Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "Connection of times"
Connection of times
Demin I.V. - The relationship between the past and the present in Heidegger’s fundamental ontology and in Karsavin’s historiosophy pp. 1-21


Abstract: In the article the problem of the relation between past and present is viewed, the parallels between Karsavin’s metaphysics of all-unity and Heidegger’s existential analytics are drawn. The similarity of interpretations of the past and present in Heidegger’s theory and Karsavin’s theory is manifested in the following main points: temporal moments of the past and present are viewed and analyzed in the context of human existence; the past and the present are seen as intercorrelated structural moments of human existence; in both concepts the distinction between two modes of existence and reality of the past is made – the authentic and inauthentic one. The differences in the interpretations of the past and present are related to the fact that the idea of Absolute existence (perfect all-unity), which is characterized as overtemporary and overspatial, is primary in Karsavin’s metaphysics. Heidegger proceeds from existential temporality, which is essentially finite. Heidegger is limited by the fact of rajneeshees and correlation of time points (ekstasis), Karsavin shows and clarifies the interindirect nature of past, present and future.
Ivanova M.G. - Socio-philosophical analysis of the national archetypes of Russia pp. 9-17


Abstract: This article analyzes the methodological issues of the study of archetypes of the Russian political culture. The author proceeds from the assumption that the hidden patterns and foundations of the collective unconsciousness have significant impact upon the world political culture, including Russia. It is demonstrated that analysis of the content of the collective unconsciousness is heuristically justified to realize based on the examination of in-depth essence of the traditions of national culture, which makes relevant the problem of formulating a valid interdisciplinary methodological apparatus adequate to the problem at hand. Using the analyzed in the article philosophical approaches of C. G. Jung, S. A. Nizhnikov, and A. E. Lukyanov, the author suggests highlighting the basic archetypes of the Russian culture, through which it becomes possible to analyze the political and social phenomena. The conclusion is made about the high heuristic potential of the theory of archetypes and the need for its further development on the basis of interdisciplinary and inter-paradigmatic scientific synthesis. In particular, the article explores the archetypes of Truth, Way, Faith and Death/Rebirth. The approach, proposed by the author, can be applied as a universal method for studying of the archetypes in national cultures.
Saenko A.V. - On the conceptual characters of Jean-Paul Sartre pp. 15-23


Abstract: This article analyzes the problem of interpretation by Jean-Paul Sartre of his philosophical views within the literary and philosophical works. The scheme of understanding of the “conceptual characters” is viewed on the example of the characters of the prominent philosophical texts. The link between the literary oeuvres and philosophical treatises of Sartre is described. Particular attention is given to the connection between the fictional works of the litterateur with his philosophical concept of the “Other”. The author also emphasized the correlation of the writer’s literary heritage with the concepts of “freedom”, “responsibility”, and “choice”. The article demonstrates the problem of understanding of these concepts due to the difficulty to distinguish the views of the French existentialist that he endows his characters with, and the views of the characters “themselves”. In the course of analysis of the indicated question the author uses the methodology of Deleuze and Guattari described in their work “What Is Philosophy”. The definition of “concept” is partially removed from the frame of references of the French philosophers; and partially retains the imparted specificity. The possible demarcations of the conceptual and purely literary characters are the problem area in the works of the French writer, so is the comprehension of the litterateur’s views, enclosed into the storyline of come plays. The field of application of the used in the article definitions of “concept” and “conceptual character” is the teaching of philosophy, particularly explanation of the peculiarities of its language.
Chubarov I.M. - Fictitious beginning and outside reason: Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud pp. 47-58


