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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Urban Studies" > Contents of Issue № 04/2017
Contents of Issue № 04/2017
Озеленение и парковое хозяйство
Dorozhkina E.A. - Constructive issues of “green” architecture pp. 1-11

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2017.4.24150

Abstract: “Green” architecture receives more and more popularity around the globe. In such case, the metropolises urban development is no exception. There are multiple reasons, among the main ones, is the need for increase of beautification of contemporary urban development, environmentalization of the surroundings by means of forming the additional landscaped spaces. Thus, the established archetype of the environment must undergo transformation. Due to this fact, the typical design of urban development cannot fully meet the modern requirements, because first and foremost, it is oriented towards the increase of urban density.  In the context of forming the objects of “green” architecture, the design (both, architectural planning and engineering technical) is aimed at creating the buildings and constructs that simultaneously meet multiple demands: sustainability, reliability, durability, and environmental constraints. Currently, methods of mass “green” architecture and the corresponding technical base remain underdeveloped, which leads to the need for implementing the individual solutions that will consider the assemblage of all factors. Surface landscaping, exploitation, and beautification of special environment drastically changes the functional-engineering nature of development project, formal and constructive concept of the element of a building, putting them in the position of specific architectural, landscaping, and city-planning objects that demand a full project design. Therefore, formation of the architecture of urban development must take into account the peculiarities of “green” object.
Градостроение
Ordynskaya Y., Kozyrenko N.E. - City-planning systems of the China-Russia border zone pp. 12-19

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2017.4.24293

Abstract: The subject of this research is the city-planning system of the China-Russia border zone, which development marks the two parallel directions associated with the trend and rates of development of the adjacent countries: active city-forming process in China’s territory and depressive state of the urban and rural settlement in Russia. In the Far Easter regions is noticed a decrease in population size across the entire bordering region and “focal” character of settlement along the border with low density of population. On the Chinese side, over a short period of time (policy of rural urbanization), the vast uninhabited territories were simultaneously populated by peasants, which led to emergence of the cities alongside the sparsely populated villages. A distinct Chinese policy of resettlement is reflected in direction of the “urbanization from below” (rural urbanization), due to which the finely-divided structure surpasses the entire territory of the Northeast of China. All of the bordering settlements form the systems of various level of development. For highlighting the peculiarities of formation of the transboundary systems of resettlement, the author apply factor analysis and system method; for determining the dynamics of urbanization and migration flows – the statistical method. The method of cartographic analysis is used for studying the processes of current resettlement on the territories of Far Eastern Region and Northeast of China. This article is first to analyze and determine the typological groups of resettlement systems common to the China-Russia border zone – agglomeration, transborder agglomeration, national systems of resettlement, transboundary systems of resettlement. The crisis state of Russian settlements and active development of the Chinese settlements necessitates the formulation of principles, which allow forecasting their further development. As a result of this research, it is established  that under the influence of certain economic, geopolitical, demographic, and social factors, the existing structure of resettlements in the transboundary zone and range of its impact (south of Far East) will transform.
Малые города
Zhigaltsova T. - Descriptive and emotional perception of the architectural spatial environment of a small arctic city pp. 20-27

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2017.4.24519

Abstract: This article examines the image of a small arctic city and the architectural spatial environment based o the survey results of the dwellers of Far North. As an example is taken the city of Nikel in Murmansk Region that is located in arctic zone of the Russian Federation. The goal of this work consists in researching the place of residence; determination of correlation between the image of a city and the residence time; gender and age of residents; identification of places of emotional attachment; compiling a map of polar emotopia – favored and disfavored places among the dwellers of Nikel. The source base of this work is comprised by the results of anonymous survey conducted in January of 2017 among the local residents. The author makes a conclusion on the ned for implementing preventative measures in the places of emotional attachment with the help of converting the negative emotions into positive pertinent to the particular city loci and space overall for the purpose of preserving and strengthening the mental and psycho-emotional environment of a small city.
Socioculture
Svinoboev A.N., Neustroeva A.B. - Change of climate and living conditions in the North in perception of the indigenous population pp. 28-39

