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Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue № 10/2017
Contents of Issue № 10/2017
Theory and methodology of history
Gerasimov G.I. - The past as an object of history pp. 1-19

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.10.24068

Abstract: The subject of the study is the historical past, which, depending on the historian's ideological position, is either absent or appears as an objectively existing reality.The work is based on the principles of historicism and reliability, a whole set of methods is the methodological basis, among which it is necessary to highlight study and generalization, deduction and induction, abstraction, understanding, etc.From the positions of the idealistic approach, which the author adheres to, there is no real past. The past is a subjective image of a reality that it could be without those changes that took place with it later.The past is the fundamental concept of human thinking, which regulates the chaos of the real world in consciousness, in accordance with the main ideological ideas of the historian. An ideology determines not only a theoretical approach to explaining historical facts, but also actively participates in the process of creating the facts themselves. The idea always precedes the facts and participates in their creation.The scientific novelty of the research is the author's approach: the past is viewed from the point of view of the idealistic approach, according to which the historian does not so much study how much the past creates, relying on certain methods and his own worldview.The main conclusion of the article is that history influences a person to the extent that he allows to do this, and since modern man shares belief in virtue of the power of the past, history is actively considered as a way of controlling people, manipulating their actions.
Evolution, reform, revolution
Moiseeva L.A. - Innovative entrepreneurship as a unrealized prospect of Russia’s politics during reform period of the late XX century pp. 20-30

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.10.23940

Abstract: The subject of this research is the innovative entrepreneurship as a factor of transition towards the innovative economy – the unrealized opportunities of the Russian reform period in the late XX century. Based on the modern historical knowledge, the article examines the theory of innovative entrepreneurship of the foreign and Russian scholars from metaphysical to contemporary behavioristic and psychosocial. The author describes the three “waves” in development of the theory of innovative functions of entrepreneurs reflected in a number of aspects of the conceptual constructs of the representatives of Austrian, German, French, and Dutch schools. The article demonstrates the specificity of theories of the Russian scholars that depicts the rapid formation of the new Russian entrepreneurship that is forced to lean not upon the national entrepreneurial culture, values and traditions, but interact with the business world of a foreign culture. The scientific novelty lies in revealing the structural-functional nature of the modern Russian entrepreneurship alongside the new unrealized functions of the state, which led to the large and dangerous historical delay that resulted in preservation of the technological backwardness and collapse of economy. At the same time, the scientific and technological innovations possess the specific functions: disrupting the ever-aging technological stability of production, they generate the structural shifts that allow defining the innovations as a factor of self-development of the entrepreneurial system. The author introduces the model of innovation development of economic system, the main conditions of which are the all-round promotion of innovation and experimentation at all levels and all departments of the corporation; establishment of a specific creative atmosphere; orientation of all innovation activity towards the social needs and national security.
History of regions of Russia
Dementev A.P., Kattsina T.A. - Social policy of the committees of general security and the Soviets in Yeniseisk governorate (March – May 1917) pp. 31-42

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.10.24175

Abstract: The current article deals with the measures taken by the committees of general security and the Soviets of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies in order to improve the living conditions of the citizens of Yeniseisk governorate in March – May 1917. The comparison of revolutionary organizations’ social policies is vital for understanding the causes of institutional shifts, which led to the Soviets getting citizens’ support. While the Soviets took the power in October-November 1917, the committees lost all their democratic potential. This issue has not been properly investigated in the historiography. The current objective research is provided with the help of systematic and comparative-historical approaches. The presented information concerning the social policy is based on the analysis of published and unpublished documents, as well as periodical press data. The analysis shows that the coalition nature of the committees caused the class compromise policy and evasion of discussion of the problems, which could have brought disagreement in the society. The main measures of their social policy were help to amnestied political and criminal exiles and welfare for the soldiers’ families. The committees’ revaluation of goods in the uyezds’ cities was conducted under the control and help of the Soviets. On the other hand, the Soviets, while being under pressure of workers' and soldiers' deputies, concentrated on populist measures, such as 8-hour work day and revaluation of goods in the governorate centre, which guaranteed them public support. The data presented in the paper specifies and extends the scientific knowledge of the organizations’ policy, creates new opportunities for further comparative-historical researches of Siberia.
Tatarnikova A.I., Zagorodnyuk N.I. - The network of settlements in the Kondinskiy district of the Ural region according to the census of 1926 pp. 43-54

