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Migration in rural areas of Ethno-national regions of the Russian Federation: trends and consequences

Ryazantsev Sergei Vasil'evich

ORCID: 0000-0001-5306-8875

Doctor of Economics

RAS Corresponding Member, Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Head of the Laboratory of International Demographic Studies, Institute for Demographic Research FCTAS RAS

119333, Russia, Moscow, Fotieva str., 6 k.1

riazan@mail.ru
Bragin Alexey

Junior researcher, Institute for Demographic Research FCTAS RAS

117418, Russia, Moscow, Tsyurupy str., 11k3

alexbragin562@gmail.com

DOI:

10.7256/2310-8673.2023.4.69059

EDN:

MHAAYC

Received:

21-11-2023


Published:

31-12-2023


Abstract: This article analyzes the aspects of rural migration in the Russian Federation, highlighting its importance for the sustainable development of the regions. Particular attention is paid to migration in the ethno-national regions of the country, where it is considered as a complex and volatile phenomenon that has a profound impact on economic well-being, social infrastructure, cultural development and demographic structure of both donor and recipient regions. The authors analyze in detail both positive and negative aspects of migration flows in rural areas, including their impact on the labor market, entrepreneurial activity and social stability. Changes in the social life of rural communities caused by migration and the impact of these changes on traditional lifestyles and cultural values are also considered. The article is based on statistical data on the scale of migration of ethnonational regions for 2010-2022. The study is based on a comprehensive analysis of socio-economic, demographic and socio-cultural aspects of rural migration, with an emphasis on the ethnonational characteristics of the regions. Quantitative analysis of statistical data and qualitative analysis of current migration trends were used. The article presents an innovative analysis of the role of ethnic factors in migration processes and their impact on socio-cultural dynamics in recipient cities of the Russian Federation, including large cities such as Moscow, Ufa, Kazan, Makhachkala and Cheboksary. The basics of how rural population migration affects urban processes such as housing construction, infrastructure development and social integration are highlighted. The authors emphasize the need for coordinated actions of regional and federal authorities in managing migration flows and solving related problems. The directions for future research are proposed, including the analysis of the consequences of migration for the socio-economic and cultural environment of cities and the development of adaptation strategies for migrants, taking into account their ethnic and cultural identity. In conclusion, the article emphasizes the importance of migration processes for the social and economic development of Russia.


Keywords:

migration, urban population, rural regions, demography, ethno-national regions, labor market, statistics, social development, urbanistics, national structure

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

 

Introduction. According to Rosstat, as of January 1, 2023, the rural population in the Russian Federation amounted to 37 million people, or about 25% of all residents. Migration from rural areas to cities is a common phenomenon and has a significant impact on the socio-economic and demographic development of the Russian Federation. Rural migration to cities, on the one hand, is a complex socio-demographic phenomenon that reflects the process of urbanization. On the other hand, the migration outflow of rural residents, primarily young people, to cities is facilitated by negative pushing factors, namely the lack of jobs, low wages, the collapse of social infrastructure, and the lack of social services. The key negative consequences of this type of migration are the "leaching" of labor resources, reproductive population and youth from rural areas, which in turn leads to a slowdown in the pace of socio-economic development of rural areas. The loss of demographic potential and human capital has remained for several decades the main problem of modern rural-urban migration in the Russian Federation, while this process has significant regional differentiation. In this regard, this migration trend needs to be studied in more depth in order to develop recommendations for leveling the negative demographic consequences for individual regions and the country as a whole.

In 2000-2022, the number of rural population in the Russian Federation decreased by 2.8 million people, including the natural decline of the entire population amounted to 500 thousand people during this period. On the contrary, the migration growth of cities in the Russian Federation at the expense of rural settlements amounted to about 1 million people [1]. It can be stated that rural settlements are one of the reservoirs, along with external sources (primarily CIS countries) from which Russian cities actively draw their population. However, the consequences of this process for rural areas are certainly negative, as they exacerbate population losses and depopulation in rural areas and settlements, hindering socio-economic development.  

The aim of the study was to assess the scale and consequences of rural migration in the ethnonational regions of Russia. Research objectives: firstly, to develop a methodology for assessing the scale and assessment of socio-economic and demographic consequences of rural migration for Russian regions; secondly, to assess and map demographic processes in rural areas of Russian regions; thirdly, to develop recommendations for improving approaches to rural migration management in the interests of socio-economic and demographic development. the development of the country.   

