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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Contents of Issue 02/2024
This issue is currently being formed. All articles presented on this page have already been included in this issue, are considered published, and will remain unchanged in the final version of the issue along with other metadata of the articles.
: , w.danilenko@nbpublish.com
: , Doctor of Art History, azarova_v.v@inbox.ru
Contents of Issue 02/2024
Culture and cultures
Yazykov D.S. - Street Art as a Tool for Social Dialogue: A Case Study of Tula pp. 1-17

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2024.2.69558

EDN: ZDCLLS

Abstract: This article is a comprehensive study of the role of street art as a tool of social dialogue, focusing primarily on the urban environment of Tula. Starting with an in-depth study of the historical roots and modern consequences of street art, the evolution of this art form is considered in the context of social dynamics and change. Street art emerges as a hybrid space balancing personal self-expression with public interests, emphasizing its importance in the development of public discourse, generating social transformations and consolidating historical memory. A detailed study of specific artistic initiatives, works in Tula sheds light on a variety of topics. The research touches on both the historical roots of street art in Tula and its modern manifestations, covering various aspects, from reflecting the urban spirit to its role in shaping public discourse and preserving historical memory. The methodology is based on a comprehensive analysis of street art works, as well as the study of the social and historical contexts of street art in Tula. This study presents a new perspective on street art as a tool for social dialogue and cultural interaction. It reveals how Tula's street art contributes to social change by expressing and strengthening the city's collective identity. The article emphasizes that street art not only reflects current social sentiments, but also serves as a catalyst for social transformation, turning into a living archive of urban history and culture. Special attention is paid to the interaction of art with urban residents, its influence on public opinion and the ability to form a new urban environment conducive to cultural and social development. Specific examples of murals and graffiti, their historical and cultural contexts, as well as the role of these works in creating a dialogue between different social groups are analyzed.
Philosophy of culture
Belikova E.K. - Artificial intelligence as a tool built into the value system of modern culture pp. 18-31

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2024.2.70030

EDN: ZULQAN

Abstract: The object of the study is the value system of modern culture; the subject of the research is ways to integrate AI into the modern system of cultural values. The prerequisite is a judgment about the external nature of the changes associated with AI in society, while the value system is internal, fixed in the ideas and beliefs of the individual, formed over the course of life (more than one generation) and difficult to transform. AI acts as a phenomenon of modern culture, which has a value-semantic nature. Its active use in various spheres of life by modern people occurs in conditions when its essence is not fully defined, its capabilities for preserving or transforming the value structure of cultural space have not been established. The research was carried out on the basis of methods of analysis and synthesis, observation, description, etc. Systemic-structural, dialectical, cultural-historical, value-based, interdisciplinary approaches to the problem were used. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the attempt to identify the functions of AI, acting as a cultural phenomenon and influencing cultural values. It is noted that AI, being a relevant and significant cultural phenomenon, undoubtedly affects values, but in different ways. Regarding some values, we can talk about a positive transformation in connection with AI (intelligence and knowledge, science and cognition, equality, collectivism, pleasure, hedonism, success, recognition), regarding others about a negative one (trust, security), regarding others, which are the majority, about a complex, ambiguous influence (freedom, preservation of human identity, family, humanistic and spiritual-moral values, health). It is concluded that specialists assessment of the nature of the development of the value-semantic structure of AI depends on their level of awareness, as well as on the presence of technophobia.
Ethnology and cultural anthropology
Brizhan E.V. - Alhalalalai as a form of cultural memory of the Itelmens pp. 32-39

