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Publications of Trofimov Egor Viktorovich
Legal Studies, 2021-9
Trofimov E.V., Metsker O.G., Paskoshev D.D. - Administrative prejudice in cases of petty theft (the Article 7.27 of the Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offenses and the Article 158.1 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation): how the big data of judicial acts reflect humanization and quality of justice pp. 81-124


Abstract: The subject of this article is the public relations arising in the context of committing petty theft, as well as research means and methods for assessing the optimization of legislation and law enforcement. Due to the specific structure of administrative prejudice, the article presents the methodology and results of the analysis big data of judicial acts in cases of petty theft (the Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offenses and the Article 158.1 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation) for assessing the quality of justice and optimization of legal regulation. The research is founded on the original interdisciplinary methodology, which contains the indicator approach along with the set of legal and computer aided techniques, including intellectual text and data mining, as well as machine learning. It is demonstrated that the judgments of conviction do not have considerable differences in the semantics and logical complexity of decision-making in comparison with the ruling on imposition of administrative penalty; the logic of making decisions on the choice of administrative or criminal penalty for petty theft varies, whereby the choice of administrative penalty is more differentiated. Despite the identity of acts related to administrative prejudice, their regulation by different laws leads to different enforcement results. Administrative-tort regulation is more optimal. Administrative responsibility for petty theft is rather humane for the society overall, although for victims, criminal responsibility appears to be more humane. Having analyzed the array of information, the author extracts certain knowledge on the administrative-tort and criminological characteristics of petty theft alongside peculiarities of court proceeding and imposition of penalties, as well as concludes on applicability of the developed methodology towards analyzing big data of case law on administrative and criminal offenses.
Administrative and municipal law, 2021-4
Trofimov E.V. - Anti-corruption denunciation: methodological problems, foreign experience, and Russian prospects pp. 14-44


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the institution of denunciation as a specific form of disclosure of illegal and unfair practices. For determination of the conceptual legal meaning of denunciation and its prospects for modern Russia as anti-corruption legal institution, this article coordinates the interdisciplinary scientific results of research on denunciation, analyzes and summarizes the international (UN, EU) and national (United States, Great Britain, South Korea, Brazil, China, Albania, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine) regulatory approaches towards denunciation, and similar forms of disclosure of offenses. The article reveals the current state of the Russian legislation in this sphere. The research employs the methods of dogmatic analysis, comparative-legal and systemic-analytical toolset. The author correlates denunciation and denunciator with such concepts as “denouncement”, “actio popularis”, “reporting party”, “informant” and “whistleblower”; determines the twelve characteristics of denunciation, which collectively define it as a special form of information disclosure. The conclusion is made that the variants of legal regulation of denunciation are built around or within such issues as the protection of denunciator, his interaction with the authorized entities and remuneration, as well as the conclusion on the absence of specific legal means in the current Russian legislation that ensure denunciation as the social institution. The author formulates recommendations on amending the labor, administrative, criminal and procedural legislation aimed at implementation of measures for protecting the denunciators.
Law and Politics, 2020-10
Trofimov E.V., Metsker O.G. - Methodology for qualitative assessment of optimization of legislation and law enforcement practice based on big data analysis of the cases on administrative offences pp. 10-26


Abstract: The subject of this research is the interdisciplinary legal and computer research tools and methods. The authors substantiate the interdisciplinary (legal-computational) methodology for automated analysis and assessment of qualitative changes in legislation and law enforcement practice. Interim results of the research project that are of methodological nature and cover methodological paradigm, principles, means and methods of scientific research are provided. The formulated conclusions represent a summary of heuristic search and computational experiments carried out in the domain field of administrative tort law, as well as comprehension of the process and results of research from both, legal and computer perspectives. Explanation is given to the interdisciplinary paradigm in the indicated methodological area. Leaning on the empirical evidence and observations, the author formulates the three research principles: principle of heterogeneity of domain, principle of discreteness of legal practice, and principle of identity of the model. As the key research tools, the author substantiates and tests in computational experiments the scientific information-analytical system, mathematical and social indicators have been developed, justified and tested in computational experiments. Computer methods (knowledge modeling, natural language processing, machine learning) that ensure automation of identification and usage of indicators mate with the dogmatic method, systemic analysis and expert assessment responsible for legal interpretation of computations.  The legal and computer tools are determined for identification and usage of the principal indicators. In conclusion, the author outlines a number of problems and restrictions determined in the course of the conducted research.
Law and Politics, 2020-9
Trofimov E.V. - International cooperation in the area of corruption prevention: global trends and Russian prospects in the international legal policy pp. 105-118