The geography of the study covered the ethnonational regions of the Russian Federation, including 21 republics (Adygea, Altai, Bashkortostan, Buryatia, Dagestan, Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkaria, Kalmykia, Karelia, Karachay-Cherkessia, Komi, Mari El, Mordovia, Sakha (Yakutia), North Ossetia–Alania, Tatarstan, Tyva, Khakassia Udmurtia, Chechen Republic, Chuvashia), 4 autonomous districts (Nenets, Khanty-Mansiysk, Chukotka, Yamalo-Nenets) and 1 autonomous Region (Jewish).

The main source of information for the analysis of migration processes in rural areas of Russia is data from the Federal State Statistics Service, which is presented as an accumulation of data collected by the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. The article analyzes statistical data for the period 2000-2022. The choice of this period for data analysis is due to socio-economic and geopolitical events that have significantly transformed migration processes in the Russian Federation as a whole, as well as in rural areas.

Approaches to the study of rural migration. To understand the features and patterns of rural migration, it seems necessary to refer to the scientific works of Russian and foreign authors who cover this issue from the point of view of different approaches. First of all, the economic and demographic aspects of rural migration. T. I. Zaslavskaya initiated a systematic study of internal migration processes in the USSR, including rural migration, focusing on the change of socio-economic structures. T. I. Zaslavskaya's methodology, which includes a comprehensive analysis of migration flows, formed the basis for many subsequent studies [2]. T. I. Zaslavskaya also substantiated the concept of "unpromising villages", which consisted in the fact that certain rural settlements have no economic prospects due to their remote location, insufficient infrastructure or limited employment opportunities. L. L. Rybakovsky studied migration processes in the USSR based on the intensity coefficients of migration links (CIMS), determining based on calculations, the strength of the relationship between individual regions of the country. In the 1970s, T. I. Zaslavskaya and L. L. Rybakovsky substantiated the theory of three-stage migration, including applying it to internal Russian migration, highlighting the stage of decision-making on resettlement, migration itself and the period of survival [3]. The study also concerned rural areas of the USSR, primarily Siberia and the Far East.

N. V. Mkrtchan studied rural migration in Russia as a reaction to economic transformations and changes in the labor market, and also studied the economic consequences of migration for rural areas through the prism of the influence of labor on the development of the agricultural sector and the industrialization of rural areas [4]. The study of J. Konala shows how global economic transformations affect the migration intentions and strategies of the rural population [5].

The sociocultural approach to the study of rural migration is manifested in the work of A. Barrientos and D. Hulmea on the impact of social policy on migration behavior and migration intentions of rural residents and rural migration in developing countries [6]. The authors analyze socio-cultural changes in rural areas under the influence of migration flows, including showing how migration affects the cultural identity of rural residents, the socio-demographic composition of the population of regions, and the relationship between various ethnic and socio-demographic groups of the population.

The ethnic aspects of rural migration are studied in the works of M. A. Bulgakov, who studies migration in the context of the ethnic characteristics of the population of Russian regions, considers the transformation of the national composition of the population, and also studies the mutual influence of the ethnic composition of the population and the ethnic structure of migration flows [7]. In his work, the author analyzes the features of the migration exchange of the population between various ethnonational regions of Russia and their impact on socio-economic development [7]. Valery Alexandrovich Tishkov explored a similar topic in his work "Russia as a multinational community and the prospect of interethnic harmony" where he analyzed the influence of ethnic mosaics on socio-cultural processes and interethnic relations in Russia [8].

Theoretical and methodological basis of the study. Rural migration can be defined as the territorial movement of the population from rural areas to cities, from cities to rural areas, as well as the movement of the population between rural settlements both within the country and between countries with different frequency and goals [9]. The main vector of rural migration is directed to cities, primarily to megacities, which have capacious and diversified labor markets, housing market, developed transport and social infrastructure. The article is based on the idea of the "social duality" of rural migration. On the one hand, we consider rural migration as a marker of urbanization, which in turn is characterized by the concentration of population in cities, urban growth, including at the expense of the rural population. On the other hand, the migration outflow of rural population to urban areas in Russian conditions also reflects the socio-economic degradation of rural space in connection with reforms that led to a reduction in the network of healthcare, culture, sports, and education institutions [10]. This dualism reveals the negative socio-demographic consequences of economic reforms for rural areas and human settlements.