Abstract: This research refers to the famous speech of Michel Foucault in June of 1964 “Nietzsche, Freud, Marx” and its further discussion with Jean Wahl, Gianni Vattimo, and others. The main reason of relating to the corresponding material consists in the raised by Foucault and still relevant philosophical-historical problematic dedicated to the correlation between the revolutionary experimental theory and social practice, sign and interpretation, outside position of the author and his Other in the works of Marx, Nietzsche and Freud. The main method of this research is the intertextual analysis of the works of Maurice Blanchot, Jacques Derrida, and Giorgio Agamben, who also referred to the problem of actualization of Marxism in the present. The closeness of the research orientations discussed in the article, allows speaking of the “impossible” tradition of esoteric or rather “apophatic” Marxism through the inclusion of one more distant and not known by Freud himself collocutor – Walter Benjamin and primarily his early works, such as: “The Critique of Violence”, “Capitalism as Religion”, and “Theological-Political Fragment” (1921), and the last written essay “Theses on the Philosophy of History” (1940).
Nurulla-Khodzhaeva, Nurulla-Khojaeva N.T. - Central Asian Region and its Community Culture: Dialectics of the Unity and Variety pp. 68-91


Abstract: The increasing number of modern western researchers tell about community recognition, trying to define and formulate a definition and a role of this institute. This tendency was put earlier, in works of founders of a modernism (beginning from Durkheim, Weber, Marx and others). In publications of present kommunitarist a community put forward as the main anti-pillbox to alienation and tyranny, and as a key element of "good society". Though the sociocultural contents of this theory, also as well as its methodological instructions on which it is based, are related to all social to sciences, nevertheless, those are interested in communal development in particular who try to separate from political disagreements, and to accent the research priorities in touch people, on ability to cooperate. To Central Asian to a community interest is still minimum. Though throughout the long history the community of Central Asia skillfully balanced on ability to keep cultural and linguistic diversity and necessary for development of the person an autonomy. That is the communal culture of the region didn't project antagonism between variety and an autonomy. The present national states of the region, often copy options of liberal individualism, or try to keep formalistic collectivist approaches of the Soviet sample. However in such context relevance of uniform history, social structures and region communications is missed. The communal institute (without active state "assistance") is capable to stop process of an individualization of society, and to present culture of Central Asia in more reasonable and correct key.
Faritov V.T. - Transgression in the ancient philosophy: Nietzsche and pre-Socratics pp. 105-114


Abstract: This article examines the specificity of the proposed by F. Nietzsche interpretation of pre-Socratic period of the ancient philosophy. The published during the philosopher’s lifetime work “Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks” (1872) comprises the main material for this research. The goal of this article consists in explication of the ontological aspects of the realized by F. Nietzsche reevaluation of the essence and contents of the philosophical herniate of Ancient Greece. The distinct characteristics of Nietzsche’s position from the traditional approaches towards interpretation and assessment of the early period on ancient philosophy are being determined. The main conclusion lies in substantiation of the opinion, according to which the source of establishment of the ancient philosophy is the experience of transgression and orientation towards the search of the ways of understanding the transgressive phenomena of existence. The author demonstrates that the two opposite trends can be highlighted within the ancient philosophy: orientation towards the rejection of transgression, and orientation towards the recognition of independent ontological status of the transgressive phenomena.
Tovbin K.M. - Traditional Spirituality in Traditional Perception pp. 432-459


Abstract: The author of the article uses the methods of the Traditional school to analyze and give the definition of traditional spirituality. Tradition (Full Tradition or Sacred Tradition) is opposed to the tradition as the established civilizational inertness or mental communicative devide. Tradition is viewed as a set of measures to express the Sacred, the latter performing the main role in a traditional society and presenting itself in mentality, culture and politics. Traditional methodology views Tradition in terms of its internal structure and does not apply modern methods or ideas because these methods and ideas have been created to destroy Tradition and therefore cannot provide objective data about it. Tradition is opposed to both Modernism and Post Modernism, however, Tradition is also viewed in comparison wtih these periods in history. Tradition is also opposed to religion (as the world view or ideology that touch only upon the rational and voluntaristic sides of the individual) and post-religions as the successful imitation of true traditionality. The definition of traditional spirituality is analyzed from the point of view of ontology. 
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