Abstract: The subject of this research is the international relations associated with the development of cooperation in the area of corruption prevention, and the national legal policy of the countries s in this sphere established since the 1970s to the present day. The article determines the trends in development of international cooperation in the area of corruption prevention, reconstructs the dynamics of international legal policy with consideration of the produced subsequent real effect, as well as analyzes the origination of corresponding international initiatives as the crucial factor in their advancement. The article provides periodization of the process of establishment and development of international cooperation in area of corruption prevention: the first stage (1970 – early 1980s) is characterized by the negotiation process oriented towards creation of international normative legal regulation, but appeared to be inefficient in the situation of international tension and collision of interests; the second stage (late 1980s – 2005) is characterized by the transformation of ideology of the international anti-corruption cooperation,  which implies conventional-institutional approach towards international cooperation; the third stage (2005 – present) is marked by the transition towards institutional-procedural mechanism of cooperation. The conclusion is made that the promising victors of international cooperation of the Russian Federation consists in implementation of extraterritorial legal instruments for preventing corruption and adoption of the institutional-procedural approach with essential formal compliance with the international anti-corruption standards.
Legal Studies, 2020-9
Trofimov E.V., Metsker O.G. - Indicators for optimization of legislation and law enforcement, methods of their identification and usage based on big data (experience of computational experiments on the judicial acts on administrative offenses established by the Chapter 18 Of the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation) pp. 33-46


Abstract: The subject of this article is the research tools and assessment methods with regards to optimization of legislation and law enforcement. The paper reveals the experience of computational experiments on the judicial acts on administrative offenses established by the Chapter 18 of the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation. The research employs various computer methods, including knowledge modeling, methods of natural language processing and machine learning, as well as the related within the framework of interdisciplinary paradigm methods of systemic analysis and expert assessment. Computational experiments were conducted on the empirical basis formed out of texts of 50,438 judicial acts. On the example of big data on administrative offenses, the article demonstrates the interdisciplinary (from computer and legal perspectives)  interpreted results in the context of usage and identification of a number of indicators for optimization of legislation and law enforcement, primarily – time indicator, indicator of individualization of punishment, and indicator of subject uniformity. The conclusions and generalizations are made pertaining to legislation and law enforcement in this area under consideration. Computational methods and the set of indicators can be the groundwork for making decisions in law policy. The advantages of the proposed methodology consist in objectivity of the conclusions that based on methodology open to public verification, as well as big legal data that ensures accuracy of research.
Administrative and municipal law, 2020-6
Trofimov E.V., Garsia S.D. - Anti-corruption declaring in public service: comparative legal research in the ethical paradigm pp. 10-30


Abstract: Leaning on the analysis of legal sources of Russia, a number of European and Asian countries, South and North America, this article explores the institution of anti-corruption declaring in public service. The goal consists in substantiation of methodological approaches, which would allow, with a certain degree of accuracy in the context of ethical paradigm, comparing the integral Institution of legal regulation of anti-corruption declaring in different countries, as well as utilizing these approaches in comparative legal research based on Russian and foreign materials for determination of substantial differences that require scientific comprehension and practical response. As a result of the conducted research, the author acquired data on several indicators of trust as an service-ethical purpose for disclosure of personal information by public officials, namely by volume of the disclosed personal information, nature of the source of the declared records, openness of declarations and their verifiability. Foreign declaring traces two main approaches: service-ethical and instrumental. In Russia, the Institution of declaring is of clear instrumental nature, which raises a question of the prospects for implementation of service-ethical approach, first and foremost, with regards to release of declarations of the officials. This question should depend on the actual goals of national policy.
Law and Politics, 2019-8
Trofimov E.V., Metsker O.G. - Law and artificial intelligence: the experience of computational methodology for analyzing and assessing quantitative changes in legislation and law enforcement practice (on the example of the Article 20.4 of the Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offenses) pp. 1-17