Let's look at the key types of rural migration. First of all, in the 1990s, temporary commercial migration of rural residents to cities or even other countries for the purchase and transportation of goods became widespread [11]. For example, the migration of residents of the Far Eastern regions to the border areas of China. This form of migration is still being observed, but in smaller volumes, since COVID-19 and the economic situation have changed the direction of migration trends. Currently, Chinese tourists and businessmen come to the border regions of Russia to a greater extent than Russians do to China.

The educational migration of rural youth to cities is a permanent Russian phenomenon and is conditioned by objective circumstances – the presence of higher and secondary specialized educational institutions in cities and the desire of young people to get an education.

Seasonal labor migration is the arrival of workers in rural areas for a sowing company, harvesting, construction, and logging operations. In Soviet times, these migrants were called "covenanters", often emphasizing some negative connotation of this phenomenon.

It should be noted the socio-economic and return migration from the city to the countryside, the scale of which, although insignificant, is very indicative in terms of positive consequences [12]. As a rule, socio-economic migrants and age-related migrants move to rural areas to open new forms of business (for example, farmers, processing plants, food production, eco-tourism, etc.); the desire to change the situation to a more peaceful one; the desire to live in more prosperous environmental conditions; return to the place of birth, parents, relatives.

Dacha migration is a special socio-cultural phenomenon in Russia. In recent years, there has been a development of suburban and suburban places of life for citizens who sought to live part of their time in nature, in rural regions, villages and villages, as a rule, not far from large megacities [13]. Over the past decades, "country rings" have encircled almost all major Russian cities, sometimes the suburban migration of citizens "breathed" life into dying villages.

The phenomenon of external ethnic migration is associated with the resettlement to rural areas of ethnic migrants from one region of the country of origin, often relatives, enlivened the life of some rural settlements [14] (for example, Tajik migrants in villages of the Tver region; Old Believers from Latin America to rural areas of Primorsky Krai and Amur Region).

The types of rural migration described above in modern Russian conditions, depending on the goals and characteristics, can be presented in the form of Table 1. Rural migration is determined by pushing and attracting factors, which by their nature can be social, economic, psychological in nature.

Table 1. Types of rural migration in the Russian Federation

Type of migration

Characteristics and vector of migration

Attractive factors

Pushing factors

Commercial migration

Travel to another country or region of Russia to purchase or transport goods to your region or locality (shuttles, merchants, salesmen).

The opportunity to earn money on a trip, to see another country or city

Low wages, lack of sufficient income.

Educational migration

Migration of young people to cities for education.

The possibility of obtaining higher or secondary specialized education.

The absence of higher and secondary specialized educational institutions.

Seasonal labor migration

Migration to agricultural enterprises for harvesting, planting crops, working on construction sites and logging in rural areas, mainly during the warmer months.

The opportunity to earn money.

Low wages, lack of work.

Socio-economic migration

Urban residents moving to rural areas for economic (starting a business) or psychological reasons (the desire to change the situation).

The opportunity to open and run a business related to agriculture, a comfortable living environment, proximity to nature.

Stress, a hard rhythm of life, an unfavorable environmental situation.

Religious migration

Going to monasteries located in rural areas.

The possibility of solitude, service to God.

Stress, an unfavorable psychological state.

Return migration

Returning to the places of their birth or former residence of city residents for economic or socio-psychological reasons (the desire to change the situation, moving to their parents or relatives).

The opportunity to open and run a business related to agriculture, a comfortable living environment, proximity to nature, family reunification.

Stress, a hard rhythm of life, an unfavorable environmental situation, separation from relatives.

External ethnic migration

Moving to a permanent place of residence of migrants from abroad, as a rule, relatives or families from the same area or locality.

The opportunity to live compactly in a circle of relatives and a familiar socio-cultural environment, the opportunity to farm.

Low wages, lack of work, conflicts.

Suburban migration

Arrival of urban residents to rural areas for temporary residence (several days, weeks, months), as a rule, during the summer period.

The opportunity to relax, proximity to nature, favorable environmental conditions.

Stress, a hard rhythm of life, an unfavorable environmental situation.

Mobilization migration

Migration related to the mobilization and conscription of men of military age and subject to mobilization.

