due to the emergence of a new reality. So vocabulary is the most rapidly changing part of any living language, lexical changes reflect the changes that occur in society, phenomena, objects come into our lives and disappear all this is recorded by lexicographers in dictionaries. The article is innovative, one of the first in Russian linguistics devoted to the study of such topics. The author illustrates the classification with language examples. However, the scope and principles of sampling the linguistic material on which the study is based are unclear. The author does not specify the sample size and its principles. How large is the text corpus and from what sources was it obtained? Or was the language material borrowed from the research of other authors? At the beginning of the work, the author sets 3 tasks, but three conclusions do not correlate with the tasks specified in the article. The novelty of the research raises a question, since it is unclear how deeply this topic has been studied in foreign and domestic linguistics (the author gives only a "battery" of scientists, without specifying the contribution to the development of the problem). The bibliography of the article includes 10 sources, among which works are presented both in Russian, including Russian-language works of Chinese studies. The absence of foreign original works makes the article artificially isolated from the world achievements of science. Unfortunately, the article does not contain references to fundamental works such as monographs, PhD and doctoral dissertations. A greater number of references to authoritative works, such as monographs, doctoral and/or PhD dissertations on related topics, which could strengthen the theoretical component of the work in line with the national scientific school. In addition, the reason for the violation of the generally accepted alphabetical arrangement of the list of references is not clear. The absence of dictionaries, corpora, and illustrative material used by the author during the research seems surprising in the list of references. In general, it should be noted that the article is written in a simple, understandable language for the reader. Typos, spelling and syntactic errors, inaccuracies in the text of the work were not found. The work is innovative, representing the author's vision of solving the issue under consideration and may have a logical continuation in further research. The practical significance of the research lies in the possibility of using its results in the teaching of university courses on the word formation of Russian and Chinese languages and their comparison, as well as courses on interdisciplinary research on the relationship between language and society. The article will undoubtedly be useful to a wide range of people, philologists, undergraduates and graduate students of specialized universities. However, the article has a volume of 8,468 characters with spaces, with recommended values of 12,000 characters, so we recommend that the esteemed author increase the volume of work. The article "Complex words of the coronavirus era in Russian and Chinese: the word-formation aspect" can be recommended for publication in a scientific journal after refining and increasing the volume of the text, technical revision of the bibliography, expanding the list of sources and indicating the volume of the practical language corpus and methods of its processing.

Second Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

The language is sensitive to historical, economic, environmental, medical and social phenomena. The system of language at the lexical level in the conditions of a certain catastrophe begins to change, to develop a new stock of nominations, the most productive for describing a particular state. Therefore, the study of the lexical and semantic level of a language is a constructive task of modern linguistic science. As the author notes at the beginning of the reviewed project, "the pandemic of the new coronavirus, being a powerful medical and social phenomenon, could not but find its reflection in the language," "there was both a rethinking of existing words (mask, distance, isolation, lockdown, etc.), and the emergence of new terms and commonly used words. The pandemic and the quarantine associated with it take a relatively short period of time, but in terms of the degree of impact on life, in particular on language and communication, this is actually a separate era." This work is quite relevant, since the subject of the study is actually new, the emphasis on the analysis of complex words of the "coronavirus era" determines the novelty of the entire work. As noted in the introductory section. "the practical significance lies in the possibility of using its results in the teaching of university courses on the word formation of Russian and Chinese languages and their comparison, as well as courses on interdisciplinary research on the relationship between language and society." It is worth agreeing with this position, and the actual material determines this qualification. The tasks of the work set a logically verified tone: task No. 1 to analyze the main ways of formation of complex words of the coronavirus era in Russian and Chinese, which appeared or began to be actively used since 2020 by the time of writing the article; task No. 2 to identify similarities and differences in the word formation of the studied complex words in two languages. Moreover, "the theoretical basis of the study was the works devoted to the issues of ways of forming complex words of different levels Russian Grammar 1980; Zhang Chinxiang, Liu Yan, 2008), important linguistic changes in the vocabulary of the coronavirus period (Krongauz M.A., 2020; Severskaya O.I., 2020; Grevtseva N.V., Donskova O.A., Ivanyushina E.B., 2021; Ridetskaya Y.S., 2021; Hou Min, Teng Yonglin, 2020; Zhang Liping, Liu Zhenping, 2020; Xu Xinjian, 2020; Wang Han, 2021; Radbil T.B., Ratsiburskaya L.V., Paloshi I.V., 2021; Wang Xiaoyan, Xu Haoyu, 2021 etc. I believe that the style of the essay correlates with the scientific type proper, no serious / factual discrepancies have been revealed. There is enough theoretical component to evaluate practical experience, references and citations form the basis for a constructive unfolding of the topic. The practical link is also quite voluminous: "we examined 48 complex words of the coronavirus era extracted by the target sampling method from the sources listed above, combined these lexemes into several groups in accordance with the word-formation method. It should be noted that among the lexical units we study, not all methods of forming complex words are implemented." The examples under consideration are well-reasoned from the point of view of education. For example, using such chains: "fusion using suffixation: for example, the word sididom (those who stay at home and strictly observe the isolation regime) is formed by merging the root of the verb sid , the noun dom, using the connecting vowel "and ", the suffix -c- and the plural form s : sid + and + house + c + s. In Russian, complex words are often formed using a hyphen or a connecting vowel "o ", "e ", "and " with one strong accent: zoom + - + meeting ? zoom-meeting ; covid + o + phobia ? covidophobia ; cor on + wedding ? coronation wedding", or "addition (parallel combination): complex words of this type consist of two (or more) bases, the meanings of which are either synonymous, relativistic, or antonymous. For example, ?? 'isolation' is formed by the addition of two verbs ? 'to separate' and ? 'to separate', the meanings of which are synonymous and can be explained one through the other: ? 'to separate' + ? 'to separate'." The final part of the article summarizes, in my opinion, it is somewhat formal, but there are no discrepancies with the main block. Thus, the topic of this work has been disclosed, a number of tasks set by the author have been solved, and the general formal requirements of the publication have been met. I recommend the article "Complex words of the coronavirus era in Russian and Chinese: the word-formation aspect" for open publication in the journal "Litera".
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