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.10.24105

Abstract: The subject of this research is the network of settlements of Kondinskiy district of the Tobolsk district of the Urals region. The object is spatial distribution, typology, size and infrastructure of its settlements. Sources for the study of the development of the settlement network of the area were the materials of the Circumpolar census of population of 1926-1927 and lists of localities of the Tobolsk district of the Urals region on October 1, 1926. The analysis of the sources helped to identify the location of settlements relative to water sources. The authors concluded that the settlements were located along rivers at a great distance from each other. The typology of the settlement network was dominated by this type of settlement as "derevnya". The number of "selo" and "vyselok" (the settlement outside the village) is slightly. The settlements outside the village were formed in the course of commercial activities of the population. Settlements in the area were small and amounted, on average, 11 households, 41 person. They had a chaotic structure of buildings, streets and alleys were absent. The social infrastructure of settlements of the area was poorly developed, the village council of Nakhrachi, which was the administrative center of Kondinskiy district, had all the elements of infrastructure (school, medical point, post office, commercial establishments).
Moiseeva L.A. - Subjects of the Russian Far East of the early XXI century: policy of selecting the ways of joint development (from the perspective of modern historical knowledge) pp. 55-69

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.10.24109

Abstract: The subject of this research is the ways of internal integration of the nine subjects of the Russian Far East as a factor of implementation of the strategic task of Russia’s integration into the Pacific Rim. The methodological framework applies following principles: historicism – for reconstructing the past, studying the present, and historical vision of the future; objectivity – for the comprehensive “multi-aspect”  consideration of the question after defining of its borders; comparative-historical – for analyzing the historical process in dynamics; alternativeness – for examining the various historical concepts; determinism – for identifying the universal regularities, causative substantiation of all phenomena of the historical paradigm; plausibility – in using diverse types of sources (statistical, written, Internet materials, works of foreign and national authors, etc.) for proposing the author’s concept. The scientific novelty consists in articulation of the topic of research that allowed demonstrating that the rapid escalation of territorial differentiation of the subjects of the Russian Federation in the Far East, weakening of the production ties between them, generated the chain of regional and local crises, which worsened the situation of isolation of the Far East from the more consistently developing central regions. Such negative trends resulted in the increase of threshold indexes leading to disturbance of the political, social, and economic stability that caused a mass outflow of the economically active population from the region. The author believes that the independent achievement by the subjects of Russian Federation of the direct cooperation with business world of the Pacific Rim turn developed into the pillage of natural resources of the Far East. The conceptual conclusion of this research includes the thesis that without the “codevelopment” of the subjects of Russian Far East with the Pacific Rim states (due to a specific geopolitical location of the region) it was impossible to retain the independence of the Pacific suburb of Russia.
History and historical science
Venikova M.S. - Institutionalization and educational activities of the public universities in Imperial Russia pp. 70-81

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.10.24134

Abstract: This article examines the history of institutionalization and work of the  people's universities (at initial stage) of Imperial Russia. The research is conducted in the context of general problem of the establishment of civil society in Imperial Russia in the late XIX – early XX centuries. In modern Russia, after a sustained period of time, emerges a similar social transformation, which determines the relevance of the existing historical experience and scientific research on this topic. The object of the study is the people's universities that existed in Russia as public organizations (or - NCOs in the modern interpretation). The subject of research is determined by the characteristics provided in scientific literature of the people’s universities in Imperial Russia as the public institutions. One of such characteristics reflects the sociological views and considers the people's universities as institutions of civil society. Another one reflects the view  upon the people's universities as a phenomenon of the history of pedagogy and education, as well as defines them as a form of extracurricular education for adults. Proceeding from the first definition, the subject of research implies studying the forms and methods of self-organization, self-management and self-financing of the people's universities. The purpose of the study lies in the identification of the people's universities of Imperial Russia as the institutions of civil society, as well as revelation of the specific historical features in self-organization of these institutions. The author establishes the presence of common features in the creation and operation of the Societies of People's Universities that are characteristic for determining the presence of the developing civil society at the turn of the XIX and XX centuries in Russia. The materials of the first all-Russian congress of members of the Societies of People's Universities and other privately initiated educational facilities are analyzed. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that the author carries out a gradual (rather than fragmentary) comparison of the capital and provincial universities in terms of the basic parameters and characteristics. The characteristic of the phenomenon of people's universities leans not only the a priori (although unquestioned) judgments, but also on the comprehensive analysis of specific forms and manifestations of their self-organization, self-management and self-funding.
History of science and technology
Brovina A. - Scientific research of the territory of the European Northeast of Russia in the XX century: information potential of personal funds of the scientists of Komi Scientific Center of Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences pp. 82-101