Payments, civil debt.

Low wages, lack of work, loans.

 

Trends in rural migration in Russia. The analysis of data on the dynamics of the rural population in the ethnonational regions of the Russian Federation in 2010-2022 allows us to identify three types of regions that are uneven in number in terms of the effectiveness of changes in the rural population: regions with an increase, with a stable number and with a decrease in the rural population (Table 2).

Table 2. Dynamics of the rural population in the ethnonational regions of the Russian Federation in 2010-2022, thousand people

The subject of the Russian Federation

2010

2022

Growth (decrease) in 2022-2010

Regions with an increasing rural population (6 regions)

Republic of Dagestan

1594

1759

+165

Republic of the Chechen Republic

823

948

+125

The Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria

391

435

+44

Republic of Adygea

216

254

+38

Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug

130

134

+4

Republic of Karachay-Cherkessia

270

274

+4

Regions with stable rural population (1 region)

Chukotka Autonomous Okrug

14

14

0

Regions with a declining rural population (19 regions)

The Republic of Tatarstan

932

930

-2

Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug

80

78

-2

Nenets Autonomous Okrug

13

10

-3

Altai Republic

149

145

-4

Republic of Tyva

155

150

-5

The Republic of Buryatia

404

398

-6

Republic of North Ossetia – Alania

258

250

-8

Republic of Khakassia

174

166

-8

Komi Republic

176

162

-14

The Jewish region

57

43

-14

The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

343

327

-16

The Republic of Ingushetia  

254

234

-20

Republic of Kalmykia

161

140

-21

The Republic of Udmurtia

469

438

-31

Republic of Karelia

141

106

-35

Republic of Mari El

256

209

-47

Republic of Mordovia

330

280

-50

Republic of Bashkortostan

1610

1535

-75

The Republic of Chuvashia

515

418

-97

Source: [1, 15]

The group of regions with an increasing rural population includes five subjects, most of them located in the North Caucasus. The Republic of Dagestan had the largest increase in the rural population during the study period, where the increase was 10.4% or 165 thousand people (an increase from 1,594 thousand to 1,759 thousand). In the Chechen Republic, the rural population increased by 15.2% or 125 thousand people (from 823 thousand to 948 thousand). These regions receive population growth in rural regions due to natural growth, primarily due to the high birth rate in rural families. At the same time, the outflow of migrant workers and young people to work and study in large cities is noted in the villages. The population also increased in Kabardino-Balkaria (44 thousand) and North Ossetia-Alania (38 thousand), as well as slightly in Karachay-Cherkessia and KhMAO (4 thousand people each).  

The group of regions with a stable rural population is represented by only one ethnonational entity - the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, in which the population remained at the level of 14 thousand people. The migration outflow of the population in search of education and work is generally compensated by natural growth.

The largest group of regions with a declining rural population includes 19 subjects. The spread of absolute data is significant. The minimum decrease was noted in the Republic of Tatarstan, where the rural population decreased by only 0.2: or 2 thousand people (from 932 thousand to 930 thousand). In the Republic of Karelia, the decrease was 24.8% or 35 thousand people (from 141 thousand to 106 thousand), and in the Republic of Mari El 18.4% or 47 thousand people (from 256 thousand to 209 thousand). The maximum absolute decrease was noted in the Republic of Chuvashia by 18.8% or 97 thousand people (from 515 thousand to 418 thousand). Most regions of this group are characterized by significant migration losses, as well as natural population decline.

Demographic and socio-economic consequences of rural migration for the Russian Federation. It is obvious that rural migration provokes a whole range of changes that have an economic, socio-cultural, demographic and infrastructural dimension. This process has both positive and negative sides. However, they require unconditional monitoring in order to develop effective strategies for managing territorial development and migration, which will ensure the sustainable development of rural areas and settlements in the Russian Federation. Let's highlight the key consequences in the context of rural migration flows.

Firstly, the impact of the migration outflow of the population on rural areas and settlements. For example, in the Republic of Karelia, there is a significant migration outflow of rural youth from Petrozavodsk, St. Petersburg and Moscow in search of educational and labor opportunities in cities. This leads to an aging population in rural areas, a reduction in the number of labor resources, deterioration of agricultural conditions, lack of opportunity to introduce innovations and advanced technologies, loss of social optimism of the population in rural regions. This is due to the fact that young people are the bearers of change and most quickly perceive and disseminate innovations and advanced digital technologies.

