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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Urban Studies" > Contents of Issue № 04/2023
Contents of Issue № 04/2023
Architecture and Environment
Glatolenkova E., Il'in K.S. - Architectural environment of the Khabarovsk Children's Railway pp. 1-15



Abstract: The subject of the article is the peculiarities of the formation of the architectural environment of children's railroads in the Far East. The object of the study is a children's railroad in Khabarovsk, belonging to the Far Eastern railroads. On the material of historical documents, photographs and private archives its historical development, changes in the landscaping of the territory and filling of the environment, the current state of the surrounding buildings and the prospects for further development of the road are considered. The authors pay special attention to the study of recent innovations in landscaping and the current state of the park adjacent to the road, as well as analyze the road reconstruction projects under consideration by the city administration. The study of the experience of construction and operation of children's railroads in different Russian cities and popular foreign parks allowed to identify trends in their further development and transformation in modern conditions. The authors' contribution to the topic under consideration is the systematization of scattered information about the Khabarovsk branch of the children's railroad and the compilation of a scheme of its planned development, carried out for the first time. In the course of the work it is established that for more than half a century of history the surrounding landscape has changed significantly, its further successful functioning requires a cardinal revision of the route of the track. The application of the obtained results is possible in the process of designing a new direction of the road in the park territory of the nursery named after A. M. Lukashov.
Razvodova I. - The main features of the spatial structure of cities with a free landscape layout (The city of Yelets, Lipetsk region). pp. 16-31



Abstract: The object of the study is the building system of the city of Yelets, developed by medieval architects and preserved to this day. The subject of this study is the main features of the spatial composition of the city of Yelets. The work is devoted to identifying the patterns underlying the unique development, which will not only preserve the advantages of the appearance of the city, but also competently develop the space in the future, taking into account current trends. The work is based on the study of Russian cities by G. V. Alferova, conducted in the second half of the XX century. Alferova revealed the presence of a compositional design in the construction of ancient cities. In this article, Alferova's ideas are developing. As a result of a systematic analysis of sources on the history of the Yelets Region, as well as a full-scale survey of the central and right-bank parts of the city, the main features of the spatial structure of the city are determined: complex multidimensional compositions of dominants, harmoniously subordinated to the natural features of the landscape; thoughtful organization of the so-called "prozors", creating a transparent open system of the city; the ability of the city to "accommodate" and arrange there are objects of different styles nearby, provided that the general rhythmic pattern is observed. Some weak points of the city were identified, formed due to the disregard by developers of the basic principles of city development. This study can help the development of not only Yelets, but also many cities with a similar type of layout.
Ethnology and cultural anthropology
Kotliar E.R., Zolotukhina N.A. - Transformation of the Jewish Cultural Code of Sefer in the Social Strata of the Shtetl pp. 32-49



Abstract: The subject of the study is the transformation of the main Jewish cultural code of the Sefer -Book, from stratum to stratum in the culture of Jewish shtetls. Shtetls were called urban-type settlements in Eastern Europe - the Jewish pale of settlement. The Sefer code, originally embodying the foundations of Jewish law and worldview, the written and oral Torah, pointed to the path to the Almighty through its study. The perception of the rules within each stratum differed in a number of features: the Misnageds, as well as the Karaites and Krymchaks, had strict adherence to the laws, and the Hasidim had an emotional perception. With the advent of the Jewish Enlightenment-Haskalah, and later the globalization of the twentieth century, the Sefer code began to personify the light of knowledge as a whole, as the main goal, including both religious and secular sources. Education in the religious stratum was perceived as the knowledge of God and his creations, and in the atheistic environment - as an end in itself, remaining the main goal in all strata. The obtained research results can also be applied to ethnocultural studies of other ethnic groups. The study applied the method of historicism in retrospect of the functioning of the Jewish communities of Eastern Europe, the comparative method in the comparative characteristics of cultural and religious concepts of various Jewish communities, methods of analysis and synthesis in the formulation of the scheme of cultural codes and their conjugations. The study for the first time characterizes the author's universal morphological scheme of Jewish cultural codes, from which the hierarchy and interrelationships of the main groups of symbols, as well as the key meanings and the main meaning, which is the center of intersection of all codes, are understood. Conclusions: 1. The cultural area of the Eastern European shtetl towns was distinguished by stable patterns associated with the compact residence of the Jewish population and traditional occupations, as well as a worldview based on the Jewish religion. After the disappearance of the shtetls due to globalization, the cultural and ideological foundation became the basis of the activity and thinking of scientists, literary and artistic figures who emerged from it. 2. The Sefer cultural code embodies not only the Torah and its derivatives, but also identifies the main goal - the acquisition of knowledge, which is the same for representatives of all social strata of the Shtetl - Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Jews, Karaites, Krymchaks, Misnageds, Hasidim, representatives of Haskalah, and later atheists and agnostics.
Architecture and Environment
Pochtovaia A.V. - The Design Solutions of Innovation Centers pp. 50-61