Abstract: The subject of this research is the changes that took place in law enforcement practice due to introduction in 2011 of the new revision of the Article 20.4 “On Violation of Fire Prevention Rules” of the Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offenses. The article presents the results of computational experiment conducted for the purpose of development and testing of high-performance software based on the intellectual analysis and computer-assisted learning that improves understanding of the new legal phenomena and processes associated with the impact of legislation upon law enforcement practice. For solving the research objective. For solving the research problem, the author uses the data of the State Information System “Justice” related to 56,500 orders on imposition of administrative punishment in accordance with the Article 20.4 of the Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offenses for the period of 2010-2017. The author extracts and factorizes the necessary data; JSON data was converted using the algorithm in MapReduce paradigm for the models of factorization and learning. As a result of computer-assisted learning, was obtained the “tree of decisions”. On the “tree of decisions” it is demonstrated that middle of 2011 marks qualitative improvement in judicial practice, which became more uniform and logical; as well as in the context of imposing administrative punishment, the court started using standard circumstances of the case. The more efficient revision of the Article 20.4 of the Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offenses allowed in a midterm period to enhance the rule of law in the area of satisfying formalized requirements to ensuring fire safety, by reducing the number of cases from 2012 to 2017 by more than 10 times. The author empirically substantiates the working version of the method of analysis and assessment of qualitative changes in legislation and law enforcement practice based on the computer-assisted learning technique in form of “tree of decisions”.
Legal Studies, 2019-7
Trofimov E.V., Metsker O.G. - The Law and Artificial Intelligence: Experience in Developing Computational Methodology for Intellectual Analysis of Russian and Regional Practice in Judicial Review of Administrative Judgements (Decisions) (the Case Study of Article 20.4 of the Administrative Offences Code of the Russian Federation) pp. 32-43


Abstract: The matter under research is judicial practice in review of administrative judgements (decisions) as stated by Article 20.4 'Fire Safety Violations' of the Administrative Offences Code of the Russian Federation. The absence of judicial statistics about individual categories of administrative offences at the federal and regional levels causes the need to use computational methods to collect, process and analyse data. To achieve research targets, the authors of the article have used data of state autmoated system 'Justice'. Empirical base of the research was developed with the help of crawler based on POST-inquiries with some JSON parameter. As a result of inquiries, the researchers have received complete records of judicial acts and have used these to make a classification. For detailed intellectual analysis, the researchers have referred to 4.9 thousand judicial solutions about review of administrative judgements (decisions) based on Article 20.4 of the Administrative Offences Code of the Russian Federation for the period since 2010 till 2017. As a result of the research, the authors have created and tested the methodology of extraction, analysis and interpretation of practical judicial data that are not provided by judicial statistics. In the course of interpretation of empirical data, the authors have discovered general Russia's trends in law enforcement as a result of increased efficiency of administrative law as well as have created three regional models of correlation of results for review of administrative judgements (decisions) that have been associated with the indicators of regional socio-economic statistics. 
Law and Politics, 2019-2
Trofimov E.V. - U. S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 and international law initiatives on global counteraction of corruption: problems of criminalization and administration of questionable operations of transnational corporations during the 1970Тs pp. 30-48


Abstract: The subject of this research is the regulations of U. S Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, other acts and official documents of the President of the United States, U.S. Congress, U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission, as well as the United Nations, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, International Chamber of Commerce. The author also examines the arguments expressed by the politicians and scholars in the 1970’s – early 1980’s with regards to the Law on Foreign Corruption Practice of 1977. The article analyzes the U. S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (FCPA) for determining the essence of the established criminal law and administrative rules. The research is conducted in the context of the global anticorruption initiatives and international processes of the 1970’s. The author demonstrates the conceptual and chronological correlation between the domestic lawmaking practice and international anticorruption initiatives of the United States of the 1970’s, aimed at counteracting corruption of the transnational corporations in developing countries.
International Law, 2019-1
Trofimov E.V. - International legal initiatives in the 1970Тs on the global anti-corruption policy: the problems of criminalization and administration of questionable transactions of transnational corporations pp. 45-66