In the Republic of Chuvashia, migration outflow provoked a decrease in economic activity and deterioration of social infrastructure, as the outflow of the rural population of working age reduced the tax base, led to the closure of educational institutions, medical institutions and retail outlets. Migration outflow has also weakened the economic potential of rural areas, aggravated the demographic crisis and contributed to the degradation of rural areas.

Secondly, the impact of the migration influx of external migrants to rural areas and settlements in Russia. Labor migration from Tajikistan to some rural regions of Central Russia and the Urals contributed to the demographic development of rural areas, led to an increase in the population and the number of children in schools, which helped not only preserve but also develop social infrastructure. At the same time, the ethnic composition of settlements is changing significantly in favor of people from Tajikistan. For example, in the Tver region, Tajik migration in some villages has contributed to filling vacancies in the agricultural sector, where there is often a shortage of local labor. Tajik migrants contribute to the development of local agriculture by increasing yields and supporting economic activity in the region. Sometimes the integration of migrants is accompanied by some conflict with local residents.

The resettlement of communities of Old Believers from Latin America (Uruguay, Brazil, Bolivia) to rural areas of the Far East (primarily the Amur Region and Primorsky Krai) was accompanied by the development of a farming type of agriculture. Old Believers looking for places to preserve their traditions and way of life often settle in secluded and sparsely populated rural areas. They make a significant contribution to the maintenance of life and development of rural areas, including through agricultural activities and the preservation of the cultural landscape.

Both examples illustrate the interaction between migration processes and rural areas, emphasizing the importance of a competent migration policy and the need to create conditions for the successful integration of migrants and the preservation of the unique cultural heritage of national communities.

Thirdly, the impact of the migration influx of rural population to Russian cities. Rural migration to large and regional centers of Russia, including cities in ethnonational regions, entails significant changes in the economic, socio-cultural and infrastructural aspects of life. For example, in Ufa, the capital of Bashkortostan, the arrival of migrants from rural areas contributed to the growth of entrepreneurial activity and an increase in the supply of labor in the labor market. Small and medium-sized enterprises founded by visitors diversify the economic landscape of the city.

The socio-cultural appearance of cities is also undergoing changes. In Kazan, the capital of Tatarstan, the rich culture of the Tatar village population is adjacent to the diversity of the cultural life of the city. Migrants contribute to cultural diversity by opening national cafes, organizing cultural events, which contributes to social consolidation and interethnic harmony.

Demographic growth associated with rural migration is visible in Makhachkala, the capital of the Republic of Dagestan, where the active arrival of the rural population stimulates the construction of new housing and the development of social infrastructure. Population growth requires new approaches from the city authorities to the development of educational and medical systems in connection with an actively increasing population.

Infrastructure changes are visible in Cheboksary, the capital of the Chuvash Republic, where rural migration stimulates the development of transport infrastructure and housing construction. Economic growth and changes in the social structure require a new approach to urban planning.

Discussion. Migration from rural areas to cities in the ethnonational regions of Russia not only transforms life in the cities themselves, but also provides migrants with new opportunities for realization, while the recipient regions gain the necessary impetus for development and modernization.

Rural migration from ethnonational subjects to regional centers of Russia also poses challenges that require careful analysis and the development of appropriate strategies. In order to ensure sustainable development and optimal use of the potential of rural migrants, it is necessary to take into account the development of strategies for attracting rural migrants. Development strategies should include adaptation programs, financial support, educational and highly professional courses, as well as entrepreneurship support programs. This can make the move more favorable for most migrants.

Another aspect is the elimination of migration-related challenges, such as difficulties with housing, access to public services and workers' rights. Regional centers should work more actively to eliminate these challenges, including providing affordable housing, improving the system of public services, and respecting labor rights.

Strengthening cooperation between regional and federal authorities is another aspect for effective management of rural migration. Policy coordination, information exchange and financial assistance from the federal leadership can facilitate the adaptation of migrants and help regional authorities.

Actions aimed at addressing the current challenges associated with rural migration, together with the development of appropriate cooperation strategies, can contribute to better adaptation of rural migrants and help them more effectively use their potential for the development of cities, regions and the State.