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2017.4.24619

Abstract: This article presents the separate aspects of possible change of climate and living conditions as a result of economic activity of a man under the circumstances of the spread of permafrost within the boundaries of rural settlements. Special attention is given to observations of the indigenous population of Sakha Republic (Yakutia) with regards to changes taking place over the recent decade in climate and cryogenic landforms, as well as their impact upon the residential construction, farm buildings, and rural landscape. As an area of research the authors selected the transfluvial districts of the Sakha Republic appurtenant to Leno-Amginsk Interfluve and occupying the southeastern suburb of the Central Yakut Lowland. The authors explored the residential construction, housing of the respondents, and farming buildings, as well as carried out a patterned interview with the members of the households. The socioeconomic development of such northern region as Sakha Republic (Yakutia) strongly depends on the climatic and geographical factors. The indigenous population, engaged in the traditional natural resource managements and agriculture, is first to face the climate changes. Residents of region, especially from the rural area, in the arctic and northern regions always observe the weather changes, because their economic activity directly depends upon. At the same time, of great interest are the issues of adaptation of the ingenious population towards the occurring transformations and the attitude to climatic processes.
Architecture and Environment
Malykh S.V. - The role of outdoor advertising in establishment of a city image pp. 40-47

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2017.4.24680

Abstract: The subject of this article is the image of Irkutsk in perception of its residents through the images and forms of outdoor advertising placed in various districts of the city. The author examines the forms and types of the impact of advertising upon the social and territorial identity and perceptual unity of the urban environment. Special attention is given to the social and commercial advertising, evaluation of aggressiveness and harmonization of social space through the advertising images. The author also underlines the difference in perceiving advertising messages by males and females. The study applies the method of expert survey that consisted of 46 expert interviews of the representatives of government and business involved on advertising and advertising structures, as well as polling of 1,200 residents of Irkutsk. The scientific novelty lies in carrying out the analysis of outdoor advertising of the urban space of Irkutsk, determining the nationwide trends, and demonstrating the territorial peculiarities.
Culture and authorities
Polyushkevich O.A., Borisova Y.V., Popova M.V. - Technology of development of the city brand (on the example of Angarsk urban district) pp. 48-62

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2017.4.24022

Abstract: The subject of this research is the technology of creating a city brand. The work considers the theoretical insights existing in the world and Russia that reveal the tasks, technologies and tools of territorial branding. The article gives a systematic development strategy (of the tasks set in the beginning of research) and their practical implementation (through the developed brand concepts) of a concert municipal formation (Angarsk urban district). The authors describe the key idea of Angarsk brand and the form of its implementation in the practice of municipality, business representatives and city residents. The main result of this work consists in combining the theoretical scheme, set tasks and practical implementation of the development of city brand in practice of the municipality. The value of this work lies in the step-by-step analysis of technological task card, which allows obtaining the desired product – the city brand concept based on representations of the residents, existing eidetic memory of the city, forms and mechanism of application of such phenomenon in the course of city development.
Microsociology
Anosov S.S. - The specificity of civic initiatives in the cities of Irkutsk Region pp. 63-69

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2017.4.24589

Abstract: The subject of this research is the civic initiatives realized in the cities of Irkutsk Region. The author examines the expert evaluation of civic initiatives by the participants of such events, as well as provides the data of the public opinion poll regarding the inclusion into the activity of civic initiatives and assessment of its efficiency. Particular attention is given to the essential characteristics of civic initiatives that testify to the uneven development of civil society in the cities of Irkutsk Region. The author specifically reviews the assessment and forms of perception of successfulness and unsuccessfulness of the realized initiatives, when in accordance to the author’s opinion along with the experts and population, the result can be evaluated based on the positive result (when the participants have achieved their goal), as well as negative (when the goal has not been achieved, but caused public response or other reactions. Methodology implies expert survey and questionnaire. The latter involved 900 females and 300 males in the age of 18-75, with different level of education and professional status, as well as financial income or social status. The expert survey involved 12 people, selected based on the criterion of participation in the regional civic initiatives (of minimum 10 per year). The scientific novelty consists in analysis of the assessment of the performance of civic activists, participants of civic initiatives by themselves and the society. Civic initiatives in the cities of Irkutsk Region help solving the issues that the municipal and regional authorities do not deal with. Participation in civil initiatives develops the skills of self-organization, cooperation, and socially responsible behavior.
Kovrigina G.D. - Specificity of mentality of the residents of small cities of Siberia pp. 70-77