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.10.24226

Abstract:  The subject of this research is the historical role of the scientific community in the cognition and development of the northern territories of Russia. The object is the information potential of personal funds of the scientists in the context of scientific development of the northern territories of Russia in the XX century. The author examines the documentary heritage of scientists of the European Northeast of Russia in the XX century, preserved in the funds of the Scientific Archive of Komi Scientific Center of Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Particular attention is paid to the funds that reflect the development of the key scientific areas for studying the northern territories – the history of geological, biological and humanitarian research. Examination of the personal funds of scientists of a particular region is a relevant trend in studying the archive funds, which is associated with keeping the modern documentary systems in the archives that allow preserving the knowledge of an individual of a specific historical era, as well as capturing mental peculiarities of the society. The conducted analysis is of great interest for the historians of science for studying the major milestones of life and creative path of the scientists, as well as contribute into the development of Russian science. Author’s special contribution lies in the introduction into the scientific circulation of the vast documentary complex of personal origin that indicates the input of the scientific community towards cognition and development of the northern territories of Russia. It is determined that the personal funds of scientists may differ in quantitative and conceptual indexes, but always retain the typical structure usually presented in list of information blocks: science, teaching, organization of science, epistolary style, visuals. It manifests as a certain model, which through a particular set of documents on one hand is an example of a person with his interests, hobbies, life stages, career; while on the other – a slice of a specific historical period of the era itself.  The unique materials of the funds cover the history of scientific study of the Northern territories of Russia; provide an opportunity to assess personal contribution of the scientists into the scientific community and development of academic science in the Russian North in the XX century.
Fhilippova T., Simakova S. - Documentary scientific heritage of the geologist V. A. Dedeev pp. 102-109

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.10.24055

Abstract: The subject of this research is the history of establishment and development of geological science in the territory of the European North of Russia in the XX century. The object is the scientific activity of one of scientists who dedicated is entire life to development and studying of geology of the European North, the Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical sciences Vladimir Alekseevich Dedeev (1931-1997). On the basis of the archive documents that remained in funds of the Scientific Archive of Komi Republic of the Scientific Center of Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the author examines the details of scientific biography and activity of the scientist associated with studying of the prospects of petroleum potential of the northern territories. The goal of this work consists in demonstration of value of the preserved documentary scientific heritage for studying V. A. Dedeev’s scientific activity and history of the development of geology throughout this timeframe. In conclusion, the author underlines that the documentary sources, preserved in the State Archive of Komi Republic, allow familiarizing with the academic results of the works of V. A. Dedeev. The modern petroleum, geology of the territory of European North in many aspects leans on the results of his research and scientific conclusions. The geologist’s works also contributed into the fuel and energy development of the northern region.
Historical sources and artifacts
Yankovskaya M.S. - Paris and Exposition Universelle of 1889 in perception of the Russian journalists pp. 110-116

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.10.24122

Abstract:  The subject of this research is the impressions of Paris experienced by the Russian journalists during their visit of the Exposition Universelle in 1889. Attention is focused in the cross-cultural dialogue between France and Russia right before concluding the military-political alliance. The history of the world expositions can be viewed as a mirror of international politics that also reflects the peculiarities of mentality and domestic policy of the member-states. In the course of the research, the author applied the methods of internal and external criticism, as well as extensively used the interdisciplinary approach, elements of statistical analysis, culturological and art methods. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that the world expositions are the manifestation of mass visual culture. These are the most accessible forms for cognizing the culture of other countries intelligible for the extensive audience, which gradually substitute the exclusive culture. In addition, the novelty is associated with the methodology of imagological studies, namely consideration of the mutual representations and stereotypes of perception.   
Quantitive methods in history
Stepanova L. - Richness and poorness of the soil of the Starorussky District of Novgorod Province on the materials of the general allocation and research of the Russian soil scientists pp. 117-130

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.10.24506

Abstract: The subject of this research is the soil resources of the of the Starorussky District of Novgorod Province. Over centuries, the lands of the district have been actively assimilated, as well as considered ones of the most fertile in the Novgorod Region. The article evaluates the soil resources of the Starorussky District in the late XVIII century and determines the criteria that defined the highest fertility of the land, which as a result were cultivated more than others. The sources are the brief economic notes to the General land-surveying of Starorussky District in the late XVIII century and the soil research of the first Russian soil scientists conducted in the district territory at the turn of the XIX – XX centuries. The author created the database that contained the facts about the soil on the territory of rural settlements of the late XVIII century alongside the mechanical composition of the soil of the rural settlements in the late XIX – early XX centuries. For analyzing the mass data, have been used the quantitative methods of research. The work allowed evaluating the specificities of soil and land fertility in the Starorussky District during the late XVIII century, as well as comparing for the first time the acquired data with the facts regarding the mechanical composition of soil of the late XIX – early XX centuries. In conclusion, it was determines that the majority of lands were located in the various types of clay loams, which contained a large amount of silt fraction. The presences of light clay loam in combination with other types of soils significantly improved the characteristic of soil. Overall, the mild and heavy clay loams prevailed in the district. The author underlines that the land-surveyors of the XVIII century defined the dominant type of soil. Evaluation of land fertility by the land-surveyors had a direction link to a specific territory.
Anthroposociogenesis and historical anthropology
Zubareva E.G. - Morphological type of population of the Lower Volga region (II - IV centuries BC) pp. 131-138