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2024.2.69988

EDN: JFSMNJ

Abstract: The article examines the most significant folk holiday of the Itelmen, Alhalalalai, in the context of the cultural memory of this indigenous small people living in Kamchatka. The object of the study was the cultural memory of the Itelmens, and its subject was the culture of the Alhalalalai holiday, the beliefs, rituals, traditions and customs associated with it. It is noted that Alhalalalai is of great importance in the Itelmen culture, representing a traditional autumn celebration dedicated to the completion of household work, giving thanks to the forces of Nature, unity with nature, cleansing from evil spirits, expelling failures, troubles, fears and diseases before a new cycle. Since ancient times, the main goal of Alhalalalai was to prepare for the new annual cycle and ensure its success with the help of carnival events. The research is carried out on the basis of a systematic approach using theoretical-analytical, descriptive-analytical, typological, historical-genetic, semiotic, axiological and other methods. The article pays attention to the issue of the admissibility of the reconstruction method in relation to ancient forms of cultural memory; It is noted that reconstruction is one of the current ways to revive elements of cultural memory that have temporarily, for objective historical reasons, lost their significance. Attention is focused on the fact that culture cannot and cannot be static and stop developing; it combines traditional and innovative components, and therefore changes in the celebration of Alhalalalai, its modernization are quite natural. A conclusion is drawn about the exceptional role of the Itelmen celebration Alhalalalai in preserving the cultural identity of the Kamchatka people, about its significance in the context of the revival of ancient elements of cultural memory at a new historical stage in the existence of the people.
Art and Art History
Pshenichnyi P.V. - The oldest Novgorodian icons of St. Nicholas with the female saints and other chosen saints on the margins pp. 40-50

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2024.2.70147

EDN: IBHYOL

Abstract: The veneration of St. Nicholas was extremely spread in the Medieval Rus culture. This fact found its expression in great variety of this saint representation as in the shades of meaning that are conveyed by the stylistic features of specific works. The St. Nicholas icons with the chosen saints on the margins are the subject of scientific research. Especially we will focus on such works of art, which composition includes the female saints representations. Despite a certain interest in the problem of interpreting the order of saints in the composition of the icons under consideration, researchers have not actively addressed this aspect of the topic, so the comprehensive iconographical interpretation was not provided. The aim of this study is to identify the iconographical characteristic and style features of the oldest Novgorodian icons of St. Nicholas with the female saints and other chosen saints on the margins. As a result of a comprehensive analysis, first of all, it should be mentioned that female saints played a great role in Medieval Novgorod culture. Secondly, taking into accounts some aspects of their cults and their representations on liturgical items, the female saints figures were an ecclesiastical symbol. Thirdly, female saints were protectors of the novgorodians and the Orthodox Christian in pre-Mongol era as in 15th16th century.
Culture and civilization
Rozin V.M. - Personalistic overtones in the realization of Enlightenment ideas (based on the history of the Illuminati Order) pp. 51-57

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2024.2.69811

EDN: POUOKN

Abstract: The article considers one of the lines of understanding and realization of Enlightenment ideas, due to the peculiarities of the New European personality. A personality is an individual acting independently and therefore forced to build a world and private self-image that partially does not coincide with the generally accepted ones. Kant associates these features precisely with Enlightenment, with the competence to use one's mind without guidance from someone else. Two social institutions are considered, the young nation-state and the Catholic Church, striving to put the individual, Society and communities under their control and management. The author suggests that society and communities were created in response to the pressure and expansion of these social institutions. The similarities and differences of social institutions and communities represented by unions and orders are analyzed.The relations between these three subjects and social forces (institutions of church and state, Society and communities) were quite tense, there was a struggle between them, the result of which, on the one hand, was the demarcation and separation of zones of influence, on the other hand, the suppression of the enemy, which often turned out to be Society, communities and the individual. In this context, according to the author, a conspiracy discourse is emerging, which the closer to our time, the more it is used against communities and individuals. This struggle within the institutions of the state and the church, as well as in art, is illustrated by the example of the history of the Illuminati. The activities of the Illuminati and other Orders (communities) were directed by a New European personality who, as Kant wrote, aspired to adulthood, which was in contradiction with the desire of the state and the Catholic Church to direct and control the mind and actions of a person. The author believes that the confrontation of the individual, Society and communities with the state and its institutions persists in our time. Of course, we are talking about a certain type of personality, so to speak, Kantian, and not any; there are individuals and communities that support the state.
Art and Art History
Beliakov V.K. - Photography and non-fiction pre-revolutionary cinema pp. 58-74