Conclusion. Rural migration in general has a positive economic impact on regional centers, contributing to an increase in the labor force, the development of entrepreneurship and the development of the consumer market. This creates new opportunities for economic development and maintaining the sustainability of the regions.

The socio-cultural diversity brought by rural migrants enriches the cultural environment of regional centers and contributes to the development of educational and cultural institutions. Migrants integrate into local society, creating many socio-cultural contacts and enriching the cultural heritage of the regions. However, rural migration also presents challenges and challenges. Thus, the lack of affordable housing, especially during periods of population growth, can lead to social instability. The education and health systems are under additional pressure, and investments are required to expand and improve them.

Strengthening cooperation between regional and federal authorities plays an important role in the successful management of rural migration. Only joint efforts will make it possible to develop and implement policies and programs that contribute to the successful adaptation of migrants and the development of regions. Rural migration from ethnonational subjects to regional centers of Russia is a complex and constantly changing phenomenon that has a significant impact on various aspects of life and development both in rural areas and in cities. The process covers economic, socio-cultural, demographic and infrastructural aspects and requires research and monitoring.

Rural migration remains an urgent and important topic, and further research in this area contributes to the development of more effective development and integration strategies, ensuring a sustainable future for both rural areas and large Russian cities.

 

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The subject of the research in the presented article is migration in rural areas of ethnonational regions of the Russian Federation, taking into account trends and consequences. As the methodology of the subject area of the study, theoretical methods were used in this article, including the descriptive method; the method of categorization; the method of analysis, as well as the statistical method and the author's methods of evaluating indicators and results. The relevance of the article is beyond doubt, since migration from rural areas to cities is a common phenomenon and has a significant impact on the socio-economic and demographic development of the Russian Federation. Rural migration to cities, on the one hand, is a complex socio-demographic phenomenon that reflects the process of urbanization. On the other hand, the migration outflow of rural residents, primarily young people, to cities is facilitated by negative pushing factors, namely the lack of jobs, low wages, the collapse of social infrastructure, and the lack of social services. The key negative consequences of this type of migration are the "leaching" of labor resources, reproductive population and youth from rural areas, which in turn leads to a slowdown in the pace of socio-economic development of rural areas. The scientific novelty of the study lies in assessing the scale and consequences of rural migration in the ethnonational regions of Russia, as well as in solving the following research tasks: firstly, in developing a methodology for assessing the scale and assessing the socio-economic and demographic consequences of rural migration for Russian regions; secondly, in assessing and mapping demographic processes in rural areas areas of the Russian regions; thirdly, in the development of recommendations for improving approaches to managing rural migration in the interests of socio-economic and demographic development of the country. The article is presented in the language of scientific style with a very competent use in the text of the study of the presentation of a number of positions and approaches of scientists to the current problem under study, as well as the use of scientific terminology on the topic of research. The structure is designed taking into account the basic requirements for writing scientific articles. The structure of this study includes an introduction, approaches to the study of rural migration, methods, theoretical and methodological basis of the study, results (description of trends in rural migration in Russia and demographic and socio-economic consequences of rural migration for the Russian Federation), discussion, conclusion and bibliography. The content of the article reflects its structure. In particular, the article provides tables that very clearly reflect the results of the study. The description of the discussion points is especially valuable in the content of the study. In particular, it was noted that rural migration from ethnonational subjects to regional centers of Russia also poses challenges that require careful analysis and the development of appropriate strategies. To ensure sustainable development and optimal use of the potential of rural migrants, it is necessary to take into account the development of strategies for attracting rural migrants. Development strategies should include adaptation programs, financial support, educational and highly professional courses, as well as entrepreneurship support programs. This can make the move more favorable for most migrants. The bibliography contains 15 sources, including domestic periodicals and non-periodicals, as well as foreign sources, electronic resources and official websites. The article describes the various positions and points of view of different scientists characterizing various aspects of rural migration, its problematic points, trends and consequences, and also contains an appeal to various scientific works and sources devoted to this topic, which is part of the scientific interests of researchers dealing with this issue. The presented study contains the main conclusions concerning the subject area of the study. In particular, the study showed that rural migration in general has a positive economic impact on regional centers, contributing to an increase in the labor force, the development of entrepreneurship and the development of the consumer market. This creates new opportunities for economic development and maintaining the sustainability of the regions. The materials of this study are intended for a wide range of readers, they can be interesting and used by scientists for scientific purposes, teaching staff in the educational process, government and municipal employees, analysts in the preparation of reference materials, explanatory notes and reviews on the stated topic. As disadvantages in this article, it is necessary to note a large number of typos and technical errors in the text, as well as the incorrect design of the bibliography, which should be designed in accordance with the requirements of the current GOST of bibliographic descriptions. This is especially true for the design of sources representing official websites and electronic resources listed in the bibliography. These recommendations do not reduce the high scientific significance of the study itself, but rather relate to the design of the text of the article. However, it is recommended to return the article for revision in order to promptly eliminate the shortcomings, especially