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.10.24131

Abstract: The subject of the study is the determination of average morphotype of the Sarmatian population (II-IV centuries) that resided in the Lower Volga region. Anthropological characteristic of the population is provided. The history of studying the craniology, demography and pathologies of the late Sarmatian population is considered. The main theories of the origin of the craniological types of the population are singled out, the demographic ratio of the population, the level of survival is determined, and the main diseases associated with this population are identified. The article is first to publish the data on the osteometric measurement of the postcranial skeletons of the Sarmatian population (II-IVc.) who resided in the Lower Volga region. The research applies the classical method of osteometric examination in accordance with the generally accepted program developed by V. P. Alekseev using the osteological blank. The reconstruction of the body length was performed through the arithmetic mean values of the shinbone. The study introduces into the scientific discourse the osteometric data, which complement the anthropological picture of the study, as well as provide information about the physical type of population. The formulas of K. Pearson and A. Lee, and V. V. Bunak were applied for calculating the height of the groups under the research. The result of the study consists in creation of an average morphological type of the Late Sarmatian population living in the Lower Volga region.
Beliefs, religions, churches
Vorobev K. - The siege of Constantinople of 626 AD and liturgical remembrance of the Akathist Saturday pp. 139-151

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.10.24269

Abstract: The object of this research is the Byzantine legends telling the tale of enacting the celebration of Akathist during the 5th Saturday of the Great Lent in connection with the war events. The article examines the question of valid historical connection between the siege of Constantinople of 626 AD and the liturgy of the 5th Saturday of the Great Lent (Akathist Saturday). The research also touches upon the question of connection between the 678 and 717 AD sieges with the aforementioned sacred service, as well as determines the possible causes for association of liberation of the Byzantine capital and the liturgy of the Akathist Saturday. The author proposes a new solution to the problem of inconsistency between the notes of various historical tales regarding the Akathist Saturday and liturgical sources. Possible causes are established for association of the liturgy of the Akathist Saturday and the memory of the siege of 626 AD. The author sequentially analyzes all available legends regarding the enactment and liturgical remembrance of sacred service of the Akathist Saturday.
Baimov A.G. - The experience of implementing military temples in the Russian army pp. 152-160

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.10.24485

Abstract: The subject of this research is the experience of development of the military temples. The term “military temple” implies the church, mosque, synagogue, and other facilities of accommodation of military units and organizations indented for church service. The construction of military temples intensified is a result of restoration of the institute of military clergy, and represents an attempt to satisfy the rights of military servicemen to freedom of religion. The goal of the work consists in identification of the key problems with subsequent propositions for its resolution. The author provides a brief analysis of the normative legal base on the topic at hand, arguments for development of military temples, description of their most popular types. The article is written based on the facts acquired in the course of interviewing the officials of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation as well as assistant commanders involved in the work with the religious servicemen. The work is the first attempt of scientific approach towards the description of military temples located in the territory of establishment subordinate to the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. The ideas can be applied in the area of legislation, architecture, and constructions. The author introduces into the scientific discourse the empirical data that can be valuable in further research on history and other disciplines.
World of ideas and world of the mundane
Mikhailova E. - The English House of the mid XIX – early XX century as the reflection of the Victorian era values pp. 161-170

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.10.24222

Abstract:  Dwelling interior is a vivid reflection of the social and cultural realities typical for each historic period and region. The house arrangement can describe the social hierarchy, family values, role of each family member, comfort, coziness, feeling of homeliness, and private life in general. The subject of this research is the image of house presented in the English popular magazines of the mid XIX – early XX centuries that provide a description of a household in its regional and historical forms. The methodological framework of the research consists in the complex analysis of Victorian and Edwardian eras that demonstrate on the one hand, the deep transformations in the English everyday life associated with the intense development of mass culture, while on the other hand – the preservation of national values and views of the Englishmen. Since the mid XIX century, the magazines have dedicated articles and columns to house interior, progressively changing the space and forming new norms, tastes, views and values. Globalization and mass culture in multiple aspects blur the differences, unifying the space of everyday life with the material world. However, through the general trends, brands, materials, technologies, and interior features, there is a clear evidence of the national specificities and the established perceptions of the Englishmen about the coziness, comfort, and family as the key values of British society. Over the recent decades, the Russian and foreign science experiences a significant growth of interest towards the problems of everyday life, particularly the living space. This work is first to attract popular magazines as a source for studying the image of the English House, analyze the transformations that take place within the living space, human representations and values on the background of the developing mass culture. 
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