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2024.2.70131

EDN: QKGVPF

Abstract: The purpose of this work is to identify the essence of cinema in the process of its formation in the prerevolutionary period of time in comparison with its predecessor - photography. The author examines in detail the main properties of photography and the main properties of cinema, which do not coincide with each other, as well as their functioning in pre-revolutionary Russian society. The use of photography in mass illustrated magazines of that time is analyzed. Attention is paid to the formation of the properties of cinema at an early stage, when the audience of the first illusions was still mastering the perception of a new spectacle, which at the same time led to mastering the ability to read the language of screen reality. It is emphasized that mass cinema, in fact, used and developed the techniques of mass illustrated magazines. The special properties of cinematography related to the qualities of photogeny are also considered. The available documents on the functioning of the first cinemas are being studied. The issue of the emergence of the alienation effect in application to pre-revolutionary cinema, which leads to the mythologization of screen images, is discussed.The questions posed are studied on the basis of the art historical research method using the historical analysis of the available facts. What is new in this work is that the studied properties of photography and cinematography at an early stage allow us to develop the results obtained on the process of using archival photo and film documents in the modern cinematographic process. On the basis of the conducted research, it was found that cinematography, in comparison with photography, has the property of serving to identify the lost historical reality with giving the on-screen reality the qualities of myth, since there are no reliable verification techniques for visual paintings on the cinema screen. Photography reproduces mirrored pictures of existence with a demonstration of the smallest details and details, but cinema overshadows it due to its inherent photogeny, which does not have adequate verbal descriptions. Cinematic photogeny helps to reproduce the breath of life itself on the screen. In the course of the work, the empirical properties of photography and cinematography were studied with the disclosure of certain important historical circumstances that help to better understand their functioning in society.The results obtained contribute to a better understanding and decoding of pre-revolutionary film documents.
Sociology of culture, social culture
Kuznetsova M.V. - Kozma Soldatenkov (1818-1901) and his collection in the context of the artistic life of Moscow in the second half of the XIX century pp. 75-86

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2024.2.70309

EDN: QZEXXW

Abstract: The article examines the role of merchant, philanthropist, and collector Kozma Soldatenkov in the artistic landscape of Moscow during the 1850s-1890s. The purpose of this study is to understand the impact of Soldatenkov on the formation of museum and exhibition programs in Moscow. By analyzing his art collection and his activities as a collector, we can gain a deeper understanding of his contribution to the cultural landscape of the city. This research is based on a systematic historical approach that allows us to contextualize Soldatenkov's work within the broader context of art collecting and cultural development. The purpose of the article is to determine the contribution that he made to the development of museum and exhibition practices in Moscow, at a time when there was an increased interest not only in domestic art collecting, but also in addressing theoretical and practical challenges of artistic production. The scientific novelty of this study lies in the absence of works in Russian historiography that summarize the achievements of second-half XIX century Moscow collectors in the field of culture, focusing on Soldatenkov's position as one of the first collectors in Moscow's cultural landscape. This research is relevant due to the growing interest in understanding various aspects of collecting history in the XIXth century. Familiarity with the sources allows us to conclude that the Soldatenkov collection had been well-known to the artistic community for a long time, and its owner was not absent from the main events of cultural life. He invested heavily in the creation of public museum spaces in Moscow, and his collection itself served as a reflection of his cultural and social standing. It was a clear indicator of his support for Russian artists and his desire to strengthen the artistic life in the city.
Ethnology and cultural anthropology
Neretin A.I. - Mussolini and the Jewish Question in the Diaries of Claretta Petacci pp. 87-94