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for the article Migration in rural areas of the ethnonational regions of the Russian Federation: trends and consequences, the title corresponds to the content of the article materials. The title of the article reveals a scientific problem, which the author's research is aimed at solving. The reviewed article is of scientific interest. The author explained the choice of the research topic and justified its relevance. The article formulates the purpose of the study, clearly identifies the object and subject of the study, and the methods used by the author. In the opinion of the reviewer, the main elements of the "program" of the study can be seen in the title and text of the article. The author presented the results of the analysis of the historiography of the problem and outlined the novelty of the undertaken research. In presenting the material, the author demonstrated the results of the analysis of the historiography of the problem in the form of links to relevant works on the research topic. The author described the range of sources involved in the disclosure of the topic, explained and justified the choice of the geographical scope of the study. In the opinion of the reviewer, the author correctly used the sources, maintained the scientific style of presentation, competently used the methods of scientific knowledge, but followed the principles of logic, systematics and consistency of presentation of the material. In the introduction of the article, the author thoroughly justified the relevance of the research topic, described the key elements of the "program" of his research, as well as the approaches used in the study of rural migration in modern Russian scientific literature. In the main part of the article, the author turned to the description of the key types of rural migration, highlighting temporary commercial, educational, seasonal labor, suburban, external ethnic. The author presented the types of rural migration "in modern Russian conditions, depending on the goals and characteristics" in the form of a table. In the following table, the author offered the reader the results of an analysis of the dynamics of the rural population in the ethnonational regions of the Russian Federation in 2010-2022. The author has identified groups of regions with an increase in the rural population, with a stable rural population and with a decrease in the rural population (the latter includes 19 subjects of the Russian Federation). The author concluded that "rural migration provokes a whole range of changes that have an economic, socio-cultural, demographic and infrastructural dimension," and highlighted "key consequences in the context of rural migration flows": "firstly, the impact of migration outflow on rural areas and settlements," etc., "secondly, the impact of the migration influx of external migrants to rural areas and settlements of Russia,"etc., "thirdly, the impact of the migration influx of rural population to Russian cities," etc. The author reasonably stated that "migration from rural areas to cities of ethnonational regions of Russia not only transforms life in the cities themselves, but also provides migrants with new opportunities to implement, while the recipient regions are gaining the necessary momentum for development and modernization," that "rural migration from ethnonational subjects to regional centers of Russia also carries challenges that require careful analysis and the development of appropriate strategies," etc. Then the author suggested that "regional centers should work more actively to eliminate these challenges including providing affordable housing, improving the system of public services, respecting labor rights, etc. There are typos in the article, such as: "In his work, the author", "permanent", "special", etc. The author's conclusions are generalizing, justified, and formulated clearly. The conclusions allow us to evaluate the scientific achievements of the author within the framework of his research. In the final paragraphs of the article, the author reported that "rural migration in general has a positive economic impact on regional centers, contributing to an increase in the labor force, the development of entrepreneurship and the development of the consumer market," etc., that "the socio-cultural diversity brought by rural migrants enriches the cultural environment of regional centers and contributes to the development of educational and cultural institutions," etc. Then the author He said that "strengthening cooperation between regional and federal authorities plays an important role in the successful management of rural migration," etc. that "rural migration from ethnonational subjects to regional centers of Russia is a complex and constantly changing phenomenon that has a significant impact on various aspects of life and development both in rural areas and in cities The author summarized that "rural migration remains an urgent and important topic, and further research in this area contributes to the development of more effective development and integration strategies, ensuring a sustainable future for both rural areas and large Russian cities." In the reviewer's opinion, the potential purpose of the study has been achieved by the author. The publication may arouse the interest of the magazine's audience.
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