Abstract: The article examines the innovation center as an architectural object that creates conditions for research, cooperation between various economic entities and the production of knowledge-intensive products. The article subject is the design of innovation centers. The relevance of their consideration is due to the special attention of the state, the architectural community, and commercial enterprises. High quality of design solutions and symbolism of the architectural image are the basis for the innovation centers design, a competitive advantage in attracting and retaining highly skilled specialists. The study uses a graphic-analytical method and multifactor analysis of studying and systematizing the material (analysis of master plans, architectural drawings, engineering solutions). The contribution of the article consist in the identification and systematization of innovation centers architectural design solutions. The models of innovation centers design were made on urban, planning, and spatial characteristics of innovation centers. A computer program for data processing was used. The influence on the innovation centers design proceeds from organization structure, different types of ownership (university, government and commercial) and the location (city center, city district, suburbia, intercity territory). The total sample of the study consisted of 144 objects. It provides accurate result and the possibility of using the findings by professional architectural community.
Миграция и адаптация
Ryazantsev S.V., Bragin A. - Migration in rural areas of Ethno-national regions of the Russian Federation: trends and consequences pp. 62-77



Abstract: This article analyzes the aspects of rural migration in the Russian Federation, highlighting its importance for the sustainable development of the regions. Particular attention is paid to migration in the ethno-national regions of the country, where it is considered as a complex and volatile phenomenon that has a profound impact on economic well-being, social infrastructure, cultural development and demographic structure of both donor and recipient regions. The authors analyze in detail both positive and negative aspects of migration flows in rural areas, including their impact on the labor market, entrepreneurial activity and social stability. Changes in the social life of rural communities caused by migration and the impact of these changes on traditional lifestyles and cultural values are also considered. The article is based on statistical data on the scale of migration of ethnonational regions for 2010-2022. The study is based on a comprehensive analysis of socio-economic, demographic and socio-cultural aspects of rural migration, with an emphasis on the ethnonational characteristics of the regions. Quantitative analysis of statistical data and qualitative analysis of current migration trends were used. The article presents an innovative analysis of the role of ethnic factors in migration processes and their impact on socio-cultural dynamics in recipient cities of the Russian Federation, including large cities such as Moscow, Ufa, Kazan, Makhachkala and Cheboksary. The basics of how rural population migration affects urban processes such as housing construction, infrastructure development and social integration are highlighted. The authors emphasize the need for coordinated actions of regional and federal authorities in managing migration flows and solving related problems. The directions for future research are proposed, including the analysis of the consequences of migration for the socio-economic and cultural environment of cities and the development of adaptation strategies for migrants, taking into account their ethnic and cultural identity. In conclusion, the article emphasizes the importance of migration processes for the social and economic development of Russia.
Ismailova N.V., Sadkovskaya O.E., Rundin D.V. - Development of Тaganrog city as a tourist center pp. 78-98



Abstract: The subject of the study is the planning and architectural organization of the city. The object of the study is the city of Taganrog, Rostov Region (Russia). The change in the main vector of socio-economic transformations of the city, as a large industrial pole of the region, at the same time having important cultural and historical significance, is due to the current socio-economic transformations in the country. Among the new strategic priorities and directions for the city are the preservation and development of the cultural space and the development of the tourist potential of the city, to the implementation of which there are a number of positive prerequisites. The changes taking place cause the need for spatial transformations of the urban fabric. The problems and features of the planning structure and infrastructure of the urban area were considered, as well as obstacles to urban planning transformation and the formation of the city as a tourist center (destination) were identified. To comprehensively solve the existing urban planning problems of the city of Taganrog and form it as a tourist center, a single architectural and urban planning approach is proposed (hereinafter, a single approach). The proposed approach is based on the principles of development: hospitality, compliance with needs, continuity, connectivity and «accessible sea». A single approach synchronizes urban planning mechanisms, within the framework of which a system of architectural and urban planning measures is made to implement a certain goal – the formation of a tourist destination. The system of measures is formed taking into account the justified principles of development, planning methods and techniques. As a practical application of a single approach, a set of architectural and urban planning measures and urban planning mechanisms for their implementation is proposed. Recommendations are given on updating the documents for regulating urban planning activities, taking into account the complex of architectural and urban planning measures: the master plan, local standards for urban planning design, land use and development rules, rules for the improvement of the territory of the municipality.
Проектирование и архитектура
Safonova E.V. - Sewing technologies as interdisciplinary innovations in architecture pp. 99-110



Abstract: The article explores interdisciplinary approaches in architecture related to the use of sewing and textile production technologies. The main technological processes of manufacturing sewing and textile products, as well as adapted sewing production technologies in research prototypes and real buildings and structures made of wood are considered. The research is conducted on the basis of an interdisciplinary approach, involving knowledge from the history of architecture, applied arts and design, information technology and engineering. Special attention is paid to the experimental work of the University of Stuttgart, where automated production processes are used to create experimental architectural prototypes from multilayer wooden veneer. As a result of the study, three main stages of technological processes for the manufacture of garments were identified, which can be adapted for the manufacture of architectural objects. It is demonstrated that an interdisciplinary approach using sewing and textile technologies leads to a revision of techniques and methods in the fields of construction engineering, automation, digital manufacturing and materials science. Experimental prototypes and structures not only have efficient and resource-saving qualities, but also have a high level of architectural and artistic solutions. The use of sewing technologies opens up new opportunities for creating innovative and unique forms and designs in architecture.
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