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2024.2.69981

EDN: XWKYMA

Abstract: The author examines in detail such aspects of the topic as the attitude of the leader of Italian fascism, Benito Mussolini, to representatives of Jewish nationality. The diaries of Mussolini's mistress Claretta Petacci, which she kept from 1932 to 1937, are mainly used as a source. The work also explores the drastic change in B. Mussolini's attitude towards Jews, which occurred after an alliance was concluded with the leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler, in 1937. There is a connection between these events, since until 1937 Petacci's diaries said nothing about the Jewish question. The article also examines the attitude of Italian society towards the racial laws of 1938 against Jews, which was not at all unambiguous. As an analytical method, the interpretive approach of the American anthropologist Clifford Geertz will be used, who believed that the analysis of culture is not an experimental matter, but a hermeneutic one, engaged in the search for meanings, symbols and ideas. The scientific novelty of this study lies in a specific consideration of the Jewish question of Mussolini and his study based on the memoirs of his mistress Claretta Petacci. There are not many studies devoted specifically to this issue and specifically to this historical source. The main conclusions of the above study are that it was the alliance concluded in 1937 with Adolf Hitler that radically influenced Benito Mussolini's decision to introduce racial laws in Italy, since the Duce was not much concerned about the Jewish question until 1937. The author of the work also drew conclusions regarding the negative attitude towards anti-Semitic laws by the majority of Italian society: Italians did not accept them due to the lack of anti-Semitism and hostility towards Jews in Italy.
Culture and authority
Bylevskiy P.G. - The Philosophical and cultural heritage of E.V. Ilyenkov in the context of the "Theoretical testament" of I.V. Stalin pp. 95-105

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2024.2.70382

EDN: CMZROP

Abstract: The subject of the study is the creative, socio-cultural potential of labor, capable of going far beyond the limitations of a market economy, reducing labor to the production of material wealth (goods) and profit. The philosophical and cultural methodology is considered, which makes it possible to include socio-cultural, pedagogical, journalistic professional activities, as well as nepotism and large families in productive work. A prominent representative of this approach is the Russian philosopher E.V. Ilyenkov, who, exploring the methodology of K. Marx's Capital, deduced and successfully applied the principles of dialectical logic to solve the most complex socio-cultural and pedagogical problems, including the full-fledged development of deafblind children. The philosophical and cultural heritage of E.V. Ilyenkov was created not in a vacuum, but in the context of a corresponding trend in Russian philosophy (studies by D.I. Rosenberg, M.M. Rosenthal, A.A. Zinoviev, etc.), correlating with the formulation of the basic economic law of socialism in the work of I.V. Stalin "Economic Problems of Socialism in the USSR". The methodological basis of the research is the principles of dialectical logic developed by E.V. Ilyenkov: analysis of the development and results of the confrontation between market and non-market (post-capitalist) trends in socio-cultural processes and their philosophical understanding. The materials are the works of E.V. Ilyenkov, as well as the works of modern researchers, who sometimes evaluate his works from opposite positions. The scientific novelty of the article lies in the polemic with the interpretations of the theoretical legacy of E.V. Ilyenkov as "philosophical dissidence" in the USSR. On the contrary, the connections of the methodology developed and applied by E.V. Ilyenkov with the formulation of the basic law of socialism by I.V. Stalin and the then "social order" for the study of dialectical logic based on the analysis of K. Marx's "Capital" are established. The developments of E.V. Ilyenkov turned out to be unclaimed for a while; the identified reason is the market neocolonial transformation of the USSR. Socio-cultural development was increasingly hindered through the mass formation of harmonious, comprehensively developed, creative personalities and an increase in the wealth of friendly social relations. Recommendations are formulated on the possible use of the philosophical heritage of E.V. Ilyenkov in modern conditions for methodological support of strengthening the state socio-cultural policy, including in the field of improving support for nepotism and large families, solving the demographic problem.
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