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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Rubric "Myths and modern mythologies"
Myths and modern mythologies
Maydanov A.S. - Comparison of the mythological and scientific imaged of reality as a method of their mutual interpretation pp. 55-86


Abstract: This article focuses on the development of such methodology, which on one hand will help to interpret the myths, and on the other – contribute into solution of the scientific problems related to the content of these myths. For the successful solution of the stated task, the work joins such spheres of intellectual activity as mythology and archeology. The remarkable oeuvre of the Persian thinkers and poets Avesta acts as a mythological object of this research. The subject is the timber-grave historical-cultural commonness related to Persians. Accent is made on one of the most famous Avestan myths – the myth of Yima. The initial orientation of the research is the idea about the epistemological character of the myth – its informative attitude towards reality. The other initial orientation – is a dual content of the myth, namely a syncretic union of the two opposing elements – factual knowledge and fiction. The developed in the article methodology first and foremost encompasses the procedure of comparing the content of the myths with scientific data from the corresponding area of knowledge. This procedure is being realized with the help of a certain complex of special methods and approaches, particularly the method of translating the content of the myth from allegorical language into the language of words with direct meaning. The author describes the specific methods of creating myths, which introduce a distinct way of reflecting the reality. Among such methods are: shrinking of the content of the mythical image, simplification of the actual course of events, and syncretism. Scientific novelty consists in the determination of the place and time of events described in the myth, their true character, in demonstration of the lifestyle of ancient people, as well as in establishment of the fact that the actual actors of the described in the myth events, are the carriers of the ancient timber-grave culture.
Maydanov A.S. - Small Organon of the Myth Making Process pp. 71-162


Abstract: Object of research in article is the old question of that, exists or not logic of myths. Positive elements from the point of view of the author in views of many researchers of this problem come to light, since Levi-Bryulya and finishing Levi-Strosom. In structure of archaic consciousness various types of substantial units are isolated and classified, is shown, by means of what cogitative operations they are designed, correspond and unite. Is established that the contents of myths are formed under the influence of certain determinants which carry out a role of the principles of a formation of myths and by that his logicians make a basis. It is noted that leaders among these principles are the principles of realism, a pragmatism, esthetics, etc. Proceeding from understanding of logic as the means operating and organizing thought process, the author shows that such means is available and in consciousness of myth makers that it acts in the form of certain methods, receptions, rules and schemes of formation of the contents of myths and can be called an organon of mythological thinking. The methodology which has allowed the author to carry out the offered analysis of myths, evolutionary, cognitive and information, sociocultural, pragmatical, pluralistic approaches, and also such methods, as comparison, the analysis, differentiation, generalization, etc. were. As a result of the conducted research in article the conclusion about need to distinguish different types of thinking and, respectively, different types the logician is drawn, without seeking to reduce them to one type, namely to formal logic. The understanding of logic formulated by the author allows to find the whole class of specific means and the operations bringing quite certain logic in functioning of mythological thinking.
Maydanov A.S. - Construction of Metaphors and Myths and Their Interpretation pp. 79-225


Abstract: The article is devoted to one of the most important types of semantic creativity of human intelligence – the metaphor which is specific means of display of reality and formation of another, psychologically, ethically and esthetically significant contents. For the analysis the mythology in which for the first time in the history of human thinking reception of a metaforization started being applied is chosen material. The structure of a metaphor, feature of the components making it, an originality of the gnoseological and logical relations between them, a paradoxicality of these relations are analyzed. The special attention is paid to metaphoricalness of mythical images and plots. Features of dynamics and logic of two main stages in genesis of metaphors – a stage of their designing and a stage of interpretation are described. The defining approaches at research of metaphors are cognitive and information, evolutionary and epistemological and nomologichesky, focusing on search of certain regularities and specific logic of process of a metaforization. Such methods as the analysis, distinction, opposition, synthesis, interpretation, identification of the realistic and mystical contents in metaphorical images, their demetaforization appeared the most productive in this research. The specified arsenal of methodological means allowed to receive a number of new results. The whole complex of the methods and receptions of a metaforization used by mythological thinking is revealed. The difficult system of the relations between diverse elements of semantics of metaphors, and also between them, on the one hand, and realities of the vital world of archaic people, with another is characterized. The interpretation of some, the myths of the Indian Veda which still well aren't interpreted which allowed to receive the important information concerning social and spiritual life of the ancient people is offered.
Plakhin V.T., . - Let's Compare Mythologies (on the Complexity of Metamorphoses in Classical Myth and Modern Advertising pp. 138-160
Abstract: The article is devoted to the comparative analysis of archaic mythologies and modern advertising. Comparative approach focuses on the complexity of transformations in the center of the discussion. It is shown that the process of Chaos transforming into Cosmos is the core of a myth as it is and requires sacrifice and maximum efforts from demierge subjects. Advertising, on the contrary, transmits the  ideologeme of the easiest existetial and socio-cultural dynamics. 
Pershin Y.Y. - Religio: Attention in the Archaic Religiosity pp. 423-431