Abstract: The subject of this research is the acts and other international legal documents of international organizations adopted or drafted in the 1970’s related to the questions of anti-corruption managements, practiced by transnational corporations in the accepting countries, including the acts and other document of the United Nations, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, International Labor Organization, and International Chamber of Commerce. The article also examines the related acts and other documents of administration and Congress of the United Stated of the 1970’s. The first wave of the global anti-corruption initiatives (1970’s) was caused by the negative attitude towards the activity of transnational corporations in the accepting countries. Within the framework of the UN “soft” law, were adopted the acts against corruption practices of transnational corporations. After the promulgation of the scales of illegal and unethical activity of North American corporations in the developing countries, the United States adopted the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as well as initiated the formulation of international documents of similar content. The corresponding documents were adopted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation (1976) and International Chamber of Commerce (1977), but they carried a recommendatory character and were referred to corporations, rather than the countries. During the 1977-1979, the subsidiary bodies of the United Nations Economic and Social Council upon the initiative of the United States developed a project of international agreement on the illicit payments, but encountered opposition from the majority of the developed countries, as well as generated discussions with the developing countries, due to which in the 1980’s this project was scrapped.
Genesis: Historical research, 2016-5
Trofimov E.V. - Political-legal aspects of establishment of the Soviet one-party state (1917-1922) pp. 74-98


Abstract: The object of this research is the relations of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party and the Russian Communist Party with other political parties after the[WU1]  February Revolution of 1917, which ended with a complete monopolization of authority by the Bolsheviks and elimination of other parties. The political processes are examined simultaneously with the legal limitation of multiparty system and political pluralism. The author reviews the following important milestones: establishment of the Soviet one-party state, October Revolution, All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies, formation of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and Council of People's Commissars, negotiations in the All-Russian Executive Committee of the Union of Railwaymen, and political defeat of the “Right Bolsheviks”, All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Peasants' Deputies, etc. The causes and circumstances of elimination of political pluralism during the first five years of Soviet government are analyzed using the official documents, materials of the activity of representative institutions, as well a works of V. I. Lenin. The author explores the changes in the Soviet legislation concerning the freedom of activity of the political parties, as well as the process of elimination of political parties and their integration with the Russian Communist Party of Bolsheviks. In the context of Bolsheviks’ struggle for power against other parties, the article gives a political-legal evaluation to the activity of a number of representative institutions, and mutual positions of Bolsheviks and other political parties during the civil war. The role of coincidences and objective processes in strengthening of Bolsheviks’ dictatorship is demonstrated.    [WU1]
Sociodynamics, 2013-2
Trofimov E.V. - Definition and Special Aspects of Awards pp. 23-67


Abstract: In this article the award is viewed as a variety of incentives to identify their social and legal capacity as a means of public administration. Identification of the specific social and legal awards made in the context of a multidisciplinary approach and is based on the achievements of law, history, sociology, psychology, economics and philosophy. The article defines the specific characteristics of awards, isolating them from the ordinary rewards designated purpose and function of awards, the characteristic of awards as a socio-legal phenomenon. A significant part of the article on the analysis of form and content of awards and can not issue their differences without losing the reward of its social and legal characteristics. The award is determined by the author as a symbolic legal promotion, altering the status of the person in the system of social relations and etiquette, installed and used in a particular social group for the significant achievements that define the biography award-face and are essential for the social group (facility management) and represents its regulator.
Legal Studies, 2013-1
Trofimov E.V. - State awards of Russian regions pp. 1-147


Abstract: The article deals with the institution of the state awards of Russian regions. The author reveals the features and trends of the legal regulation of state awards of Russian regions. Based on statistical data collected and analyzed by the author on the general population of awarding systems of all regions of the Russian Federation, conducted a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the premium law and awarding systems of Russian regions. The author defines the typical model of awarding system of republics and other regions of the Russian Federation, shows their strengths and weaknesses, and formulate recommendations for their improvement.
Legal Studies, 2012-5
Trofimov E.V. - The reward work and reward law in the system of legal regulation pp. 24-89
Abstract: The article deals with the legal aspects of the reward work in the Russian Federation. The author comes to the conclusion that the legal heterogeneity of the reward work. Informal awards releases serve as reflections of constitutional freedom of conscience and speech of individuals, and the official awards reflect public authority. The reward work includes the basic unit of public relations regarding establishment of awards and rewarding and another unit concerns guarantees for rewarding and honored persons. The establishment of formal awards and rewarding are governed by award law. It is characterized by the unity of the subject, the method and the principles of legal regulation, and it is regarded as a part of the administrative law. Administrative nature of reward law is determined by the benefit features of awards.
Politics and Society, 2011-10
Trofimov E.V. -
Administrative and municipal law, 2011-10
Trofimov E.V. -
Law and Politics, 2011-9
Trofimov E.V. -
Politics and Society, 2011-5
Trofimov E.V. -
Law and Politics, 2011-4
Trofimov E.V. -
Law and Politics, 2010-12
Trofimov E.V. -
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