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2017.4.24622

Abstract: The subject of this research is the mentality of the residents of small cities of Siberia. The author meticulously examines the residents of small cities of Irkutsk, Kemerovo, and Krasnoyarsk Regions, indicates the key features of the Siberian mentality justified by the historical and cultural traditions of the regions, as well as social and political processes that create the modern framework for the development of Siberian territories. The article refers to the basic part of the establishment of mentality, constant in time and space, and temporary local circumstances that emphasize certain peculiarities of Siberian mentality. The research involved 2,400 respondents in the age of 18-75, who have been residing in the small cities of Siberia (Zima, Shelekhov, Sayansk, Baykalsk, Yeniseysk, Zheleznogorsk, Sosnovoborsk, Uyar, Guryevsk, Kaltan, Myski, and Tayga) for five or more years. As the main conclusion, the author listed the following distinct features of mentality inherent to the residents of small cities of Siberia: values of territorial identity form the foundation of the mentality of Siberians; limited vertical mobility; manifestation of the traditional features of Russian culture (collectivism and paternalism); special attitude to the social institutions – government, religion, and family.
Проектирование и архитектура
Podkovyrina K.A., Podkovyrin V.S., Nazirov R.A. - Peculiarities of engineering of buildings and structures in the northern latitudes from the perspective of structural physics pp. 78-85

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2017.4.24964

Abstract:   This article provides the basic principles that must be adhered to for establishing the comfortable indoor microclimate and ensuring the longevity of building structures in designing the residential and public buildings in the northern latitudes. The authors analyse the issues associated with the inappropriate account of physical processes within the building envelopes and structures in the severe natural and climatic conditions, such as low temperatures the whole year, long polar night and polar day, reduces air humidity in the central part of the Far North, strong winds and snowstorms. The article describes the consequences of the negative impact of inadmissible parameters of indoor microclimate upon the human health, named the “sick building syndrome”. The work presents the review of the literature on building engineering in the northern latitudes, which demonstrated that the majority of the articles are dedicated to the use of effective construction supplies, as well as peculiarities of engineering of buildings from the standpoint of architecture and structural engineering. The questions of consideration of the physics of environment and building envelopes are covered insufficiently.   
Культурное наследие
Frolova E.V., Rogach O.V. - Expectations and preferences of Russian tourists within the framework of cultural-educational excursions through Russian cities pp. 86-94

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2017.4.22948

Abstract:  Cultural-educational tourism represents an important sphere of sociocultural communication and cultural self-determination of people, realized through acquaintances during the tourist excursions with the historical and cultural heritage of different cities. From the economic perspective, cultural-educational tourism becomes the factor that substantiates the dynamics and scale of the socioeconomic development of the territories. The goal of this work consists on evaluation of the level of content of the various social groups with the tourism services received in terms of cultural-educational trips through the Russian cities. The leading methods of this study is the questionnaire-based survey that allowed revealing the preferences of the respondents from various social groups on basic components that form the level of content of the Russian citizens with tourist trips through the Russian cities. In the course of this research, the authors established the dependence between the level of accomplished trips through the Russian cities and the level of satisfaction of the Russian citizens with the quality of tourism services of the domestic segment of tourism industry. The article presents the analysis of issued faced by the tourists during travelling, among which are the insufficient level of infrastructure development in Russian cities, discontent with the variety of entertainment programs, lack of services offered in a tour package. At the same time, the authors note that more Russians value the historical and cultural heritage of the Russian cities, give high evaluation to organization of public festivities and possibility to adhere to national folk traditions, as well as enjoy the quality of folk crafts.  
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