Abstract: There is no one conventional definition of religion. Numerous definitions are synthesized under the “umbrella” definition of religion, proposed by a Christian theologian, who translated Cicero’s definition of religion in his own manner. Taken as a methodological ground, this distorted definition cannot serve as a key to archaic meaning of religion. Linguistic approach to the Cicero’s definition exposes latent meanings on the old word religio; one of them is attention, or care, another one is responsibility. They bring to us a residual archaic sense of religious practices, which represent the process of religious communication, but not binding. Moreover, the latent meanings drive us to the conclusion, that the archaic mean-ing of religion can be described as a scrupulous reproduction of the chronotope of successful theo-social communication, based on the feedback principle. The chronotope in its turn can be defined as a definite time and space context of actions with corresponding conduct, thinking, direction of attention and type of communication with divine entities.
Maydanov A.S. - Gods as the actors of the Universe pp. 496-579


Abstract: The authors of Indian Vedas had a defined idea that any natural phenomenon has its reason, its moving force - in other words, an actor, a subject. And the actors of cosmic processes and phenomena were described as gods. They were vested with a set of cosmic functions which ensured both, dynamics, as well as integrity and wholeness of the world. This article describes celestial bodies and their corresponding gods - the Sun, the Earth, the Moon, stars and planets. The author describes their genealogy as well as their relations as world's actors. The broad diversity of traits attributed to prominent celestial bodies encouraged the writers of the Vedas to invent deification as a form for their representation. This article offers a system of logical analysis of the images of gods, including multiple levels of their attribution - their appearance, their spirituality, their cosmic and social functions, as well as existing references. Analyzing the gods using this system allowed to demonstrate that their mythical images constitute synthetic mental constructs, consisting of parts of varying epistemological value, which allow us to find information about existing references of the gods, as well as numerous traits of their creators. As it seems, this information allowed the author to present a more realistic interpretation of the images of several gods. The writers of myths have also captured their own vision of several fundamental functions of reality - cyclical nature of events, space, time, both, natural and social. The article presents a logic of comprehension of reality, which is typical for initial phases of any cognitive process, including science.
Pershin Y.Y. - Labour and Rationality in the Genesis of the Archaic Conscience pp. 625-633


Abstract: In the article the author states that researchers pay insufficient attention to the role of labour while studying the genesis of the archaic conscience. It is labour that forms the rationality of the primitive conscience, usually called mythological. There is a contradiction: on the one hand, the mythological conscience doesn’t help to adequately perceive and interpret the surrounding world by the primitive man. On the other hand, an inadequate behaviour of the archaic man wouldn’t favour his survival. Therefore, the archaic conscience of the archaic man is paradoxically both rational and mythological/religious. Such a contradiction in the process of becoming of the archaic conscience is being studied with the help of the methodological apparatus of the psychoanalytical theory, traditionally dealing with the deep unconscious and archaic layers of man’s psyche. In the course of investigation the author also states, that under the repressing circumstances of survival and lack of the right cerebral hemisphere activity, contributing into the appearance of mystical and religious speculations, the primitive people in the process of the productive labour invented magic and religion as the means of survival, means of the closer and more adequate cooperation and communication with the world.
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